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HISTORY h^t 



OF THE 

REMElLiLIOJV IJ¥ IREL^JVB, 

IN THE/YE4B. 1798, &c. 

CONTAINIlfQ 

AN IMPARTIAL ACCOUNT OF THE PROCEEDINGS 

OP 

€:hz 3Iti0& lRet)Olutioni0t0, 

From the Year 1 782, tiU the Suppression of the Rebellion, 

WITH AN 

AFPENBIX . . 

TO ILLUSTRATE SOME FACTS. 
THE SECOND EDITION, WITH CONSIDERABLE ADDITIONS ; 

anD a Ipreface, 

CONTAINING 

A REPLY TO THE OBSERVATIONS 

OF 

SIR RICHARD MUSGRAVE, Bart. 

UPON THIS -WORK. 

By the REV. JAMES GORDON, 

HBCTOR OF KILLEGNY, IN THE DIOCESE OF FE^NS, AND OF CANMAWAY, 
IN THE DIOCESE OF CORK. 

AUTHOR OF T£RRAQU£A, OR A NEW SYSTEM OP GEOGRAPHY AN;> 
MODERN HISTORY. 

Troth's would you teach, and save a slaking land, 
AU fcaff none aid you, and few understand. 

Pope. 

HottHon : 

Printed by J% D. Dewick, Aldcrspite-street, 

FOR T. HURST, 32, PATERNOSTER-ROW > 

AND 

J. COOKE, 5, ORMOND QUAY, DUBUN. 



1803. 



'$) JV \X.O 6 .S<^ 



OCT 13 l»!6 






]t^ M E IF A C ]E^ 



How far I may be justifiable in devoting aty 
portion of my time to the writing of a preface^ 
on account of puerile and unfounded objections^ 
I know not precisely, but such may be expected 
by some readers. 

* That Tuy history of the rebellion wouH be an 
object of reprobation ,to the irrational zealots of 
two opposite and mutually hostile parties, who 
distract this unfortunate island, and t%t it 
would be offensive to some individuals inde- 
pendently of party, since truth is odious to the 
guilty, I was completely aware, and liiy expec- . 
tations have been as completely fulfilled. That 
it should be so much approved by the discerning 
few, particularly by some who are eminent ia 
literature, was indeed beyond my expectation. 
Of these, part were, prepossessed in its favour, 
even before they saw it, from the contradictory 
censures of opposite zealots. Thus a gentlemaa 
of great literary knowledge told ^ friend of naine^ 



IV PREFACE. 

a short time after its publication, that he had 
not seen my book, but Kad formed a favourable 
opinion of it, on finding that it had given equal 
and high offence to* the violent blockheads on 
both sides. 

To form a statement of the inconsistent objec- 
tions made to this little work by, counterfeit, 
and even by some real, but ignorant and^ unre- 
flecting, loyalists, would be to fill a volume as 
large as the work itself, with a heterogeneous 
mass of absurd matter. So far as any consistent 
meaning can be collected from such a mass, the 
substance appears to be this, that I have not 
described all those who, by inclination, or acci-» 
dental circfumstances, were arranged on the side 
of Icjyalism, as free from every infirmity of hu- 
man nature, and endued with every virtue, parti-r 
cularjr thosi? of clemency and courage. Thj^t I , 
have not depicted all those who, by ptievious de^ 
sign, or by accident, were found on the opposite 
side, as destitute of every virtue, axid though 
cowards ; yet, by some strange fatality, expo- 
sing themselves in such manner to the swords 
and bullets of the armed saints, as to have beeii 
slaughtered . in thousands in every encounter ; 
while, among the saints, notwithstanding the 
intrepid exposure of their persons to the guns 
and pikes of the immensely more numerous 
rebels, ^very few were killed or wounded. 

By suppressing all information inconsistent 



PREFACB* V 

with siteh.a. plan, and heigbteniog that which 
would answer the. purpose, I roight have written 
such a book; with much less trouble than that 
which I have published. I should then have 
given nat more oflFenoc to croppies, and I really 
believe, much less offence toc Roman catKoiics,, 
than I have given- I might be outwardly caress- 
ed, perhaps, even to my great pecuniary emo- 
lument, and loudly applauded by a certain 
description of people, who, at. the same time, 
must inwardly despise me, \>hile my pretended 
history would be a laughing-stock to all men of 
discernment' who should deign ta read it, and, 
as ^on as the present ferment; should subside, 
would^'be quite thrown away as- a useless piece 
of sycc3|34iantic lumber. 

To write a bdbk determinedly and exclusively 
in favour of either party, especially the victorious 
and ruling party,' is an easy piece of business. 
An author with such a purpose will feel no dearth 
of story, style, or phrase. - The fiery .stream of 
volcanic matter will be poured copiously around 
him.^ The danger is, tliat he may be ovei^ 
whelmed by the lava, or enveloped in a cineri- 
tious cloud. Neither will • be want purchasers 
for a lumber of aifidavits formed to liis putpose 
among the dupes of his party, if his object be 
present gain, without regard to futui^ infariiy. * 
^ Instead of such a plan, I chose, (as I must 
choose, if I should write at a,ll) the line of truths 



ti \ PttEFACE. 

SO for as I could find means to trace it. ' Calum- 
niators of all factions, have therefore exerted 
their powcrfi, and some have formed themselves 
into a regular junto, for the purpose of putting 
every engine in motion to'hurt the reputation of 
iny history, and for the forwarding of that ob- 
ject they even deal their slanders against my 
private character. If I should think proper to 
lay before the public the characters of some of • 
these gentry, particularly those of some^yeomen 
oflScers, their power of calumniation might be 
sufficiently circumscribed j but I choose to rest 
iny book and character solely on their own 
merits. Integrity will be its own shield, , Truth 
^illjind its "wmj. My book is in the hands of 
the public, and any person of common sense 
ha^ a right to form a judgment ef it, who reads 
the whole with ^tteption, instead of relying on 
the garbled representations of others. My chaT 
ractcr is known to several respectable persons ; 
and of my loyalty I have given full prciof in the 
knowledge of m^n of honourable rank and repu^ 
t^tion, whom I could call as witnesses, if I had 
occasion. I shall leave these counterfeit loyalists . 
the pleasure of knawing the file till they wear 
Jtheir teeth. Thanks to the genius of British 
domination, and extensive reason, these virur 
Jent animalcula are at length deprived of their 
jjitinff and power of mischief. The evil has 
workf 4 i^s cure, and l^w »nd rj^^spn ^re i^qv 



PREPACIS^ ^ Vli 

too strong to be disturbed, or at all affected, by 
the noisy senseless jargon of these wouW-bc 
statesmen. 

By counterfeit loyalists, I mean men who 
make unnecessary professions of a violent zeal 
for the established government and protestant 
religion, and at the same time speak and act as 
if they wished to render both of these odious to 
as many people as possible, and thus, by aug- 
menting the number and lancoux of enemies ta 
these ^tablishments, promote, as far as in their 
power, the preparative works of revolution. 

A gentleman whom I regard in a superior light 
to that of a counterfeit loyalist, being asked, 
n^hil6 he was declaiming against my book, whe- 
ther the accounts were false which gav^ him 
offence? answered, '* No; but they are such as 
** a loyalist, particularly ^protestant clergyman, 
^ " oiight not to have published. ** This I con* 
ceive to be the general opinion. A history may 
be written, prodded that no error committed by 
any actor on the right side of the question, or in 
Jirvour of the righteous cause, shall be recorded. 
To this the opposite party will give their full 
assent^ provided that theirs shall be acknow* 
ledged to be the righteous cause. Roman catho* 
lies are as highly incensed against me, as the 
irrationally zealoua protestants. Yet how could 
they expect a heretic priest to write partially in 
fayQWQffhc true believers? With this partially,- 



Wri PREFACE* 

however, I am charged as a crime by over^zeal* 

ous protestants, while with an opposite partiafity 

I am chai^ged as ^ crime by Roman calihoEcs. 

Eadi party has determined to disonitage^ as far 

as possible, the sale of the book, as a hoitile 

. puhlication; and yet it has had a sale, caused; I 

feelfer^^./by the yelping of xfertain»c!i/r8, who 

barked Ifirom^ a dark abode -through a filthy chan- 

3e^ and the big»-^b0u-w6tt <rf a iit^e-^a^^i^ who 

laade his appearance in clear sunshine. These 

barkings and bou-^wous made a noise, which iti-. 

duced many individuals to break through the 

rules of their p^rty for the gratification of their 

private curiosity; I therefore return thanks td 

ray advertisers. 

* By the mg^ of party, or the influence of power, 
has the truth of history in all ages been distorted, 
obscured, or lost in oblivion; few men haVing' 
cdurage t© publish any thing disagreeable to the 
ruling faction, whose reign of terror may ran- - 
tinue until tile facts be forgotten, or unsupported 
by evidenctf. Thus the most, obscure period of 
-the English history, sitacc the Norman conquest, 
is that of the war between the roses, including 
the reigns of Edward the fourth and Rfcliard 
the third. Fictions, recoirded as facts by the 
most esteemed historians of that period^ and be- 
lieved witifcout scrutiny through a series of gene^ ^ 
rations, are detected by the contfadicti^A oif 
official registri^, by ihconsisteiicy, or bys'their 



prefack; ix 

absurdity; trhile to supply the vacuum we have 
only reasoning and conjecture. That Richard 
the third was a monster of dissimulation, trea- 
chery, and cruelty, with a hideous distortion of 
body conformable to the qualities of ^his mindj 
what writer would have dared to deny in the 
despotic reigns of Henry the seventh, and his 
successors till the death of Elizabeth?— When, 
under the protection of a most liberal and benign 
government,, which disdains to coalesce with 
petty factions, a writer, totally unconnected 
with catholics or croppies of any religion, either 
by coman^uity /Or affinity, who had in tlie hour 
of danger strained every nerve for the support of 
file e^tisting constitution, who might be sup- 
posed in some degree shielded by the sanctity 
of his charactser, as a minister of the established 
church, with, I hope, . ^ corresponding moral 
conduct, is furiously persecuted by factious pro- 
tectants in various ways, and repeatedly threa- 
taxed with p^ersonal violence, because he would 
not condejscend to be the venal historian^of a 
party. 

Toenumer«te;the objections of Roman catholics 
would give myself and the reader unnecessary 
tr0ubl£* One is, that I have called them Romanists. 
As I seldom dispute about articulate sounds, or 
sound&of any kind, I shall call them here Catholics. 
Another is that I have^spressed an approbation 
of Sir Richaffd Musgrave's work, LeOtVing hi^ 



X PREFACE ' ■ 

other excellencies to tihe sagacity (Mother critic^ 
I have only commended his zeal and industry. 
The former, I hope, will be allowed by catholics 
themselves, after due perusal of his quqirto ; and 
of the latter, I think, his volume is a weighty (I 
do not say fiecwy) proof, I apprehend that it is 
already beginning to sink by its /Own weight 
into oblivion. Another is that I have apolo- 
gised for orange-men,^ and that I consequently 
must be an orange-man myself. I certainly, 
never have been, nor ever intend to be, an 
orange-man, since, having eight times taken 
the oath of allegiance, and being fully sensible 
that the support of my family depended on the 
continuance of the established government, . I 
could not conceive any mode by which I could 
be more firmly attached to it ; but I have been, 
repeatedly assured by several cnrange-men, pf un* 
doubted veracity, and by my own sons, who are 
orange-men, that their system is purely defen- 
sive, and that to give everi the smallest insult to 
any pferson on account of a difference in religion 
is contrary to their oaths. I mean not to palliate 
the excesses of the lower or Jiigher orders of 
orange-men, more than of any otbper ^enominar 
tipns of men. Those among them who have in- 
fringed the laws of heaven and of their country, 
must l^e regarded as degrading the majesty of the 
monarch, and the sartctity of the religion which 
the^ have pretended to iftaintaiue/ Anotl^gy 



PREFACE. XI 

objeGtiou is, that I have advised the protestants. 
©f Ireland never to coalesce with their Roman 
jCatholiG countrymen. Many sayings have been 
fabricated and reported to have been written 
by me, of which I am ignorant Perhaps the 
following words in page 340, may have been 
absurdly misconceived in the above sense. 
♦* Since, from experience of this event, civil 
*' wars in any part of Ireland, except soma 
/* northern counties, must, from whatever causes 
'^excited, be justly expected to assume a rcli- 
^' gious complexion of the most bloody hue, 
^^ Irish protestants ought to be convinced, thafc 
*' the political separation of their country from 
*' Britain by a popular insurrection, nmst involve 
** their extinction, and consequently an infran* 
*' gibly determined adherence to their British 
.^^ connexion is necessary for their safety." Thi^ 
is only an advice to them not to join in rebel- 
lion against the British government. I have 
jelsewhere advised both protestants and catholics 
to cuhivate mutual jriendship ; but for this I 
expetjted, as I have received, no thanks from 
jeither — in fact the opposite of thanks from 
)>oth. 

The principal objection is, that I have, under 
the insidiously assumed mask of candour and 
impartiality, made the most artfully maliciou3 
insinuations against the catholics of Ireland, and 
t^^t thus my book is, beyond all comparison, 



Xii PREFACE. \ . 

more injurious to thieir intei-ests than that of Sir 
Bichard Musgrave; which, on account of itf 
unqualiiied aspersions, nobody, they say, be-. 
lieves. This and many other objections I under- 
stand to have been first made and propagated by 
a catholic gentleman, who wrote a pamphlet in 
answer to Veridicus, and another against Doctbr 
Duigenan's State of Ireland. To Veridicus, per- 
haps this gentleman may be a suitable antagonist, 
tut, I imagine, if he knew himself, he would 
hardly ever again appear in the lists against 
DoctorDuigenan, since the figure, which he there 
makes, resembles that of a buifoon in a court of 
justice, using only grimaces and monkey tricks 
to excite tlie laughter of the spectators, in oppo- 
sition to the well connected and forcible argu- 
ments of an accomplished pleader. This gentle- 
man says, that I first have taken all possible 
pains in my narration to inflame the animosity 
of the protestapts against 'the catholics, aiid 
thGn-J6suitka% (this is not his word) pretend to 
exhort the protestant& to a Chris^tian conciliation 
and amity with their* catiiolic fellow-sutrjects; 
He also 'says that a spirit hostile to the catholic 
religibn is evident in all the volumes as yet pub- 
lished of my Terraquea. 

S|Ome catholic ladies, of education much above. 
«}ie vulgar, have sent me by message the pro- 
posal of two questions, Pirst ; . whether I have 
BOt;j from the beginning to the end of my booj^ 



PREFACE; ' . XlH 

written in such a spirit as to represent the pt-o- 
testant religion as more liberal than the catholic? 
And secondly; if that be the case, whether this 
is liberality ? 

To all such questions and objections I answer, 
that in writing this history I had no hypothesis 
to maintain, no system to support except merely 
the recording of the truth of facts, so far as my 
discernment could reach, without partiality ta 
sect or party. If I have fallen into errors, let 
fairly-obtained and clear proofs be produced, 
and I shall be found as ready to acknowledge 
' them as any person can wish. But since, to say 
no worse, I am charged with gross illiberal! ty to 
Roman catholics, I shall take the liberty of ask- 
ing a few questions in my turn. No fact is morfc 
certain than that the common people of the 
catholic persuasion, in all parts at least of the 
county of Wexford, * whenever they had hopes 
of success in the rebellion, uniformly declared 
that no other form of worship than their own 
must ever be permitted, and that God had never 
intended that any other should have place. I ask, 
whence have they learned this doctrine? If they 
liave learned it from their spiritual teachers* and 
have not been discouraged in it by their gentry, 
is this liberality ? If a catholic happens to go,| 
even once in his life, and even from mere curio- 
sity, to a protestant place of worship, is he nc 
'punished by penance or otherwise, for this as i]^/^ 



y 



v.»^rv- 



Zl^ 



xir PREFACt:. 

, I sin, while no such restraint is laid on prote^tati^sj 
/ ' \ with respect to catholic places of worship ? Is 
(this liberality ? 

I know that some catholics of superior intd- 
lect take the liberty to emancipate themselves^ 
from this thraldom ; but the instances of its 
inforcement on the lower classes are numerous- 
One lately occured at Wexford. A charitable 
school has there been established, where a large 
number of young girls, protestants and catholics, 
promiscuously, were taught to read and write, 
and were employed in various works of industry, 
for the productions, of which they were paid the 
Jull value, beside gratuities.- A charitable sermou 
was preached by Dean Butson for the assistance 
, of the institution, and a collection made of fifty^ 
• one pounds. Most of the catholic girls went 
with their associates to hear the sermon, for 
which they were severely reprimanded by their 
priest, and have since been all removed by theif 
parents, who were threatened with excommuni- 
cation. The priest has published a defence of 
his conduct, which I shall give in another pub- 
lication, as he there avows the doctrine here 
mentioned. As the conduct of this gentleman 
in the rebellion was highly meritorious, I am 
very far from intending any personal reflexioa 
against him. I know also that some priests in 
the county of Wexford^^ not all of them indeed, 
)iave, in conversation among themselves, insisted 



PREFACE. XV 

on tKe necessity of ati ecclesiastical cpurt of 
inquisition, like that of Spain, wherever the 
power of the state is in the hands of the catho- 
lics. Is this liberality ? — 

Since I write merely as a historian, not as a 
polemic, I lay aside all considerations of specu- 
lative doctrines, decrees of councils, and bulls of 
popes, which, so long as they lie dormant, I con- 
sider not as offensive. I concern myself only 
'with matters of well-known practice, nor should 
I have thought proper to meddle with such 
matters, if the question of liberality had not been 
started. As I am not only a protestint, but a 
protestant priest, I have no right to expect that 
I should be admitted as a judge between catho- 
lics and protestants with respect to liberality, 
which ie.the question at issue. I shall therefore 
quote the words of a most eminent historian, 
who, after having been alternately protestant and 
catholic, was at last a deist, equally indifferent 
to both religions. I quote him merely as an 
impartial judge in this particular case, though 
the opinion which he has delivered is very diffe- 
rent from mine. 

After asking, what benefits have mankind 
received from the reformation, and from its 
introducers, Zuihglius, Luther, and Calvin, and 
expressing his disapprobation as much concerning 
the new as the old doctrine, he proceeds thus j 
/' Yet the services of Luther and his rivaU arc 



XVI PREFACI. 

" solid aiid important, and the philosopher must ^ 
" own his ohligation to those fearless enthusiasts. 
*^ First; by their hands the lofty fatric of 
*^ superstition, from the abuse of indulgences 
** to the intercession of the virgin, has been 
" leveled with the ground. Myriads of both 
** sexes of the monastic profession were re- • 
*^ stored to the liberty and labours of social , 
" life. A hierarchy of saints and angels, of 
" imperfect and subordinate d6itie;s were stripped 
"of their temporal po>v:er, and reduced to the 
• * enjoyment of celestial happiness; their 
"images and relics were banished from the 
•* church ; and the credulity of the, people was 
*' no longer nourished with the daily repetition 
" of miracles and visions. The imitation of 
** paganism was supplied by a pure and spiritual 
•^ worsbip of prayer, and thanksgiving, the most 
** worthy of man, the least unworthy of the . 
*^ deity. It only remains to observe, whether such 
** sublime simplicity be consistent Vnth popu- 
"lar devotion; whether the vulgar, in the 
^^ absence of all visible objects, will not be 
*^ inflamed by enthusiasm, or insensibly subside 
" in laflguor and indifference. Secondly ; the 
** clmin of authority was broken, which restrains 
" the bigot from thinking as he pleases, and the 
*^ slave from speaking as he thinks : the popes, 
'•' fathers, and councils, were no longer the 
''supreftie and infallible judges of the world; 



'^ and each chriitiaA was taught to ad^wledge 

'* Ho law but the. scriptures, no interpreter but 

** his own conscience. This freedonii however,* 

'* wasv the consequence rather than UiC desigA of 

** the refpraiation* The patriot reformers ^erc 

'* ambitious of succeeding the tyrants whom 

*^they had dethrbned, . They imposed with 

*' equal rigbur their creeds and confessions : they 

** asserted the right of the magistrate to put 

*' heretics to death. The pious or personal 

** animosity of Calvin proscribed in Servetus the 

V' guilt of liis own rebellion ; and the flame$ of 

'* Smithfield, in wliich he was afterwards con- 

** sujn^fjj^.had beeo kindled for the anabaptists by 

" the zeal af Cjanmen The nature of the tiger 

\' was the. same, b\it he was gradually deprived 

'^ of his teeth and fangs. A spiritual and tern-, 

•* poral kingdom was possessed by the Ron^n 

V pontiiF: the protestant doctors were subjects of 

^* an humble rank, without revenue or jurisdic- 

** tion. m$ decrees were consecrated by the anti- 

f* quity of the catholic church : /Aeir arguments 

** and dijputes were submitted to the people ; and 

** their appeal to private judgment was accepted 

^' beypnd their wishes by curiosity and enthu- 

" siasm- Since the days of Luther and Calvin,. 

^\ a secret reformation has been silently working 

" in the bosom of the reformed churches ; many 

** we^eds of prejudice were eradicated; and the 

'• disciples of Erasmus diffused a spirit of Free-'. 

b 



3iviil BlU|tlC«. " 

'* ddm ^<l inddctiatio*. Tte liberty of con*' 
'* s^idncij lite been claimed as a cbTniii<&n benefit, 
^' 8ttt tedlieaiil^ right: the free governmejits of 
** Hdlladd atid England introduced the praictice 
'^ of tdefetiotH and th^ narrow ftllo^rance of the 
*' laws has been enlajg^d by the prudence and 
^* humanity of the times. In the exercise, the 
" mmd has understood the limits of its powers; 
"and the word* and shadows, that might amuse 
^J' the child, can no longer satisfy his^ manly 

*^ reason/'* • ^ 

Am I ah enemy to catholics?^ I cannot 
hinder those w»ho choose to think sb* A nkn 
cannot easily know himiaelf : but 1 think I am 
not their enemy, from this circumstance, that 
I always ieit as nrnth distress of mind frorii 
nnjust sufferings of catholics as of protestants.- 
iPoT' this the irrational part of tht ktter wilt 
not very cordially thank me. I am indejed 
an enettiy^ to religious bigotry and intolerance, 
because they are evinced by the history of 
mankind to be most hostile to the peace and 
prosperity of the human, race. I think that, if 
ever the government of these islands shall have 
thought proper to grant whktt is termed ca^ioiic 
emancipattdni this political emancipation will 
operate in Iri^h catholics, in course of time, 
another emancipatton from an incomparably 
more ignoble bondage, tlie thfaldom of the mind 

Gibbon's Declme and Fall of the tloogiui £mpirei ch^. xit. 



m ibomkc o^ igtidntnce and tupex^tittoti. Thh 
band^s^rfjrqm: which, I imagiae, ma^y^radio^ 
Uc gentry iiave^hready had the mJacHjf rf 
eiDtocq>atnig ttemaelves^ might f^htp$. Appear 
little AV!orthy of anfsiadver^iop, if it ii^)ud«4 mot 
such an. odiu^ of ^ther jceligiiatos; that a cfi^o^ 
iic should be supposed contaminated l^y €ymp» 
mccidentalprtfsenci^at their ceremonies. > ^ 

,: . Tile ivariter of; a . pamphlet, contmntng a $|re< 
jiucms ilefence of th§ Irish catholics, .published 
^nder tHe iktiftioas: name <of Julius Vinder, 
vnjiv^dally jiiAppteed to be iLt^rtain pfottstant 
ok^gyman,^ thus expresses his ^entimenbr miaik 
re^>ect to i the religions intoltfrlmce of ttlpse 
whose political conduct he undertakes t^ vindi' 
cate; t.' The.^i^riter of the following pages wiU 
*? riot be w^D^^^ hy tho^ wW.know himt ^ 
f/Iany impropc© bias, toward Jhe body whote 
i* ishiracter he kboiU!S to vind«^i0M. He is cost- 
.^/ ^nectcdi withthedi tnafther by tfi^f rest npt pre- 
f f rjudices.^ If passion, . resentment, or per^opal 
^ cQn5idmtiQtis,.x<Mdd. swerve his mtvd from the 
if low of truth, and the line of d^ty, the bitter 
l^uxmcsLvi^ 4>ei3ecuiton^ the incessant obloquies 
^f <rf the^bigotted: and viruknt £W9ong thfm> 
^^ WGiukl be. very unlikely feo inspire such fervent 
ft paitiality in their favour^ as would blind the 
^* understanding by the vehemence of party 
**^feelihgs, and bear the uiiud from impartiality 
i^ through the forc^e of gratitude and sympathy. 



'^ Nay, he is pretty well assured; Hvat no saciifice 
^^ he could make, either of his prospects iaMife^ 
•* hk personal safety or liberty — no services he 
^^ could render through the course of the longest 
•^ life — tlwHigh he were to expose himself to the 
^* vengeance of the powerful, to the hatred and 
^^^ persecution of their numerous and vindictive 
"enemies — though he should voluntarily 
I * encounter hunger, and thirsty and nakedness, 
^ reject independence, and copsume himself an 
^MTcturnal vigils to serve the cause of humanity 
^*J^i— though he should face death in every shape, 
^^^fi the field and oi^ the scaffold, even to the 
^'-^fedding of his blood — even then the impla- 
•*^ "cablf spirit of bigotry would not relent Did 
*^ he -actually fall, and offer up his life—* than 
'** which no matt can give a stronger proof of: his 
-** -charity,* accbrding to the gospel,' it would 
** pursue his shade with maledictions, and pef- 
*** secute his riiempry, when his person was rid 
^* longer in its power. It is a sore ulcer that will 
" not^dmitthe hea|inghand of the physician^ 
V a serpent deaf to the voice of the charmer, a 
*^ concentrated venom which no oil can mdlifv: 
^* If Jesus of Nazareth, in whom dwelt the spirit 
*' of love, meekness, amd beneficence, could not 
•^ assuage the frantic rage of this tiger, it must 
** be admitted incurable/* . * 

^ I have been grieved in observing that all 
the protection and support afforded by the British 



PREFACE* :»U 

government to the Frepch enii^-^t clergy, M<Y 
all the kindness manifested tp them by fii^sli 
prqtestauts, never mitigated their bigotry, nor/ 
drew from them one sentiment in favour* of to-.; 
leration. But, how much soever I disapprove^of ^ 
the rubrick of catholicity, of a popish hierarchy^ 
of doctrines and dogmas attributed to those who 
exclusively arrogate the vain title of catholics; 
I have sincerely rejoiced in the rcpcel of pead 
statutes eixacted against Irish catholics, and, so 
far as a^ hunU?le individual may express, I 
heartily wish the speedy annihilation of the re- 
sidue of those disqualifying laws, by the imperial 
parliament, as a measure fraught with solid ad- 
vantage to all parties in this as yet distracted 
country. * 

When ever the government shall have mani* 
festly shewn a resolution for the concession of 
political emancipation to the catholics, couuter- 
feit loyalists, above defined, will be seen com- 
pletely changing sides, and courting those against 
whom they now rail, with nutrked assiduity.: 
Such is the dignity of human nature. Those 
counterfeit loyalists on one side, and the monkish 
and monk-ridden catholics on the other, who 
appear mutually eager to cut each qthers throats^; 
unite cordially in their attempts to calumniate 
njy book.' I wish them both a good night at 
}»re£fent, informing them that two or three typo* 
graphical errora^ from which few books arefrje^,/ 



iettti Ttttxtt." 

hiWis b^ inkt^eii by them for tmn of tht 
iriiter* Thj« wopW have been obviated by an 
accurate statement t>f errata, which I sent, but 
mKchhteuot beeii inserted ; but 1 hope that 
' ||»e J(CC5on4 edftito *ill oh this account be less 
#l)^tten^We; 

• Apamphlethas app<tared, written by Sir Richard 
liftiSgrave, in reply tb one of Doctor Caulfield, 
Ittoman cathi>Hc bishop of Feriis, in %Vhich he 
^vs, ^* that tlie Rev. Mr. Gordon; knowing the 
^* |el of savages he had to deal with, has, with 
** i^ore regard to policy thin accuracy, written 
** a history of the rebellion, for the obvious pur- 
** ppse of conciliating the priests and the popish 
^* fnultitude, anil to secure the punctual pay- 
**inentofhis tythes; and for that purpose he 
** aliUses the military and yeomen, &c." I have 
Wily to wish, that they had swallowed the flattery; 
or somehow better digested it But Sir Richard*s 
keen and perspicacious head is good at a hit; 
ted h»8 very appositely discovered, that my 
fiittery of popery is an indignant expression and 
aUiorrence of popish butchery. To a plain, un- 
defined mind, unlike Sir Richard's, this tribute 
df flattery, the more easily tq collept tythes, 
might, by no \*ery perplexed or devious induc- 
tion 0f the undferstandiiig, appear an equal lesson 
of instruction, exciting mutual shame 4ind hor- 
ror, at atrocious deeds — not barde^iing the heart; 
by allagitions and trinoiinal partiality-^not^cfit* 



ing alf virtue to 61^ side, all vioe tQi^oiffpo^ 
site :— but roundly, and in g^ieral tenns, of uxh- 
measured length, of broad, plain and lionacly 
meaning, holding the ipiffor of truth as disco* 
vered by diligent and fair inquiry, alike to all 
factionsv-^If my object had been of a sycophantic 
nature, I had clearly no alternative. I must have 
embraced the very part which Sir Richard himself 
has embraced. All interest lies there. The 
most violent abuse may, with the utmost impu- 
nity, be poured on the Roman catholic ant 
croppy party, while every moderate expression h 
furiously reprobated by men conscious of power- 
ful support and favour. 1 mean not to insinuate 
that this gentleman's motive isof thesycophalntifc 
kind. If I were convinced of its being so, I 
should not be afraid to declare it. But not hav- 
ing the least personal a<?quaintance with him, 
I know not his principles, and cannot form a 
decisive judgment. 

My conjecture is, that he is a man of huma- 
nity, acute sensibility, and a warm imagination; 
and, that the cruel treatment, the partial massa- 
cres, and intended extirpation of the protestantS 
of Ireland, together with ):he persecutions and 
massacres, committed formerly by Rg^iw catho- 
lics in other countries, excited so kecin an indig* 
nation in. bis brea$t . against those religioutsts ift 
general, as induced km to think every we^n 
JMstifiabie whitch co.u4dhe wjieildfd ^g^inst th^mt 



XXlV PR£FAC£. 

Virtue, unrestrained by a curb of moderation, 
runs into or produces its opposite. 

Insani sapiens nomen fetat^ aequus iniqui. 
Ultra tjnam satis* est virtutem si petat ipsam. 

In his laudable exertions to collect materials, 
men of honour and integrity gave him true 
statements, according to their kno%vledge and 
conceptions. Others gave him such as were sup» 
posed by thiem agreeable to his temper and their 
iDwn interest . From the whole he has formed a 
xqmpilation^ of some value, even as it is, for the 
information of posterity, but vastly less valuable 
.than it would have been, if it had been compiled 
with discernment and dispassionate impartiality, 
.When a reader finds none but saints and heroes 
on one side of the contest, and none, but mon- 
ster on the other, he is apt most justly to suspect 
the fidelity of a representation, so little consistent 
with the ordinary course of human manners, and 
to regard the whole as a doubtful work, embel- 
lished by the fictions of an overwarm imagina- 
tion. 

Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falssi remiscet, 
Primp ne medium, me^io ne discrepet imum. 

Much truth has he recorded — much has been 
concealed from him — still more doubtless by 
him-r-and many mistakes has he committed. — ^Of 
these I have given a very slight specimen in 
the appendix of my historj^. Far greater specie 



PREFACE. XXV 

wens could I have given, and could now give, 
if I should find an adequate inducement for the 
reading of his quarto again, for that purpose 
but I have long been employed in a study vastly 
more agreeable to me than that of the Irish re- 
bellion ; and it is not without painful reluctance 
that I am at any time drawn from it to this 
gloomy subject, of which I rid my hands with 
as much dispatch as possible. 

Sir Richard says that I abuse the military and 
yeomen. I cannot hinder him to use whatever 
terms he finds most agreeable. I have praised 
such regiments as I found to deserve it — as the 
Marquis of Huntley's, and the Prince of Wales's 
fensibles. — I should have most heartily wished 
that I could with truth have praised all ; but 
most unfortunately for my temporal prosperity, 
truth has been to me an insurmountable impedi- 
ment. If I ardently wished the destruction of 
the British empire, and, among other causes of 
this destruction, should wish the most wretched 
discipline of its troops, with the most dishonour- 
able sentiments and ignorance of its officers; or 
if I courageously preferred my temporal interest 
to all other considerations, I should boldly, .in 
defiance of the Searcher of. Hearts, who sees my 
thoughts, declare that the army of his Britannic 
majesty is so perfectly modeled and admirably 
officered, that it lieither requires, nor could 
ftdmit any improvement. General Necdham 



could procwre addresses enough signed by 
officers^ <rfthcir own excellent conduct, and con^ 
sequently of that of the men under their com** 
mand. If in a fensible regiment^ on the point 
of being disbanded, sonje captains should be 
found who had been tailors and pedlars, an4 
were on their return to these occupation^, and 
Bome lieutenants who had been common drurn*- 
<ners, lifers, and common soldiers, in other regi- 
ments, such officers might be extremely happy 
to gratify a general officer of high interest, by 
the signature of any declaration, however diamcr 
tricaHy opposite to their former frequently re- 
peated oral declarations,^ well known to hundreds 
of persons.* 

Sir Richard says th^s : " I am authorised to 
** Bay that the bishop of Ferns, Doctor Cleaver, 
" very much censures Mr, Gordon s history, and 
** that the magistrates and clergy of the county 
*V of Wexford, and many of the most respectable 
*^ officers, who campaigned there in the year 
^ 1798, unanimously declare that it contains 
*^ many gross misstatements, and that its ten- 
** dency in general is to palliate the horrors of 
" the late rebellion." To this objection of his 
magistrates, clergy, and officers, an answer has 
been already given in the foregoing part of this 
pamphlet The horrors committed by the armed 

See Appendix, No. IX« 



uiatfi mii6t not be merely palliated ; tfaey must 
be totally Concealed: but those committed by 
the rdydA must, if possit^^ be exaggerated. I 
can tell his baronet&hip, however, (and I hare 
at least as good an opportunity as he can have 
of knowing) that not all the magistrates and 
clergy of the county of Wexford, nor all the 
^flSeers who campaigned there, think - as he 
'fays. 

Those nrfaom I have always considered in a SU'^ 
perior light, as to intellect and candour, certainly 
approve of my history. Some avow their appro* 
bation. Others to avoid argumentation with the 
ignorant, with the really or affectedly violent, 
pretend to such worthy geniuses that they have 
not read it And I can assure the mighty man 
that, if he knew what some of the violent 
railors against my book expressed concerning his 
understanding before the publication of his 
quarto^ and afterwards concerning his mpde of 
compilation, he would be extremely unwilling to 
admit their opinion as a criterion of merit. Many 
pretend to disapprove of my book far more than 
they really do, as to rail against it is the popular 
rant, in some particular places among the 
grossly ignorant, who pretend to judge of i^ 
without having seen it. 

. Th^ baronet has a Good God ! (is this tlie 
taking of a sacred name in vain ?) at any miti- 



ixxviii preface; 

gating tmthhekig told concering Father Roche.* 
The baronet has no idea of such folly as barren " 
verScity concerning a dead rebel. He thinks 
that something of a dilFerent nature in favour of 
living heroes is more prudent. The hero of Vine- 
gar-Hill is alive to thank him at the *cery leasts 
I believe the best apology that can be made for 
him is, that he was used as a tool by general 
Lake. If so, it was a high compliment from one 
general to another. Of this I diall say more in 
another publication. Of the battle of White- 
Heaps^ where there zvas no battle^ or rather of 
Bkllygullen, whei*e there was a something of the 
kind, my account was received from several 
oflSders engaged in the affair, not indeed from 
General Needham. My account of this, as well 
as of other actions with which colonel Bain- 
bridge had been acquainted, I shewed in manu- 
script to him, and he said it was accurate, but 
too short. I The fact of the lateness of a certain 

* Sir Richard has given in his pamphlet an instance of 
Roche's humanity in the protection sent to the Rev. Samuel 
Frantis. Oh, fie ! to bfe betrayed into such acknowledgement 
in favour of a monster ! Roche, however, is now acknowledged, 
by some in thisxountry who before denied it, to have been 
humane. It will be acknowledged by all, when the system of 
ienor shall have ceased to exist. 

t The objection of too short has been made to my account 
of any particular transaction, -generally by persons concemecl 
in that transaction* If I had gratified evefy individual in f^oi 



PREFACE XXIJC 

hero was admitted by all Colonel Bainbridge 
in his letter to Sir Richard says, ^* I im con- 
" viticed there were not ^bo^e thirty rebcb 
** kiUed, " where Sir Richard states the numberof 
the slain at three hunchrd. Itett h a proof, un- 
intentionally prodoced by Sir Richard- himself, 
of the truth of niy assertion in my' history,, that 
the number of slain on the side of the rebels was 
in general vastly exaggerated. Thus the truth of 
my histoiy will gradually be establij^hed, attd^ as 
I have been given to expect by the best judges, 
will triumph in the end. As to the affair of 
Father Mui|>hy's body, an affair known to 
many, I shall say nothing here, and shall be 
extremely glad to' see the declaration of Sif 
Richard's five officers \ of the Cavati militia,. 
Surdy that regitn^t cannot haVte contained any 
tailor, pedlar, or^ druttimer officdl^.*- i 

I shall, ' for' tlie 'present, take leave of my 

JriendSk RIchardv ' When I first /heard of . his 

totention to writ6from a grdL^ :foUection of 

authentic dbcurhents, I.th6iighJ It Very laubable, 

«S*d'T felt ^to' iifeli'hation (ind* teKi \jl^ some 

iixityi'mytookmigtt Have rivalled in bulk the ephemeral pfo- 
V dacdoti of tiurlitdVary Don Quixote, the knight of the venal 

* These officers are to swear, that no officer or soldier of th« 
Ancient British regiment^ way wjxhin a miU qf Father Mur- 
phy's body when it was burned at Aiklow. Such an oath will 
merit-the best commissions-. Durham promotion will certainly 
be proverbiaL I should be sorry (for the honour of the North 
€f Ireland) that Cavan pronaotion should accompany it. 



XXX . l^EE^ACBr 

ppwcrfuUy cogent rcasops for it) vto co-operate 
witK him ; anci ihst;^ of i^^itiug a history 
iny^jf, to ,?.9P%i;i all my info^nation and mate- 
rii^ls tp him. Put I fo^id also powerfully 
C9£C^.t reasons on the other $ic|^, and was assured 
by s^me men of cultivated ^ini4s aad imdoubted 
loyalty, s^ome of them prptestai^t clergymen with 
ample b^nefic^, Hiho knew the baronett:.lthat 
tliey expected hir . work to answer no good, pujt* 
posej except that of private emoluTftent^ from the 
intemperiince with which they supposed it wou}d 
be written. I have good reason to think. thft(? 
the ajionymoiitf inve€tiv(?s, published agaiij^t IB^ 
in the Dublin Journal, wer^ the compositions <?f 
the baronet, in one of which the tragic ^rfof 
his own styles is highly praised.* I am also 
informed^ that he speaks in a manner Httle to bis 
own credit, in ivarious companies, against me ; 
alhlbis excites :Jq me ndther fear: not anger. 
As.peacc is hyj the divmfc merCy is^tored to tb& 
realm,; the. -^'«ttl^ of terror must giadua% 
declin»e, whi^h ^t iHresent {ireyents those loyalists*, 
whocaia prove* in. favour of my history froai 
allowing their, affidavits to be published ; and so 
inustalso^ the influence of a pawerful juncto,, 

* This fire appears la very rare flashes, with very gkiht and 
dark intervals." ' • 

Incepiks gravilur'pleTmaqn^^ ei magna pro/essiSt 
Purpureus, lat^ qiH spWndeat^ ur^us el alter, 
Asjuitur pannusi 



PRBFACE* XXX 

isrhose members labour by every method, vel 
prec€f v^l pretio, vel «?i, to throw discredit on my 
book ; and thus the truth, which wilt at length 
be fully established by my supplement, will in 
the mean lime be gradually forcing its way. 
To all of any discernraentj who have looked into 
Sir Richard's book, (very, very few, imjeed, are 
those who have bad patience to read it thrqugh !) 
it is evidently a party production, calculated fot 
the political and religious fervour of the djay. To 
those who examine it with attention and dis- 
cernment, it appears inanifestly founded on 
gabled informations* and garbled affidavita, au4 
iiiterlarded with fictions* When a man gives 
Evidence in a court of justice, he is bound to 
declare the whole truth ; and by a.cross-exami- 
;i^tion much may be elicited, which otherwise 
might lie cpncealed. But, though an affidavit 
may contain 7Wthwg but, thfi truth, yet,' since it 
may not contain the zvhalc truths it may be so 
framed and worded, by garbling the evidpnce of 
the alStdavit man^ as to giv^ a misrepr^^ntation, 
instead of a fair statement, of a fact By suclj 
gai:bling a moderately handsome fenwde might be 
represented as ugly enougli, by a selection of all 
which might favour that idea, and the omission, 
of whatever could militate against it. I am pcr- 
,«onally acquainted with naen, whose affidavits. arQ 
published in the baronet's collection, whose 
ividence, on an examination in a court pf justice;, 



XXXll PKEFACE; 

wduld pf ove the ttuth of what I ^ay. If a his- 
tory of this period could be written on the croppy 
side of the question, in the same spirit as that of 
the baronet, and with a like support of a power- 
ful faction, a picture of the rebeUion would be 
exhibited directly the reverse of his, founded 
on affidavits in a similar way. On the publica- 
tion of such a book, my readers might be better 
able to judge whether investigating the path of 
truth between the extremes of party, I have 
endeavoured to confine myself within those 
bounds, quos ultra citraque nequit consisterc 
rtctum. 

My wish is to hold the balance even ; to ex- 
pose the faults of all parties alike ; to present in 
plain unomamented language topics of mutual 
forbearance and forgiveness to both sides, who 
ought to rest satisfied with mutual vengeance 
already inflicted. I have reason to conclude that 
some practical good has already ensued from the 
faithful minor which I have endeavoured to 
place before them, neither distorting the one 
side, nor flattering the other. I know some, 
and hear of many, who formerly boasted of 
shocking atrocities as heroic exploits, or la'urK . 
able effusions of loyalty or zeal for the protestant 
religion, M'ho are now silent on the subject, or 
speak in such a tone as denotes eitjier shame or 
contrition for these acts of theirs. 1 feel much 
pleasure in the change, and even some degree of 



PREFACE. XXXtil 

pride in having, in some small measure, contri- . 
buted to a reformation in my countrymen. 

The baronet boasts of the rapid sale of his 
book. All productions absurdly violent in favour 
of a predominant party, have in the fervour of 
the momjent a quick sale, and are soon forgotten ; 
while works^f real merit have a contrary course. 
The sale of the former sort of books is even 
ibrced sometimes in part. Dialogues of the 
fallowing import are ascribed to a writer of me- 
moirs, perhaps of the rebellion of the Duke of 
Monmouth against king James the Second, when 
thousands of protestants were put to death, and 
even wpmen burned alive, by the instruments 
of a Roman catholic king, the least imputation 
of disloyalty to whom was fatal to the accused 
person. I should be sorry to impute such dia-^ 
logues to our baronet. 

Author. Pray, sir, Ixow do you like my me- 
moirs? 

Gmtkman. Indeed, Sir Francis, I have not 
r^d them. 

Author. What ! not read my book ! that is 
astonishing ! well, you have bought it, aad will 
read it immediately. 

Gentleman. Indeed, I must confess, I have 
not bought it 

Author. Whatl not bought it! A library 1$ 
no library without it. You must buy it. V\\ 
send now for it for yoti. 

c 



XXXIV PREFACE* 

Gentleman. Indeed I cannot buy it, a» I wish ta 
forget my'SufFeririgs in that calamitous period* 

Author. T must insist on your buying it, for 
you cannot otherwise be a loyalist 

Argumentum ad — I forget my logic. — Can- 
did and reasonable men are to be the ultimate 
judges, of my book, as they are of all books — 
and not Sir Richard, and the divan of which he 
is the mouth-piece ; or the monk-ridden part of 
the catholics — all of these are equally hostile to 
me and my book. While I adhere to the salutary 
spirit, the presiding moderation, and healthful 
temperament of the constitution of the British 
empire, I may be excused, if occasionally I in- 
dulge a smile at the expence of these worthies ; 
or shed a tear over their infirmities. From the 
black and angry passions of the hour, and rooted 
prejudices of a naturally brave, bold and gener- 
ous, but mismanaged people, I expect not, nor 
could expect either favour, or approbation, — 'I 
have other sources of comfort — other grounds of 
hope. Here I intended to end my preface, but I find 
anothe/ objection made from a powerful quarter. 

Though I have been many years engaged ia 
the naturally blended studies of geography and 
history, I never once in all that time imagined, 
that to write on jsuch subjects, in a manner tend* 
iijg to the information of the understanding's, * 
and the improvement of the morals, of my 
countrymen, gpuld be considered as reprehensible 



ill me in my capacity of a minister of religion. 
I regard the church as the great asylum of 
knowledge, the only department affording at 
once competence and leisure for the improve- 
ment of the various branches of literature, which 
from a want of the one or the other of these re- 
quisites, are generally either neglected or abused. 
Rare, very rare indeed, is the coincidence of 
^ competent wealth, high powers of the intellect, 
industry, and leisure frbm official duties in any 
depirtment. The church is well known to afford 
leisure enough ; but if the ^mighty Newton had 
been a churchman without patrimony or patron- 
age, we should still be ignorant of the theory of 
the tides, and of the simple and delightful har- 
mony of the world maintained by tjje balanced 
forces of gravitation and projection. How 
-greatly religion is^ corrupted by ignorance, and 
purified and promoted by the advancement of 
knowledge in every direction, is evidently per- 
ceptible by all except the stupidly ignorant. 
Most certdhly theological subjects cannot be 
successfully cultivated without amply deep and 
extensive information in other respects ; and 
those writers, who, in their different provinces^ 
elucidate the several objects of their study and 
research, contribute to assist the profound student 
in divinity ; and nothing is more clear to me 
than that the patronization of literature in all its 
branches by prelates would be the most efficacious 
':qiQde for the improvement of religion, and the 



XXX vi PEEFACE^ 

security of the ecclesiastical cstablisbmcat Tem- 
perance, moral conduct in general, and attention 
to parochial duties^ would hardly ever be found 
unconnected with habits of literary pursuit ; and 
few men would repine at the maintenance of a 
system, which they saw respectably administer^ 
to the general good. 

If my motive had been altogether selfish, I 
might, for the mere sake of a dedication, have 
written a theological treatise, whicfi few would 
buy, fewer would read, and by which fewer still 
would be instructed; So much with so great 
ability has been already written on such subjects, 
that no void is left there for the useful exertion 
of my humble faculties. Sumite materiam vestris, 
qui scribitis, egnam mribus. 

In the historical geography of the various re^ 
gions of the globe I found a mighty void, the 
treatices on that subject in the names of Guthri^ 
Payne, and others, being most wretched per- 
formances, which convey altogether imperfect 
and false ideas to their readers. The geography 
of Pinkerton has lately appeared, so superior to 
these, that any comparison would be degrading, 
yet evidently a work of haste, erroneous in its 
plan, and very deficient m matter. If any men 
of imderstanding can think an apology requisite 
for my engaging in a histOTical geogri^hy, 
which I have styled Terraquea^ I hope this will 
be sufficient I thotijghtl perceived alsa a void 
for a history 4^ the kte Irish rebellion, sinoe I 



PREFACE. XXXVal 

suspected that nothing would be written on that 
subject by others, for some years without a de* . 
cided partiality to the one or the other faction ; 
for such writings alone can escape the reproba- 
tion of both in this unhappy country. 

From circumstances not necessary to be stated 
at present, I had sometime suspected that the 
bishop of Ferns disapproved of the culture of at 
least what is termed profane literature by clergy- 
men ; and when I had occasion to write to his 
Lordship concerning the presumption of Sir: R, 
M usgrave, in the introduction of his Lordship'5 
name to the public as a censurer txf my book, I 
made a sort of apology for devoting to literature 
that leisure time, which might otherwise be spent 
less innocently x>r less usefully. In his Lordship's 
answer he says, *^ I know not why yon vindicate 
' to me your attention to literature ; I never con- 
demned it, and heartily wish that there was more 
of it in my diocese, and directed to its proper 
o^ect.'' As to the object, I hope, I have said 
enough already. This letter gave me not ex- 
plicit information whether he had given authority 
or not to the baronet to publish his name, but 
intimated private conversation to that purpoi^ 
and concluded M^ith these words ; ^^ whenever I 
publicly avow opinions, I shall be ready publicly 
to defend them.^ 

With unfeigned respect for his lordship, I 
yeally think that he cannot be a greater lover of 



XXXvHl PREFACE. 

truth than I am, and that he is not by very many 
degrees so well acquainted with the transactions 
of the rebellion as I. I sincerely believe that his 
lordship has more humility than to wish to be 
considered as an infallible judge, and that he is 
too good a protestant to admit the attribute of 
infallibility in any of the human race. His au- 
thority therefore, however greatly respectable, 
decides nothing here ; and when he shall once 
have come to the knowledge of the mean cabals 
of a certain, philopseudic junto, he will reject the 
acquaintance of its' members with indignation. 
The most unfavourable expression in his lord- 
ship's letter was this. ^* I had then heard that 
for years past, yoii had expressed yourself un- 
friendly to the government of the country.'* 
This charge was totally unexpected, though I 
knew that I had enemies who laboured by dark 
and devious wiles to injure me. I most solemnly 
protest, in this public manner, my entire inno- 
cence 6f all disaffection to the British constitu- 
tion, or ta any of its substantial experimented 
principles, of which I have ever, and on all oc- 
casions, in act and conversation, in public and 
in private, been the temperate, but strenuous 
and steady supporter. I have given reasons, 
which I may publish in a -more proper place, 
why this constitution, with all its defects and 
abuses, is far preferable to any other which has 
ever yet been known to exist. I have always, i^ 



PREFACE, XXXIX 

word and act^ manifested my abhorrence of all 
mobs, opposition to law, and attempts to rectify 
abuses by any other means than acts of parlia- 
ment, Men of the most worthy character, my 
intimate acquaintances, who have repeatedly 
heard my private sentiments, can testify this, 
whenever occasion may require. 

Some have gained the name of loyalists, and 
the favour of their superiors by talking alone : I 
have shewn my loyalty by actions^ wherever it 
was in my power. I exerted myself in theerhbo- 
dying of protestant yeomen ; I expended more 
in proportion to my means, for the defence of 
the country, than any other person within my 
knowledge ; I bore arms against the rebels as 
long as circumstances permitted ; the only two 
sons of mine who were capable of bearing arms^ 
both young, one only seventeen years of age, 
fought for government during the whole rebel- 
lion, declining no danger in the most blogdy 
combats, but, God be thanked, never behaved 
with cruelty or injustice. Let any man come 
forward and contradict these facts. The bishop 
of Ferns is the best judge how far it may be 
consistent with his dignity and character to act 
on the belief of the information which he has 
received, without the forth-coming of his in- 
formers to support their charge. I believe him 
to be a man of much goodness of mind, and 



Xl PRElfACE. 

rectitude of intention in his episcopal capacity j 
and have scen^ among other instances, a very 
xnark^ attention in favour of two clergymen of 
his diooese, who had been publicly, but most 
falsely accused of worse than mere disaffection. 
This^ no person has ever dared to do with me ; 
and I make no doubt that his lordship will yet 
discover and detest the villainy of those who 
have imposed on him, with respect to my poli* 
tical character. I have really a high respect for . 
his lordship, and a full sense of his attention 
to me as a olerg3niian of his diocese, whose 
moral character, it seems, could not be so easily 
injured; and if the gratitude of others is as 
great as mine, on a due consideration of circum- 
iBtaiu^ea^ their feelings in that respect must be^- 
gieat indeed. My feelings of gratitude are 
^ strong toward another prelate, who took an 
early opportunity of conferring a benefice upon 
me, though I had never officiated in his diocese, 
to enable me, as he said, to pursue my studies 
with more ease and advantage; and I feel a 
pride in being thought worthy of such favour by 
a man, whose universal charity, unspotted sanc- 
tity, and conscientious discharge of his episcopal 
diity, confer honour on the hierarchy, and on the- 
amiable, noble, and highly respectable family to- 
' which he belongs. 



HISTQRY 






HISTORY 



OF THE 



- mrSH MEBElLIilON* 
CHAP, L 

Congress — Chils — United Irish — Parlinmentary Reform 
— National Guards — Roivan — Drennan — Tandy---^ 
, . Jackson — Catholic Conve7ition-^Pctifion — Convention 
Bill— Ferment — Fitzwilliam — Unitedlrish — Soldiery 
'-^Militia Bill — French Negqciation — Insurrection 
iAct — Imprisonments — French Ecopedition^-^Military 
Execution — Organization^-^Orange Men — Hnssey^^ 
Tythes — Church — Neivspapers — Hand Bills — French 
>^^Mc Nevin — Atrocities — Arrests -^Proclamations''^ 
Free Quarters — Violences — Yeomen — Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald^Sheares. 

Jb ROM the year 1782, when by the ispirited ex- 
ertions of the volunteer associations of Ireland, 
the legislature of this kingdom was rendered 
legally independent of that of Britain, and the 
odious restrictions, which had been most unwisely 
imposed* on its trade and manufactures by the? 
British government, were in a considerable degree 

* 



S HISTORY OF THE 

removed, many among the Irish extended their 
views to a wider sphere of political freedom. A 
provincial asjserabfy^ first cbuvened at Dungannon, 
in Ulster, on the fifteenth of February, 1782, con- 
sisting of the representatives. of a hundred and 
forty-three volunteer corps, with design, among 
other objects, to plan and petition for a parliament 
tary iieform, or a more equal representation of the 
commons in parliament, swelled in t7&S into % 
national assembly, composed of delegates from the 
several counties, and held in Dublin under the in- 
vidious title of congress; invidious undoubtedly^ 
since under the conduct of an assembly so denomi- 
nated, the British colonies of North America had 
recently, by a successful war against the power 
of Britain, established an independeat republic 
in the western hemisphere. 

The failure of this measure in November, the 
same year, when the petition of congress was con- 
temptuously rejected by parliament, was attributed 
to the weakness of national disunton, the trFpte 
partition of the people divided by the religious an- 
tipathies of protestailts, protestant dissenters, and 
Roman catholics: If all' these discordant sects' 
could be persuaded virtually to abandon religious 
distinctions in a pursuit of political reform, and 
cordially to coalesce with steady determination in 
their demands, parliament was imagined to be in- 
capable of withholding its consent As the main 
strength of the nation^ in respect to numter, wis^ 



conceived to rest in the Romanist^ whomightcon* 
stitute three-fourths of the whole population^ to 
give these a proportionate weight in the system, 
and to interest them warmly in the plan proposed, 
was an object of primary magnitude with politi* 
cal reformers. For the removal of those legal 
Kstrictions and disqualifications, by which the 
Romanists were deprived of what was ac* 
counted their due share oi^ political pojver, vigo- 
rous efforts ^vere made, and various engines put 
in liiolion. 

Among the modes of agency adopted in those 
i>usy times by the favourers of innovation, was the 
institution of political clubs, which were formed 
under several titles in the metropolis and else* 
where. The principal of these, denominated the 
te?Ai^ club) or the association of the friends of the 
constitution^ liberty^ hndpeace, was honoured by the 
sanctbn of scmieyery highly respectable characters 
as its membcESj whose object was doubtless merely 
to obtain the reformation of abuses in the political 
system, and particularly te proniote the scheme of 
a more ^qual representation of the people in par* 
liament A few of its members, however, seem to 
havfe entertained projects of a deeper kind — pro^ 
jects of revolution, the total subversion of the ex- 
isting governments and the erection of a democra* 
tically constituted commonwealth in its place. -^ 
These advocatesof revolution formed a connexion 
with other clubo of cx^Bgenid principks; particu- 



4i arSTORT OF TITE 

larly thkt of the whigs of the capital, whose objecfc 
was evidently a radical alteration in the politicalr 
system. The determined agitators of this and 
other societies, wliich appeajednot to promise a; 
speedy success t>o their wishesj framed at length; 
a- more general and deeply planned association, > 
M^hich outlived all the rest, and far surpassed them 
in the vigour and Conduct of its assaults on thci 
existing constitution of the state. This was tho 
femous! combination of United Imhmeny whose 
profound conspiracy, after a long, obstinate, ancf 
doubtful struggle with the government of the 
kingdom, was forced in the end, by tlie vigilance 
and vigour, of administration, fee^y to explode 
HI partial, irregular, and easily conquerable in-r 
surrectioiis, instead of an universal and^wellrorga^ 
nized rebellion, the means proposed by the ehiefsi 
to overturn the constitution^. 

Originating from Belfast, where principles of a 

republican tendency had long been cherished, was 

instituted in Dubljn, in the month of November^ 

1791) the society of United Irishmen^ with the 

immediate view of combining into one political 

' phalanx as many as possible of their countrymen, 

withoutanydistinctionofsect,ibr the effectuating 

of a change in the government of Ireland; or, as 

themselves have declared, ''for the purpose of 

*' forwarding a brotherhood of affection,. a com- 

*' mimion of rights, and an union of power among 

^'Irishmen of every religious persuasion, and 



IRISH RFBELXIO^. ^5 

"^Hhercby to obtain a complete reform in the 
- *^ legislature, founded on the principles of civil, 
-** political, and religious liberty."* Catholic 
^emancipation, and parliamentary reform, were the 
avowed objects of their pursuit. By the former 
was understood a total abolition of political dis- 
rtinctions between 4lomamsts and pretestants : by 
the latter they professed to mean a completely 
tdemocratic house of commons. In the plan 
-which they offered to the consideration of the 
,public,. they proposed that the parliament should 
Jbe aqnual; that for the purpose of election, the 
whole kingdom should be divided into thtec 
iundred electorates, each fonned by a combina- 
tion of parishes, and all as nearly equal as possible 
-in point of populatiiwa; that no qualification with 
respect to property should be required in the 
-elector nor in the representative ; that every male 
*of sound understanding of the full age of twenty^ 
one, and resident in the electorate during the 
last six months preceding tlieelettiftfi, should be 
capable of suffrage for a representative; that to 
be qualified ^for a^eat in the house of cdmmons, 
a man should be t.wenty-five years old, resident 
within the kingdom, and holding neither place 
nor pension under government, and that each 
xepreaentative should receive d reasonable stipend 
for his attendance in parliament, 

* Appendix to the report of the secret committee of thf 
tiause of xommons^ . No* ^ 



o HisToiur or thit 

To attain their object by a mUitaty force wat 
• Jittemptcd so early as the year 1792, whenmonqr 
was raised by subscription to arm and embody a 
jiumber of men jn the metropolis, under the titfe 
of national guards^ with an uniform distinguished 
with green, which was adopted as the national 
colour, and buttons inscribed with a harpi thear* 
moriai ensign of Ireland, divested of the crown, 
to denote, as was supposed, the intended abolition 
of monarchy. The,ninth of December was ap-^ 
pointed 2|s a day of general muster of these guardu^ 
probably with the design to display their force, 
to inspire confidence into their friends, to dispirit 
their adversaries, or perhaps, as was feared by 
«ome, tho' it appears not probable, to seize even 
then the city, and qommenoea, civil war. What^ 
ever was their immediate t>bject, government 
wisely determmpd to suppress in their commencct 
ment all armed associations not auth<Mised by the 
iRupreme power of the ^tate. On the eighth erf 
Pecember, the day immediately preceding that 
of the intended muster, a proclamation was issued 
by the lord lieutenant and council, peremptorily 
interdicting all seditious assemblies, and com-^ 
inanding the ms^istmtes to suppress them by mi^ 
litary force, if admonition should bfe found not 
l&ufficiently efficacious, Intimidated by the me*, 
nacing langqage of this proclamation, and the 
lubsequent martial array of the garrison statioried 
\u the ^^pHala the iia^oi^al ^uard* defierred tl^ 



meeting, and the long proposed mu&ter never 
took place. The heads of the society, however^ 
snet on the 14th foUowtng, and puhlUhed a kind 
of manifesto, orcountcr-proolamation, exhorting 
the volunteers to resume their arms, for the main* 
1;enance, as before, of tranquillity throughput the 
kingdom, 'against foreign and internal enemies^ 
and advising the protestants of Ireland to choosy 
^leputies for provincial assemblies, preparatively 
to a general convention, which they declared 
Necessary to form a gommoi^ cause with that of 
the Romanists. On account of this manifesto, 
Archibald Hamilton Rowan, who had acted the 
part of ^Sjccretary at the above assembly, was ap- 
Tested in the following MKmth— a gentleman of a 
v^ry respectable family and fortune of a most 
amiable character, a^d the warmest philanthropy. 
"Hmt a zealous philanthropy, without a clear judg- 
ment and st^dy resolution to direct it, is perni- 
jcious instead of useful to society^ is a painful 
observation. Brought to trial in January, 1794, 
and found guilty by the jury, this gentleman was 
sentenced to pay a fine of five hundred pounds, to 
be confinjBd two years in the prison of Newgate;^ 
sad afterwards to give a security of four thousand 
pounds for his good behaviour during seven years* 
In June, the sam« year, Doctor William Drennan, 
a j^ysician, who had been chairman in the same 
assembly, was on trial acquitted ; but James Napper 
Tandy, acitizen of Dublin, a m^st active member 



8 ferSTOfir #F THE 

bfpoiitlcal societies, who had, on iarrest, given bail 
for his appearance, had made his escape out ol? 
the kingdom in the preceding year to avoid a: 
trial. A like escape was effected by Mr. Rowan, 
who by stratagepi found egress from the prison. 
His resolution to attempt this flight was prompted, 
at least precipitated, by the arrest of an English 
dergymanof the name of William Jackson, enr 
gaged in a treasonable correspondence with 
agents of the French government: in which cor^ 
responderice Mr. Rowan was implicated, anii 
might in consequence have been capitally convict- 
jed. Jackson being tried in Dublin, on the 23d of 
April, 1795, and found guilty by the jury, evaded 
the ignominy of a public execution by suicide,^ 
swallowing a dose of poison, and expiring in the 
Ipav of the court aniid a multitude of people. 
' To penetrate into the secret motives of the sC'r 
veral protestants, who were the prime contrivers 
and promoters of this conspiracy, which in a short 
time spread its ramifications throughout the whole 
island, and greatly endangered the established gpr 
vemment; I have not vanity to pretend. Most 
probably.private ambition was the motive of some, 
who aspired at'an eminence of power and fame' 
through the medium of a revolution, regardlesai 
of slaughters and devastations, its inevitable con^ 
comitants. A spirit of patriotism seems to have . 
jridited a few, particularly Thomas Addis Emmet, 
^ lawyer of uncommon talents and beneyolence-i 



^ / 



IklSH mEBELLIOK. © 

nvlio might vainly hope that, without much blood- 
shed, a new government might be established of. 
so liberal a nature as to leav6 no shackles on iu-^ 
dustry or merit, and render Ireland a flourishing 
and happy country. Both appear to have been 
egregiously nystaken in the nature of the instru-r 
ments, on which they in great measure depended 
for the accomplishment of their scheme, 
i While the conductors of the general association 
were labouring to extinguish all religious antipa- 
Ihies, and to combine their countrymen of all 
sects indiscriminately into a political brotherhood; 
the chiefs of the sect, which predominates in zeal 
and numbers, planned a particular association, 
apparently co-operating with, and constituting a 
{)art of the former, but accused by some of enter-r 
taining separate views. Encouraged by the pre*- 
vious declarations of several protestant assemblieji 
in their favour — by Edmund Burke and bis dis- 
ciples in Britain — by the oppositionists in parlia-* 
inent, and by the association of United Irishmen, 
the leading men among the Romanists of Ireland, 
ever watchful of events for the advantage of theii; 
sect, formed. in 1792, what was called the ca/Ao//c 
eonwTition.. .This.assembly, wh^n the.iiitemperate 
proceedings of its inferior members had caused! 
the secession of n(;*ar seventy gentlemen from its 
deliberations, including Lord Kenmare and Fin^ 
gall, directed uncontrolled by the affairs of theiy 
^qmanist country m^en, Edward Byrne,, a wealthy 



I# AtSTORT oar THB 

stc^hant, thcmber of a secret committee of 
Itanumbts, whkh had subskted some years in 
Btiblit)) issued a sort of writs to the parish priestsi 
of that communion throughout the kingdom^ 
lor the election of deputies to compose an aa^ 
#embly representative of the whole, body of Irish 
ikcnnaniMs. Two deputieis were chosen in each 
parish by" the majority of all the adult males of 
the ccmgregation assembled at the Romish 
chapel: the parochial deputies chose, in each 
county two^ representatives; all of whom, tog» 
ther with the representatives of cities and towns 
corporate^ similarly chosen, composed the catholic 
c^vehtion, public as to its assembly, in the Tay^^ 
lotVhall in Dublin, * - Having prepared a peti- 
tion to the King, and elected nine of its number 
to ri^main a permanent committee for the manage* 
tattit of the projected schemes, the convention 
dosed its session. By the authority of tliis as^ 
aembly and its permanent representative, the com* 
»ittee, great sums were assessed and regularly 
levied tm the Romanists, the greater part of whom 
submitted implicitly to thewders of this their su* 
premc council, as of the most firmly ^itablished 
government But the application of this money 

* Sinot the publication of the first edition of this work, 
Mr. Edward Hay furnished me with the documents in No. 8, 
in th^ appendix. From their internal evidence, and subsequent 
cnqptnriesy I am enaUed to oorcect some mistajces iato which I. 
Xisdheealedr 



1BI6H REBELLIOH. It 

is 33 yet a secret, except a very small part avoif 
cdly given to some agents of this coalition, par* 
ticularly fifteen hundred pounds to Theobald 
Wolfe Tone, the most active of these. * 

A deputation, at the head of Avhich was the 
above mentioned Mr. Bymc, carried the petitioa 
of the Irish Romanists to Londonf . Intro^ 
duction to the royal presence, by one of the 
•ccretaries of state, wis procured by the influenco 
of Edmund Burke, a most determined chaippion 
'4^f the Roman catholic churdi, though a protest-^, 
ant in external profession. Some have pretend^ 
tiiat great sums of money were» on this occasion^ 
bestowed to such persons about the court as were 
supposed able to influence the royal car in favour 
of the petitioners. The deputation was gracfc» 
ously received by his Majesty; but the protests 
ants of Ireland were invited to meet in their 
several counties, and to declare their opiaionf 
concerning the emancijwition requested by their 
catholic brethren, in order, as was supposed^ 
that the legislature might regulate its deternri* 
nation, at least in some degree, according to 
these opinions. Notwithstanding that great 

* I have heard that Mr. Tone received only five hun jre4 
|K>unds, though three times the sum had been ostensibly votfid« 
. + In my first edition I pronounced this, a petition surpril^ 
if^Sh fi'^'ught with misrepresentation. Though penal statute^ 
9gamst Catholics had lain dormant, yet I think that eoifxeH 
won imjust, and I therefore expupge it. &e« Mr. Hay'a lettwr. 
ill AppeAdi?, Nq, §, ' 



H -KISl-ORY or THfi 

pains were taken by pamphlets and speeches to 
convince them of the contrary, the protestants 
' mostly feared, from the unparalleled spirit of 
• intolerance assiduously nourished in the Romish 
religion, that*l3ie'Romiauists, if once admitted 
into a participation of political power, would, 
with the peculiar zeal of their sect, avail them^ 
selves of their superiority of number, and every 
other possible advantage, to possess themselves 
of that power exclusively, and ultimately to 
persecute and even exterminate the heretic* 
After the protestants had in; general, at their 
county meetings, declared their disapprobation 
of indulgences beyond those which had already 
been given to their countrymen of the Romish 
faith, the King was graciously pleased to re^ 
commend the relief of his Roman catholic sub- 
jects in Ireland to his two houses of parliament 
in that kingdom. This mode of proceeding, 
whether accidental, or designed by the ministry, 
augmented mightily the jealousies of the two 
parties, the Irish of the established and of the 
Romish church, as the latter were left to con* 
elude tiiat^ their protestant countrymen were 
^ their foes, wjiile thp ministers were tl^eirff lends ^» 

* The policy of at least conniving at fhjB distractions of tjie* 
mih was adopted by some English politiciaijs' in the reign of 
l£lizabeth, in order to retaifi Ireland in a state of weakness and 
^dependence. " We find Sir Henry Sidney and Sir John Perrot^ 
^0 perfectly understood the •affwrs of Ireland, and the disp^si? 



'^he icftuence of the monarch, as is usual, pre^ 
vailed in both houses : the servants of the crown, 
who were the most hostile to the measure, and 
even expressed their disapprobation in parlia*- 
mient, voted in its favour. By acts made in the 
parliamentary session of 1793^ the Romanists 
were placed nearly in the same political situation 
with the protestants, being excluded only, by 
their own refusal to take the test oaths> from 
sitting as members of parliament, and from act* 
ing as officers of government in about thirty of 
the great offices of the state. But an effectual 
obstruction was made against all conventions of 
this public *sort,' such as the Cathohc conven- 
tion, for the future, by an act of parliament, 
styled the convention bill, proposed by the 
Lord Chancellor Fitzgibbon, Earl of Clare^ 
professing ' '^ to prevent the election, or other 
appointment, of conventions, or other unlaw- 
ful assemblies, under pretence of preparing or 
presenting public petitions, or other addresses, as 
to his Majesty, or the parliament." I'his pre- 
vented the meeting of an intended national as- 
sembly, which was proposed to be convoked in 
the month of September, the consequences of 

lions of its inhabitants, both expressing their indignation at this 
honid policy, which yet had found its way intd the English ^ 
parliament." Leland'a Histi of Ireland, B. 4. chap. 3. The 
remeval of the national distinctness of Ireland, by its legislative 
imion with Bxitam, must remove all motives for 3Uch mi$take(i 
policy* , 



14 ^ feisTORV <)F rut 

inrhkh might have hecn iacalculably destructive 

at that time to Iceland. 

If 4he protestant conductors of the United 
Irish had, at the close cf the year 1752, sue-* 
ceeded in their attempt; ,to overawe the govern- 
ment by muster of the national guards, which 
appeared to be their immediate object, and thence 
by bolder steps to compass a revolution, thc^ 
leaders of the Romanists, who were also mem* 
Ims of the United Irish association, would have 
had opportunity to unfold and put in execu^ 
tion their particular scheme. Whatever thit 
was, the lower classes of their communion ap- 
peared evidently to conceive no other idea ef a 
revolution than the exclusive establishment of 
their own church. Their spirits were high in 
expectation of this change. They could not en- 
tirely conceal their sentiments Treasonable 
aongs, scurrilously abusive of the protestant xe^ 
Jigion, were publicly sung by drinkers in tipliag 
houses and ballad-$ing^« in the streets. A fer- 
ment prevailed which seemed to announce an 
approaching insurrection; and in 1793 some 
local commoti(His, easily suppressed, took place, 
particularly about the collieries in the county of' 
Kilkenny, and in the southern part of the county 
of Wexford. A body of insurgents, about two 
thousand in niunber, attacked the town of Wtxr 
ford with an ostensible design to liberate some 
prisoners confined in the gaol of thaVtown; but 



Iltl3tt 1l£B£LLION« tS^ 

Msach novices were tliey then in military matton^ 
thftt l^ey were> witihi the loss of about an hundred of 
their party, rtf^ulsed by the fiisc of only tiiirty- 
five soldiers, on whose side the brave Ma|or 
Vallotton fell, by the stroke of a scythc-Utote 
fixed in the end of a pola 

Some of the Romish gentry are said to hmd 
I'egretted that their party had let slip such aa 
9pportunity'£is might not again occur, of strike 
ing home, by a geoeral insurrection, at 9m ew^ 
lier time, when government was less prepajvd 
for the att^k. In 1795, however, undar the 
lord lieutenancy of £arl Fitzwilliam, the succea* 
sor of Lord Westmoreland, an .ample field was 
expanded to their hopes ; and in obedience to m 
maadate of the permament committee petitioa% 
on a model prescribed, wete addressed to parlia* 
ment by the whole body of that persuasion, do* 
manding a completion of what they termed ca^ 
tholic emancipation. This nobleman, being #ne 
'c£ the disciples of Edmund Burke, was a warm 
friend to the Romanists, and a bitter enemy to 
the French republicans^ who had renoOnced 
tibeir communion, and yet on whom, notwith*- 
standing, the Romanists of Ireland depended in 
great measure for the exaltation of their church 
by their assistance in a revolution ; but before 
lie could gratify the wishes of his favourites, the 
JEarl was recalled, and the Earl of Camden sent 
as lord lieutenant in his place. Theix discontents 



16 HISTOEY OP THF 

in consequence q£ this disappointment were dbn^' 
siderably augmented : speeches and resolution^ 
of a seditious nature were published by the au- 
thority of the committee, by whose invitation 
an ^sembly of Romanists was convened at a 
chapel in Dublin, and disturbances incjfeased in 
several parts of the country. 

The United society in this ferment was not 
idle. ^ After unremitted exertions to engage }vt 
the promotion of their design men of activity 
and literary taflents throughout the kingdom, 
and also to tincture the minds of their country- 
men with republican ideas, by the dissemination 
of Payne's Rights of Man, and other democratic 
publications, this knot lof reformitig politicians 
assumed in the same year; 1795, with little dis- 
guise, a revolutionary cast. The original decla-^ 
ration oftered for signature to each man on his 
admission into the society was this : "I, * * in 
" the presence of God, do pledge myself to my 
** country, that I will use all my abilities and in-» 
*^ fluence in th^ attainment of an impartial and 
" adequate representation of the Irish nation in 
*^ parliament ; and, as a means of absolute and 
*^ immediate necessity in the establishment of 
** this chief good of Ireland, I will endeavour 
*^ as much as lies in my ability, to forward a 
^^ brotherhood of affection, an identity of in- 
" terests, a eomniunion of rights, and a union of 
« power, among Irishmen, of all religfioys per* 



IRISH REBEI^LION. 17 

'^^ sijasions, without which every reform in par- 
** liament, must be partial, not national : ipadc- 
** quate to the wants, delusive to the wishes^ 
^* and insufficient for the freedom aiid happiness 
^* of this country.'* 

But now the ipention of parliament W33 omit- 
ted in the new test, or Qath of admission, which . 
was expressed in these words: " In the awftii 
'* presence of God, I, * *, do vuli^nt^rily declare, 
^ * that I will persevere in endeavpuring to form 
** a brotherhood of affection among Irishmen 
^^ of every religious persuasion; and that I will 
" aI$o persevere in my endeavQurs to obtain ^n 
" equal, full, and adequate representation of (iH 
'* the people of Ireland. I do further declarie, 
^' that neither hopes, fears, rewards, or punish- 
^' ments, shall ever induce me, directly or indi- 
'* rectly, to inform on or give evidence against 
^* any member or members of this or similar so- 
** cieties, for any act or expression of theirs, 
^^ done or made collectively or individually, in 
*^ or out of this society, in pursuance of the 
'^ spirit of this obligation."* 

That not merely a reform of parliament, how-, 
ever, but a total overthrow of the existing sys- 
tem of government, and the erection of the Irish 
nation into an independent republic, unconnected 
vith Britain, was from the beginning an objegt 

f Aj^hdix to the rep6rt, &€# No. 24» 
C 



J8 HISTORY OF THE 

with some of the original framers of the society/ 
we have reason to suppose, particularly fronj 
their own declarations and correspondence. 

In their originaldeclaration are the following' 
worcis: — ^^ In the present great aer^a of reform, 
^* when unjust governments are falling in every 
** quarter of Europe; when religious persecution 
*^- is compelled to abjure her tyranny over con«- 
^^ science ; when the rights of men are ascertained 
^^ iv\ theory, and that theory substantiated by 
^^ practice; when antiquity can no longer de^ 
^* fend absurd and oppressive forms against the 
*' common sense and commoii interests of man- 
'* kind; when all govemnaent is acknowledged 
" to briginate from the people, and to be so far 
V only obligatory, as it protects their rights and 
** promotes their welfkre, wethinic it our duty, 
** as Irishmen, to come forward and state what 
*^ we feel to be our heavy grievance, and whsit 
.^' we know to be its effectual remedy. 

" IVe have no national govcrnmtnt. '' We are . 
" ruled by Englishmen, and the servants of 
^* Englishmen, whose object is the interest of 
*^ another country; whose instrument is cor-^ 
^^ ruption; whose strength is the weakness of 
i* Ireland; arid, these men have the whole of the 
•* power and patronage of the country, as means 
^^ to seduce and subdue the honesty and the 
** spirit qf her representatives in t^ie legislature, 
y Such an extrinsic power, acting with unifpri^^ 



IRISH REBELLION. 1^. 

*^ force in a direction too frequently opposite to 
^* the true line of our obvious interests, c^n be 
" resisted with effect solely by unanimity, deci- 
*^ sion, and spirit in the people — qualities which 
*^ may be exerted most legally^ constitutionally, 
/^ and efficaciously, by that great measure esseu- 
*^ tial to .the prosperity and freedom of Ireland — 
^* an equal representation of all the people in 
'' parliament,"*^ 

That the reform here professed'^ was rather an. 
ostensible than real object, exhibited for the 
purpose of uniting reformers with revolutioDists; 
appears froni a letter, addressed on the occasion^ 
to hisTriends in Belfast, by Theobald Wolfe Tone, 
a lawyer of uncommonly high talents and in- 
dustry, and one of the origin^ framers of the 
institution, of which letter the following is an 
extract. ^' The foregoing contain my true and 
*' sincere opinion of the state of this country, so 
*^ far as in the present juncture it may be ad- 
** visable to publish it. They certainly fall 
** short of the truths but truth itself must some- 
^* times condescend to temporise: my unalter- 
*' able opinion is, that the bane of Irish pros- 
'^ perity is in the influence of England: I be- 
^* lieve that influence will ever be extended 
" while the connexion between the two coun- 
^^ tries continues; nevertheless, as I know that 

Appeii<li3t to tjie report, &<*• No, % 



20 HISTORY OF THK 

^* Opinion is for the present too hardy, though 
^ a very little time may establish it universally, 
" I have not made it a part of the resolutions, 
-^ I have only proposed to set up a reformed par-* 
*^ liament b» a barrier against that mischief, 
** which every honest man that will open his 
^^ eyes must see, iii every instance, 9verl)ears! 
" the interest of Ireland. I hax^e not said one 
'^ word that looks hke a wish for separation, 
" though I give it to you ind your friends a^ 
*^ my most decided opinion, that such an event 
^^ would be a regeneration to this country/' * 

. The issociation was extended in Dublin and 
l3ie northern counties with industry and success. 
The latter was greatly promoted by the displea^ 
sure occasioned by the French war — a mini-? 
sterial measure adopted apparently without rea- 
son, and so highly condemned by many in the 
nation as t6 add prodigiously tp the number of 
Hialecontents in both the British Hingdoms. — - 
The rapacious insolence of th^ soldjeiy also^ 
which had been very unwisely overlooked, oy 
jiot sufficiently restrained, in the first years of 
Jhis war, was certainly not well calculated for 
the promotion of affectionate sentiments toward 
administration, in the lower classes of the peo- 
ple'in general throughout the kingdom.— In the 
ioafGhcs of troops, on change of quarters, th^ 

Appendix to the report, &c. Np« % 



iRlSH REBELIIOK* fil 

hohes of the farmers dnd peasants, pressed fo? 
the carriage oif baggage, wer« brought to un« 
teasonable distances, and severely abused, unless 
money was given by their owners to procure bet- 
ter treatment. Sometimes the carts were lost, 
and various other inconveniences occurred.--* 
Where they halted in their march, the soldiers 
dispersed themselves over the neighbourhood^ 
seizing horses' of which they had no need, merely 
to force the owners to release them by the pay-* 
ment of money.— The accommodation pf sol-* 
diers billetted was also severely felt by some who 
Were exposed to it from their situation; and 
money was extorted on this ground also. After 
some time, the grievance of pressing was re- 
dressed in great meaisure, perhaps partly by more 
attention to discipline, but certainly by the 
allowance of better hire for the transportation of 
baggage, by which the necessity, and conse- 
quently the pretence, of compulsive Employments 
was in a considerable degree removed. Yet the 
inconvenience has continued to be occasionally^ 
sometimes severely felt, by the connivance of 
officers to the detriment of agriculture ; of the 
numerous inst^ces of which, one happened in 
my neiglibourhood in April, 1802, in the march 
of the Kerry militia from Ennii^cortlay, when the 
country was harassed in an extent of mAny 
miles : whereas at Grange, where a part of thi* 
militia was quartered, eight miles from Enui3- 



S2 ^HISTORY OF THE 

corthy, horses were provided without any dis* 
agreeable circumstances, by the exertions of the 
, Rev/ William Eastwood, a magistrate, and the 
prudent conduct of Lieutenant Mahoni,* 

Discontents rose high on account also of the 
militia bill, which enacted compulsory levies 
of -soldiers for the internal defence of the king- 
dom. On a return of the names of the males in 
each district of the military age, lots were 
drawn, and those on whom the chance fell, were 
obliged to enlist as soldiers for four years,^ to find 
substitutes, or to. pay fines. Some individuals, 
unable to pay, suetained the seizure and sale of 
their goods ; and some for intemperate expres- 
sions of, discoiitent were committed to gaol. To 
make the burthen bear more equally, subscrip- 
tions were generally proposed and adopted to 
raise money for the enlisting of soldiers ,•* and 
thes6 subscriptions were for the time a heavy tax 
on peasants and citizens ; but it was onjiy tem- 
porary — for when this new species of army was 
once embodied, small bounties were founcl suffi- - 

*' When a man would solicit employment, at the rate of 
twx> shillings a day for himself and his horse, in the drawing of 
lime from the distance of ten miles, which is the ease in my 
neighbourhood, and yet would avoid, by every possible eva- 
sion, the drawing of military baggage, in which his earnings 
would be at least three times as great, we cannot suppose thi| 
preference to be without a cause. This cause arises from the , 
inattention of oflScers, and the defective discipline of soldiers. 



iillSH REBELLION. i^ 

fcicntto entice recruits for the filling of augmen- 
tations, or vacancies. 

Not relying wholly on its force at home,^ the 
chiefs of the society made application to the 
French government ; and in April, 1 796, an in- 
vasion pf Ireland was promised by the latter for 
the subversion of the British power in Ireland^ 
and the political disruption of this island from 
Britain. The offer was accepted, on condition 
that the invading army should act as auxiliaries 
under the direction and pay of the society, 
which, on becoming possessed of the dominion, 
should be bound to re-imburse the whole expencea' 
of the armament . * 

The vigilance of government penetrated the 
design of internal ^hostility and external alliance; 
and as the existing laws, were totally inadequate 
to stop the- progress of the conspiracy, new 
powers were coi^ceded by the legislature to the 
executive administration* In. October, I796, 
parliament suspended the law of Habeas Corpus^ 
and thereby gave authority to imprison obnoxi- 
* ous persons without cause assigned, or definite 
period of trial. In the spring of the same year 
also, a temporary law> termed the Insurrection 
Act, had passed, levelled immediately against 
an irregular confederacy of men, who, under the 
name of defenders, infested the counties of Ros* 

- f Appendix to the report, &g* Nos. 6 tod 31« 



S* Sijrroliy of ifkk 

common, Leitrim, Longford, Meath, and Kil- 
dare, despoiling in the night the pe3.ceable in* 
habitants of theif afin&, and latterly also of their 
Hioney and valuable effects.- By this adt thtfer 
lord lieutenant in council was authorized to pro- 
claim, On the requisition of i^ven of its .magi- 
strates, assembled at a sessions of the peace, any 
feounty or district thereof, as in a kate of dis- 
turbance, and thereby to In Vest the magistrates' 
with an extraordinary powtr of sfeizing, im- 
prisoningi ahd spending aboard his- majesty's fleet, 
slich persons as ishould be found at unlax^ful 
^semblies; or otherwise atting so as to thl^ateit 
the public tranquillity. 

*rhe operation of these teiiiporary la^s Va^s 
Forcibly felt in t^e latter part of this> and in the^ 
txmrse of the following year. Gomiderable 
Ihumbers of gentlemen, or persons in respectable 
'situations of life, wete arrested on private infor- 
rtiations of their engagement in the conspiracy, 
and lodged hr prison, many for a great lengths* 
of time without opportunity of trial. Many 
districts iti the northern counties were proclaim- 
td, and humfbers of the lo^er classes of men 
isfent on board of the king's^navy. 

These acts of i^everity, apparently mconsi^tent 
HvAh the spirit of the constitution, ^ere not with- 
but cause. A contest, ox trial of irtrengtl^ 
seems to have arisen between the existing * 
government and Ithe association, which of the 



tftlSH ItEflELLlDSr. 5l5 

two should ovierp^er the other. Each vigorous 
measure, adopted on one side, -excited another 
to counteract it on the opposite. To ftimish 
themselves with arms, the lower classes, like the 
defenders, assembled in parties m the night, 
latid disarmed those whom they regarded as the 
adherents of government. To save the produo©^ 
of the soil to their friends in prison, attd to testify 
their attachment to the gentlemen of their party^ 
or those whom they imagined riot hostile to their 
cause, they ihet in large bodies iii the day tex 
tlig out the potatoes and reap the com of several 
individuals. The greatness of the numbeife 
?isseftibled oil these occasions, ftiuch eJccec^ding' 
Vhat tlie specified purposes required ; (for in 
some instances four or five thousand were said 
%o be collected in One body) — their marchings 
with music in a sort of military order, and their 
assembling on such other pretences as ftmerafs 
"^md matches of football, gave cause to suspect 
that the real object of these meetings was to* 
'accustom the men to a readiness in repairing to 
appointed places of convention, to give confi- 
idence to their o^vn party, and to intimidate 
their opponents. To frustrate the operatjons of 
"the law, terror and bribery were employed with 
4ts agents. Various modes of persecution, and 
'even sometimes assassination, wei« put in p«w> 
■^^ice against magi^rates who exerted themselves 
^0 ttrrcsft the members df the conspiracy, wit^ 



S^ HISTORY OF THii 

nesses whb appeared against ^^^^mi in courts q4 
justice^ and jurors who fpund them guilty; 
while the pecuniary subscriptions of the asso- 
ciation were partly applied to assist the families 
of' its imprisoned members^ to bribe witnesses in 
trials, and to fee the most eminent pleaders of 
the law. . 

Acts of a violent and menacing nature in some 
of the northern counties, particularly the steal- 
ing of ten barrels of gunpowder out of the Toyal 
stores in Belfast, are specified in a proclamation 
of the lord lieutenant and council, bearing date 
the sixth of November^ 179^/ in which all magi- 
strates and loyal subjects were strictly com- 
manded to use their best endeavours for the pre- - 
vention or punishment of such dangerous and 
treasonable proceedings; orders having beeiA 
previously issued to the military officers tp as^st * 
the civil in the execution of this duty. Not- 
withstanding the enforcement of this proclama- 
tion, the United' Irish of Ulster would have ob- 
tained and employed the means of insurrection^ 
if the French forces, embarked at Brest, for the 
invasion of Ireland, had effected their . landing 
at Bantry-bay, where they arrived near the end 
of December in the same year. While the de^ 
barkation of the French army, stated at fifteen 
thousand in number, was prevented by a stprm 
which divided the fleet, the exertions of the,- 
jsociety to second the invasion were prevented by- 



IWSHHEBELlIOy. S7 

tiiie receipt oif two contrary piec*es of intelligencrc 
from the French government, the one a message 
in November, promising the arrival of succours 
immediately; the other a letter in a few days 
after the messenger's departure, which was con- 
3idered as authentic, representing the proposed 
^expedition to be deferred until the ensuing 
spring.* 

A' continuation of outrages, directed systema* 
tically, provoked on the side of government 
jnore strenuous exertions to suppress them* 
Authorized for a discretionary disposition of his 
troops, to disarm the malecontents and prevent 
insurrection,, (by a letter, dated March* the 
thircl; 1797, from the right honourable Thomas 
Pelham, secretary to the lord lieutenant). Gene- 
ral Lake, bearing the chief command in th§ 
northern district of the kingdom, issued on tli^ 
thirteenth of that month a proclamation, en^ 
joining all persons not empowered tQ keep arms 
by government, to surrender their arms and 
ammunition to the commanding officers in their 
several neighbourhoods, and promising to in- 
formers inviolable secrecy, together with rewards 
to the full value of the stores of war discovered 
in consequence of their information. f • . 

The troops were so disposed as to search aU 
suspected places for military stores, and to pre- 

t Appendix to the report, &c. No. 31. t Jbid. Nos, e and 9, 



SS nuiont ot ruts. 

irent unlawful assemblies, especially in the nigh(^ 
BfUTB, certain hour, in which all persons found , 
aJbroad without authority Were liable to arrest 
and punishment : but the quantity of a^ms thuf 
collected proving comparatively small, and the 
plans of the society still remaining in force, 
whose exertions at the assizes, during th^ cir*- 
cuit in the succeeding month of April, .so far 
frustrated the prosecutions of the crown as to 
tender the result rather an encouragement than 
€bG contrary to the conspirators— measures of a 
rtill more forcible nature were demanded. 

Another proclamation from the lord lieutenant 
Was issued on the seventeenth of the following^ 
fnonth, declaring the efforts of the civil powef 
to have been found inadequate for the preserva- 
tion of the public peace; the most effectual 
orders to have been sent to the officers of his 
majesty's troops to employ their utmost powef 
for thq suppression of treasonable attempts ; and 
the king's most gracious pardon to be tendered 
to all such (exoejiting persons guilty of certain 
specified crimes), as on or before the twenty-- 
fourth of June should surrender to the magi- 
strates, talce the oath of allegiance^ and, if bail 
should be nequired, enter into recognizance for 
their future good beliavioun A letter from 
$ccpetary Pefiiam to the earl of Carhampton^ 
chief coiiimander of the troops, and orders from 
the earl to these to act independently of the 



, IRISH REBELLION. t9 

divfl power, followed the proclamation : and at 
jtfee plan of each county was found (particularly 
by the informations of Nicholas Maguan, of 
3aint$eld, in the county of Down), to be 
arranged for a general insurrection in the norths 
which was to take place before the end of June^ 
the most rigorous and summary mod^s of coer* 
pion were judged necessary. 

The members of the Irish government, forced 
by the magnitude of the threatened evils, into 
a temporary violation of the political constitu* 
tion, for its ultimate safety, authorized sucli 
piodes of compulsion as must have wounded 
their own feeUngs. The houses and effects of 
those who produced not the arms, which by in^r 
formations they were kkown or supposed to hav« ^ 
in concealment, were consumed with fire by the 
troops, or otherwise destroyed ; and many per* 
tons; to force a discovery, were put to some 
species of torture, particularly that of the picket. 
The term of surrender and pardon was by procia* 
^nation prolonged from the twenty-fourth caf 
June, to the twenty^fourth of July ; and stidk 
were the effects of the measures pursued, tha^ 
excepting a partial, unsupported, and shortrlivedi 
commotion, ncay the mountains in the county of 
Down, the intended insurrection was prevented 4 
great quantities of arrns were collected from tim 
malecontents, and order so restored throughout 
Pisteir, ttxat t^e administration of justice waa 



so HISTORY OF THE.* 

again committed to the civil power, and the 
interferencie of the militarj discontinued in that 
province, generally, from the month of August. 
But, while by acts of necessary rigpur, which 
forced many of its efficient members into prison, 
exile, or inaction, the designs of the union were 
at that time frustrated, and its plan so disor- 
ganized in the northern counties, that the infe- 
rior societies in general discontinued their meet- 
ings, and Ulster was far from being completely 
represented in thfe provincial committee;* it 
was extending in the southern and western, with 
assiduity and zeal, its improved system of or- 
ganization. To form some idea of this extraor* 
dinary scheme, a short retrospective survey ig 
requisite; 

The organization of the society of United 
Irishmen, which for some time was quite of a 
civil nature, is represented as having commenced 
in the spring of 1792, and as having been com- 
pleted in Ulster on the tenth of May, 1795. In 
the autumn of the following year, when a 
reform of parliament, the ostensible with all, and 
with some the real object, was regarded as not 
otherwise attainable than by force, the associa-. 
tion began to assume a military form ; and, in 
April, 1797, thd number of men in Ulster alone, 
enrolled for insurrection, was, beside others 

* Appendix to the report, &c» ,No. 14. 



IRISH REBELHOIJ' 31 

doubtless ready to assist them, stated at nearly 
a hundred thousand, provided, some with fire- 
arms, others with pikes, a store of ammunition, 
and some cannon.* The organization was re- 
formed in August the same year ; but to specify 
the several changes, appears unnecessary, and to 
give briefly the general outline of the system, 
sufficient. 

The association consisted of a multitude of 
societies, linked closely together, and ascending 
in gradation, like the component parts of a pyra- 
mid or cone, to a common apex or point of union. 
The lowest or simple societies consisted each 
originally of thirty-six, afterwards at most of 
only twelve men, as nearly as possible of the 
s^me neighbourhood, that they might be mutu- 
ally under the inspection one of another. An 
assembly of five secretaries, severally elected by 
five simple societies, formed a lower baronial 
committee, which had the immediate superin 
tendence and management of these five societies. 
Ten delegates, elected one from each of ten 
lower baronial, composed an upper baronial com- 
mittee, Avhich in like manner directed the busi- 
ness of these ten lower committees. With the 
same superintendence over their constituent as- 
^ semblies, delegates from the upper baronial, one 
deputed from each, formed in the counties, 

* Appen^ to the Rejport, &c. Nps. 2 and 3 1 ♦ 



SS HISTORY OF THE 

county committees, and ^n populous towns, dis- 
trict qpmmittees; and the provincial committees, 
one for each of the four provinces, were com- 
posed of delegates from the district and county 
committees, two from each, sometimes three, 
when the extent and population, of the district 
seemed to require a more numerous representa- 
tion. The supreme and uncontrouled comman4 
of the whole association was committed to a 
general ejcecutive directory, composed of five 
persons unknown to all excepting^ the four se- 
cretaries of the provincial committees ; for they 
were eliscted by ballot in these committeei^,/ the 
secretaries of which alone examined the ballots 
and notified the ejection to none except the per- 
sons themselves on whom it fell, The orders of 
this hidden directing power vvere conveyed 
through the whole organized body by not easily 
discoverable chains of communication. ,By on^ 
member only of the directory were carried th^ 
mandates to one member of each provincial com? 
mittee, by the latter severally to the secretaries 
of the district and county committees 'm the pro- 
vince, by these secretaries to those of the upper 
baroffiials, and thus downward through the lower 
baronial to the i^imple. societies. 

The military organization was grafted on the 
civil of tbi$ artfully framed union, The jjecrcr 
tary of each of the simple societies was its nonw 
commissioned officer, serjeatrt, ox wrporal; the 



^ IRISH REBELLIOX. 33 

delegate of five simple societies to a lower baro- 
nial conitnittee was commonly captain over these 
five, that is, of a company of sixty men ; and 
the delegate of ten lower baronial to an upper or 
district committee, was generally colonel, or 
commander of a battalion of six hundred men, 
composed of the fifty simple societies under the 
jBuperintcndence of this tipper committee. Out 
of three persons, whose names were transmitted 
forthat purpose, from the colonels of each county 
to the directory, one was appointed by this ex- 
ecutive body to act as adjutant-general of that 
county, to receive and communicate all military 
orders from the head of the union to the officer^ 
under his jurisdiction. — ^To complete the scheme 
of warlike preparation, a military committee, 
instituted in the beginning of the year 1798, and 
appointed by the directory, had its task assigned 
to contrive plans for the direction of .the national 
force, either for the purposes of unaided rebellion, 
or co-operation with an invading French army, 
as occasion should require. Ordeis were issued 
that the members of the union should furnish 
themselves, where their circumstances allowed it, 
with fire-arms — where not, with pikes. To form 
a pecuniary fund for the various expences of this 
great revolutionary machine, monthly subscrip- 
tions, according to the zeal and ability of the 
iubscribers, were collected in the several societies. 



^ HlSTORr Of TH£ » 

and treasufers aprpointed by suffrage for their 
<rolIection stttd disbursement. * 
- From this fund wei-e supplied the demands of 
the emissaries commissioned to extend the union, 
0f these, (Considerable numbers were dispatched 
into the southern and western coiinties, in the^ 
beginning and course of 179T, wli^re, though 
mariy had been stv^brn into the union, little pro^ 
gress for the effectual promotion 6f the system 
had been made before the autumn of 17 9&; and 
so little wais made for some time after^ that in 
May, ^797, at the eve of an intended insurrec- 
tion, the strength of the association lay, exclu^* 
eively <>( Uhter, chiefly in the metropolis and tho 
neighbouring counties of Dublih, Kildare, Meath, 
Westmeath, and King's county. This body of 
political missioners received instructions to woik 
on the passions, the pi^judices, and feelings of 
those to whom they should address themselves. 
^ Tlie lower classes were informed that by a re-* 
Tolution, which, in the establishment of a demo^ 
cratic^ystem of government, would give universal 
suffrage and equal rights^ their; condition would 
be exalted and. rendered far more comfortable. 
^ Great pains were taken, contrary to the oath and 
. original plan of United Irishmen, to revive thq 

* Appendix to the report, Sec, No. 3 1 . Report of the secret 
committee of the house of lords, 8vo. 17p8, p. 6— rp. See aho 
iho trials of Henry and John ^heares, Joha Mac C>pn, OUv^jp 
Bpqd, ap4 William Michael Byrne, 



old religious hatred of the Romanists, who con- 
stitute the great mass of the people, where these 
emissaries were sent, against their protestant fel- 
low-subjfects. To rouse this numeroiis body by 
-terror and resfsntment into a preparation for hos- 
tility, which the chiefs of the Union might hope 
to turn to their own purpose^ dreadful accounts 
were invented and industriously propagated con-* 
cerning thp designs of the Orange association, 
the members of which were asserted to have en- 
tered into engagements to exterminate the Ro^ 
xnanists, to wade knee-deep, or even, if occasion 
should require, to ride saddle-deep in their blood ; 
and, to impress the belief of this horriWe false* 
hood, fabricated resolutions of Orangemen were 
printed and dispersed. Reports were from tinie to 
time cirjculated of intended nocturnal massacres of 
the Romanists by large troops of protestants; and 
such was the immediate effect, that the terrified in^ 
habitants of the districts where these reports wer$ 
spread, fled from their houses at the approach of 
night, and lay concealed in the fields till morning* 
Societies of Orangemen took their first rise in 
the county of Armagh, where a mortal feud, 
originating, as it is said, from a private quarrel, * 
}iad subsisted since the year 1785, between the 
Jo west class of the presbyterians and Romranists.- 
!The former, denominated peep-^of-day boys, from 
their appearing assembled in bands frequently 
9ikout the dawUa having gained the superiority j 



36 HISTORY OF TKB 

the latter associated under the title of defenderSj^ 
and seem to have been regularly organized in the 
year 1789. Among the outrages perpetrated by 
these Romanists was the assassination of a family 
of thename of Barclay, at a place called Forkhill, 
in the above-mentioned county, in the year 1 79 ' •. 
The master of the family who had been appointed 
to preside over a newly endowed protestanfe 
school, his wife, and his brother-in-law, the two 
latter of whom died of their wounds, were maimed 
in a horrid manner; the first by the amputation 
of his fingers and part of his tongue : the second, 
^ beautiful young woman, by the amputation of 
her breasts, her tongue, and the calves of her 
legs; and the third by a similar mutilation. For 
self-preservation agaiqst this religious confede-- 
racy, which had spread itself widely through the 
neighbouring counties, the protestants of the 
county of Armagh began at length, in the latter 
part of thpyear 1795, to form associations under 
the denomination of Ormigemeriy a denomination 
derived from King William the Third, Prince of 
Orange, who had rescued the protestants of IrcT 
land by his arms, and givexa them that ^cendency 
which they have since maintained. After, the 
loss of many lives on both sides in the contest, 
the Orangemen obtained ^ decided superiority, 
and, as must be expected, the lower sort abused 
t:heir victory, expelling from their houses and 
lands great n^xmbcrs of the opppsite |)arty, wha 



iRISk REBELLIOZfi S7 

^nerally took refuge in Gonnaught. This po* 
litical association of protestants was diffused in 
I797y into the coun'ty of Monaghan, other parts 
of Ulster, some towns in Leinster, and particu- 
larly the metropolis, where it became general in 
the beginning of the following year. Many men 
of considerable rank had now entered into this 
confederate body, the object of which was, in a 
printed publication, declared to be the preserva- 
tion of public order, of the existing system of 
government, and the protection of all persons 
who conducted themselves with loyalty, without 
regard to differences of religion. They made 
the most solemn protestation, that to injure any 
person on account of his religious opinion never 
entered their hearts. But so successful were 
the agents of revolt in their endeavours to coun- 
teract this protestation, that it gained no credit 
with the lower classes of Romanists. I took once 
in particular jan Opportunity to read the declara- 
tion to a number of my neighbours, of this de- 
scription, adding some comments from myself 
to pei-suade them into a belief of its sincerity. 
They said among themselves, ** see there now; 
•' it is not as we were told ;'* and other words to 
the same purpose; and all seemed satisfied that 
they had been deceived. Yet, when I met some 
of them the follo\ving day, and spoke on the 
subject, they said that no reliance could be placed 
in such declarations, as Orangemen hud entered 



58 HISTOftT OF THE 

into engageilients, one with another, which WCft 
kept profoundly secret from iall other people. 

The mutual distrust and hostility of mind, of 
protestants and Romanists, was greatly aug- 
mented by the publication, in I797y of a pastoraJ 
letter of Dr. Hussey, Roman catholic bishop of 
Waterford. In this he treats theprotestants with 
great insolence, as a contemptible sect, which 
must soon have an end; he accuses the protes- 
tants of practices of which they were not, and 
are not guilty, and exhorts the catholic clergy 
not to suffer, under pain of excommunication, 
the children of their parishioners to mix with 
protestants in places of education. The imme- 
diate effect of this was an augmentation of bi- 
gotry among the Romanists, the withdrawing of 
then* children from protestant schools to avoid 
the infection of hei-esy, and a general separation 
of the two sects. Many Roman catholic gen- 
tlemen, I find now, affirm, that the bishop was en- 
couraged, if not instigated, by theBritish ministry^ 
to cause dissention among the Irish ; and allege 
for proof, that he has been since cherished by the 
ministry. Whether or not this may have foun- 
dation, i am not qualified to form a judgment. 

As from the exorbitant rents at which the 
lands of Ireland are in general set, on account of 
the great monopolies of land, entaik, settlements, 
and bad customs, the payment of tithes, which 
are so unfortunately modified as to rest their 



^eigKt almost exclusively on tillage, appears to 
the c6ttagCT, (exhausted by the demands of hig 
landlord and the services and douceurs exacted 
by his landlord's- agent,)* an almost intolerable 
grievance^ the agitators of revolution spoke mpst 
forcibly t6 the feelings of the peasantry on that 
subject, particularly in the counties of Cork and 
Waterford, where the discontent on this account 
is greatest, representing the establishment of a 
commonwealth to include, by necessary conse*- 
quence, the total abolition of this hated species 
of rent. Why tithes, however, with which the 
clergy have been endowed *' by a title more an- 
*^ cient by ages than the title of any subject of 
*' this, or any other kingdom in Europe, to his 

* I have not in this intended offence to any individual ; yet 
I am told that many are offended, and allege in return that the 
lands are not set high by the owners of estates, but by their 
f enabts^ who reset lands gn advanced rents. Tenants undoubt* 
edly raise the rents of lands, because they raise the real value of 
them by manuring and other improvements. Let us fo; eluci- 
dation, suppose tha^ a man has taken a hundred acres of land at 
9. guinea an acre, and has expended a thousand pounds in its 
improvement, which, "at the rate of te^ pounds an acre, for 
4n'apure alone, is not extravagant in Some parts of Ireland. 
When convenience or necessity causes him to remove, is he tp 
have no profit rent for his money and personal attention? 
Probably the person to whom he sets this ground has a much 
l)etter bargain thail himself, as the sub- ten ant has no fees nor 
douceurs to pay to an agent, and has the land prepared for a 
;ijUick return of profit. When the lease expires, the advanced 
rent goes to the holder of the estate, who ultimately enjoys all 
the advantage of the tenant's money and labour. 



40 HISTOitT OF THE 

" particular landed estate."* should be considefe^ 
^s a fitter object of confiscation, or abolition^ 
than the other species of rent, is a question for 
revolutionists to answer. If they think so be- 
cause the property of this descends not by here- 
ditary right from father to son, like a private 
estate, but by another mode of succession, the 
appointment of meii to offices in the religious 
establishment ; let them consider that about a 
third of the tithes of Ireland belong to laymen, 
and is inherited in the same manner as the other 
kind of rent. If the mode, by which alone tithes 
are allowed by law to be levied, is T>lameable, 
this may be a reason for a new modification or 
commutation ; but cannot be a reason why one 
denomination of men should be deprived of their 
property, and those of another denomination, 
who have far less need of it, and who would in 
general do nothing for it, the owners of estates, 
should be endowed with it : for certainly au 
* abolition of tithes, which in general equal not 
the twentieth part of the other species of rent, 
could bring only a temporary relief to the pea- 
santry, unless together with the abolition, the 
legislature should enact that the tenants on 
all estates should continue to hold their lands, 
without increase of rent, for ever, or for a long 
term of years ; as otherwise, on the expiration of 
each lease, the landlord would charge the full value 

* Duigcnan's State of Ireland, p. 58« 



tE>f the tithe, in addition to the ordihaty ycnty 
with which alone he must have contented him- 
self if the land had remained still subject to tithe^ 
We are not, however, to regard republican 
revolutionists as the only description of men 
who consider the revenues of the church as a 
fit object of depredation. Of this the pos* 
session of a third of the tithes of the king-' 
dom, acquired under the old estabBshed mo- 
narchy, by laymen, may perhaps be some 
proof. The glebes of many parishes have in 
times of profound peace been surreptitiously 
curtailed, or totally absorbed in the surrounding 
estates of the gentry. I have been astonished 
at hearing certain gentlemen declaim with most 
violent invectives against, the French revolu- 
tionists, for their plundering of ecclesiastical 
property, while, themselves were possessed of 
glebes, the property of the church, which they 
were determined by every chicane of law to de- 
tain from the rightful owners. But, though the 
clergy may complain of the usurpation of so 
great a portion of revenue, long appropriated to 
the church, yet perhaps to the possession of 
tithes by laymen may the clerical order ascribe, 
in some degree, its permission to retain the rest. 
Men of estates and influence, Avho would most 
willingly vote for the abolition of this kind of 
rent, if it belonged exclusively to the ecclesi- 
astical establishment, are prevented from that 



43^ m^toR** Of tMfi ^ 

Ineasufe 1by $elf*interest, when thetnsetvc'S art 
j)roprietors of iithes. that this must Jbe the castf 
can hardly b^ doubted, when we see some men 
of fortune so utterly averse to the payment of 
tithes to the clergy, while they carefully exact 
those which are their own property, that they 
avoid, much to their own loss, the tillage of the 
lands which they immediately occupy, lest they 
should augment the revenue of the clergyman; 
Of this i mean to give some instances in another 
publiciation. . , 

As the emissaries of the union interested the 
feelings of the peasantry with respect to tithes, 
«o also thfy endeavoured to prejudice the opi* 
nions of the laity in general against the hierarchy 
and other parts of the ecclesiastical establish* 
ment. They represented that, while tlie revenues 
of the Irish prelates amounted collectively to 
above eighty thousand pounds ayear, besides large 
«ums levied as fines on the leases of their lands ; 
and while the revenues of chapters and parochial 
clergy amounted to above seven hundred thou* 
:sand pounds annually*, the vast expences of this 
establishment were useless for the purposes of re- 

* Doctor Duigelian in his State of Ireland, (London, 1/99, 
|)age 00) supposes the whole revenues of the church of every 
nature scarcely to airvount to two hundred thousand pounds a 
year, I have in another work, (Gordon's Terraquea, Vol. iiu 
p. 317, 318) supposed them at above eight hundred thoiisand, 
including impropriate tithes. Perhaps both suppositions ipd/ 



misH HEBtLLiotfr. '49 

ligion, or the encouragement or support of lite- 
' rature ; smCe preferments were given solely ftom 
temporal or political motives, without regard to 
moral character or literary merit ; and since the 
religious offices of the church were performed for 
about sixty thousand pounds a j^ear, by a number 
- of curates who laboured in penury and consequent 
contempt, for salaries, which compared to thft 
I'evciiuesof the prelates, demonstrated a scandal- 
ous inequality, inversely proportionate to th^ 
utility of their employments, f To enter into 
any defence of the eccleskbtical establishment it 
not my object here, nor is this a fit place. AH 
human regulations are liable to abuse ; and we 
must admit that attention to the encouragement 
of literature and exemplary conduct in the 
parochial clergy in each diocese, or the neglect 
of patronage to these qualifications essentially 

be wide of the reality. I have* been long endeavouring to gat» 
accurate information on this subject, for an intended publication^ 
the present State of the Church of Ireland, vthich, when corn* 
pleted, will be given to the public. 

Doctor Duigenan's authority is certainly of no small weight, 
and I take this opportunity of observing, that the clergy of th* 
established church owe the highest gratitude to this gentleman 
for his repeated exertions in their favourl 

+ By an act of parliament since made, bishops are empowered 
to raise the salaries of curates to seventy-five pounds a year ; 
and in some cases, where glebe-houses are unoccupied by the 
rectors, to ninety ; whereas formerly fifty pound* only,, cor- 
stitiited in general the annual isAsjj, 



44 fiiStORY 6f thb 

tieciessary for the honour of the eStablishefl 
church, depends on the personal character of the 
bishop. Hence family interest, and political coo* 
siderations, predominate far Ifess in respect of 
clerical promotions in some dioceses thim in 
others. The remedy^ hOwevbr, proposed by some, 
the appointment to ecclesiastical benefices by 
popular election in the several parishes^ would 
place affairs in a, far Worse condition. In the 
present state of landed, property a pfOpular elecr 
tion would virtually give the al;rsolute nomination 
of the rector to the squire, or landlord, of the 
parish ; in whidi case family interest would alone 
be considered, or sometimes perhaps qualifica- 
tions little requisite for tlie proper discharge of 
ckrical duties j for instance, the qualifications 
of a jolly pot^companion, a jovial singer, or .a 
keen huntsman. We should then see gentlemen 
literally hunting for preferment j of which a few, 
even at present^ are not Without accusation.* 
If, which Is by tio means to be e:kpected, th6 
state of landed property should be so altered that 

* An ^dmir^ble and nlost laudable instance of lay patronage, 
was exhibited some years ago, by the Right Honourable David 
Latouche, who conferred the benefice of Clonnegall, worth six 
hundred pounds a year, in the diocese of Ferns, merely as St 
compensation for his long service as curate, on the fteverend" 
John Browne, with whom he had not had the least previous 
acqu^ntance or connexion. Mr. Latouche had actually paid 
a high purchac6 for the presentation. 



IRISH REBELLION. AS 

pj^roqhial elections might be popular in fact, aa 
%viell as in name, the suffrages of the parishionera 
being left without control, real merit, always un- 
assuming and incapable of stooping to mean 
artifice, would have little chance of success, ia 
competition with presumptuous effiontery and 
low intrigue, among meii ill fitted to form a right 
judgment in such a case, and easily deceived 

by impudent pretension^ and crafty manage- 
ment. 

Though the liberty of the press had been cir- 
cumscribed much by the precautions of the legist ^ 
lature, means were found still to employ this 
engine to the augmentation of the popular dis- 
content, and disposition to sybvert the esta^ 
Wished government. Two papers, called the n 
Northern Star and the Piress, were printed in 
succession for that purpose, and industriously 
circulated. The former, instituted at Belfast, in 
the summer of 1797, was not suppressed other- 
wise than simply by an act of military execution j 
a party of soldiers taking possession of the print-* 
ing-office and destroy ipg the types; the latter, 
established in Dublin toward the close of tho<^ 
$m\G year, and afterwards, (in consequence of 
a new law,) published under the xi^me of Arthur 
O'Connor, as proprietor, or the person respon*^, 
«ible for its contei^ts, who is now known to have 
)>een then a member of the Irish directory, wa$ 
ll^Jerdicted b)^ another act of parliam^flt, vb^gj^ 



461 HISTORT or THE 

has confined the liberty of printing and publish-i* 
ing within very narrow limits. 

Another paper, *^ The Union Star appeared at 
/• regular periods, was printed on oneside of the 
^* paper to fit it for being pasted on walls, and 
^ frequently second editions were published of 
*' the same numbers. It chiefly consisted of 
'* names and abusive characters of persons sup^* 
" posed to have been informers against United 
** Irishmen, or active opposers of their designs ; 
'^ and to such lists were generally ' added the 
<* most furious exhortations to the populace to 
^* rise and take vengeance on their oppressors."* 
To shew the spirit of this paper, privately printed* 
and industriously circulated, in which was recom- 
mended in plain terms the assassination of those 
whom the Union deemed enemies of their coun- 
try, the following extract may be sufficient; 
^' Let the indignation of man be raised against 
^* the impious wretch who profanely assumes the 
*^ title of reigning by the grace ofGod, and \m* 
*' pudently tells the world he can do no wrong-^ 
*^ Irishmen! Is granting a patent, and offering 
. ^' pr£mium;s to murderers, ito depopulate your 
*< country, and take your properties, no wrong? 
^' Is taking part of the spoil, no wrong ? Is the 
•"foreign despot incapable of wrong, wha 
'^ sharpens the sword that deprives you of life^ 

• Appendix to the report, &c. No. 27* 



IRISH REBELLItW. Vf 

*' and exposes your children to povert and all 
/' its consequent calamities? Oh, mar!. or ra-^ 
^^ thef less, O king ! will the smothered^ groans 
*^ of my countrymen, who in thy nane fill the 
'/ innumerable dungeons you have nade, fw 
*^ asserting the rights of ma^i, be consdered no 
*^ wrongs? Will enlightened Irishmei believe 
^^ you incapable of wrong, who offer upthcinost 
*' amiable of mankind daily on the scaffold, or the 
*^ gibbet, to thy insatiable ambition ? Is burn- 
*^ ing the villages of what you call your people, 
1^ and" shooting the trembling sufferers, no 
y wrong? Is taking the church into, partner-* 
^* ship, and encouraging its idle and voluptu- 
^y ous drones to despoil industry of its reward, 
*^ and teach a lying doctrine to sanction their 
*' injustice, no wrong? Arc the continual wars 
^^ youengender and provoke, to destroy tnan- 
*^ kind, no wrong? Go, impious blasphemer, 
*^ apcl your hypocritical sorcerers, to the fate, 
^^ philosophy, justice, and liberty consign thee, 
^^ It is inevitable.; thy impositions are detected, 
*^ Thy kind have been brought to justice* The 
♦^ first professor of thy trade has recently bled 
^^ for the crimes of the craft: his idle and -vile 
^' follower, who escaped the national axe, are 
^* walking memorials of justice, begging a miser* 
v*^ able livelihood over those countries, whose 
^' tottering thrones encourage but an uncertain 
^* asylum, Ere the grave, which is . opening 



4S fclSTOIiy OF THK 

^^ for tly despised person embosoms thee, make 
" one atonement for the vices of thy predeces- 
** sors; esist not the claims of a people reduced 
'* to evey nlisery; in: thy name give back the 
** propcties that thy nation wrested from a 
'1 sufFerhg people; and let the descendents of 
'* those English ruffians restore to Irishmen their 
'* country, and to their country, liberty: 'tis 
^' rather late to trifle ; one fortunate breeze may 
^* do it J and then, woe to him who was a tyrant, 
** or who is unjuit !"=* 

Of the Press — which was conducted in a 
superior style, and with less violence, yet with 
ISO much intemperance as to accelerate its ruin, 
together with a rigid restriction of newspaper 
publications, I shall give only this extract, 
** The rule of right is a rule that in morals 
" should w\&v vary ; but in these kingdoms to 
*' preach up royaUsm is the best rule ; and the 
*^ wisdom of government protects thpsp wha 
" embrace this right side of the quest jon, while 
•' it punishes with equal rectitude those M'ho 
•* maintained that a republic is the only right 
^^ form of .government : — Let us apply this rule 
^^ to the continent. France is not a nation of 
♦^ fools; and some among them have as much 
^* sense (God forgive them) as * * * ♦ *, — but 
*^ no matter. The fools of France tell you th^^ 

♦ Xppendp; to the report, &p. No. 27^ 



'^ monarchy is a coat of arms, whose supporters 
*V are the church and th6 aristocracy — Us crest, 
** the bloody hand — smd its motto jOdiprofanum 
'*' valgus; butthat democracy, not possessing 
** these rampant wits is the a^gis of wisdom, 
*' whose right rule should govern the worlds 
'* Now these are two rules of rights both ap-^^ 
*^ pearing on opposite principles — both ^ pro- 
*^ nounced to be the Very best for the govern- 
*' meiit of man, and each declared superior to 
'^ the other in excellence ; yet a man shajl be 
" punished alternately for observing this or 
^* that, according to the air which he breathes."* 
Such were the effects of the various engines 
of the union, that* before the end of the year 
1797j the peasantry in the middle and southern 
counties of Ireland were generally sworn into 
the conspiracy, and prq^aring for insurrection. 
When the liberty of publication in the news-* 
papers was, by new acts of parliament, so nar- 
rowly circumscribed as no longer to admit 
United Irishmen to avail themselves of this most 
valuable channel of communication, hand-bills 
were privately printed and dispersed for the con^ 
veyance of instructions and exhortations. By 
this and the oral modes of communication, 
instructions were conveyed through the whole 
body of the association to abstain from spirituous 
liquors, that the national consumption thereof 
* Appendix to the report, &c. No, 27. 



40 HISTORY OF THE 

might be diminished, and consequently thi 
revenue and strength of government, arising 
from that great subject of excise. In one of 
the circular hand-bills, a hint of an approaching 
necessity of insurrection is followed by these 
words : " Iti the preparative interim let sobriety 
^^ be national and unchangeable ; by abstaining 
/'* totally ftom the use of spirituous liquors you 
** will destroy the excise, which is the only 
** branch of revenue remaining, whence is pro- 
*' duced the principal strengthof gomrnment ; you 
*^ willprevent the distillation of grain, which 
*^ consumes near double the quantity that is 
*^ otherwise used for the necessaries of life; you 
*^ will consequently . makff bread one-third 
*' cheaper, benefit the community, and embarrass 
**your enemies."* The leaders of the union 
might have also h^l in view the advantages of 
sobriety in its members for the promotion of its 
ends ; as without it neither the spcrets entrusted 
to the lower classes could be supposed so secure, 
nor their co-operation so regular and effectual 
when an order should be issued to take arms. 
This instruction was obeyed so well, that a 
striking change was quickly perceived in the 
generality of the common people from drunk- 
enness to sobriety— a change whioh, for my 
part, I at first attributed to another cause, the 
fear of exposing themselves to the dagger of 
* Appendix to the report, &c. No* 25, 



IRISH REKELLIOK^i 51 

arrest by the king's troops, who had orders to 
stop all persona after a certain hour of the night* 
However blameable the purpose of the United 
Irish leaders in this instruction, this particular 
step taken to promote that purpose is not to be 
Regretted ; and the truest loyalists must wish its 
effect permanent, since any defect of royal 
revenue thereby occasioned could be amply 
supplied from other sources, in consequence of 
the habits of sobriety and order among the lower 
people, with which economy and industry have 
a natural connection* 

Another instruction given with a design to 
embarrass government, with respect to the pub- 
lic revenue, could be attended with no such 
good influence. This was a caution against the 
purchase of the quit rents of the crown, which 
were to be sold for the raising of supplies, and 
against the acceptance of bank-notes, or paper 
money, in place of coin, in pecuniary dealings* 
With this design* were distributed hand-bilfs, 
contrived for the depreciation of government 
securities in general -rOne of these, addressed 
in the name of the United Irishmen to the 
landed and monied interests of Ireland, runs ia 
these words: ^^ Whereas it has been proposed 
** by the chancellor of the excbecqucf to sell the 
" quit rents of the crown, in order to raise 
*^ new supplies :for the prosecution of this 
*/ unjust, unnecessAryi au4 ruinous war: nov 



k 



Si HISTORT OF THE 

*^ we, the tJnited Irishmen, irhpelled by a sense ' 
** of public duty, and sincere regard to the 
^- rights of property^ think fit to give you thia 
" public caution, that no such frayduient trans- 
*^ action, cohsuming by anticipation the resources^ 
^^ and future revenues of the nation, will be 
" sufficient to stand good in the event of a 
** revolution and a free legislature ; a fair aiid 
*^solid bargain must have the sanction of due 
*^ authority : but this, as well: as every other 
** loan or contract, now in agitation, is in itself 
*' invalidated by the nefariousness of its objecly 
^* and the incompetency of the present parlia- 
*^ ment to bind the nation by atiy'act whatsoever, 
"as it is notorious to the whole world that it 
'^ Was named by the crown under the terrors of 
!^ martial la^; that there exists in it no freedom: 
^' of action — but that it is the bought base 
** instrument of supporting an exterminating 
'* government and foreign dominion. Afttr 
'^ this^ let the dupes blame themselves.^ 
. Of a hand-bill distributed with design to ob- 
struct the circulation of bank-notes, and termed 
a caution to the brethren, the following is an 
extract: '^ Those appointed by you to super- 
V intend your interests, have from time to time 
*^sent you such advice or information as they 
** were enabled, from reflection or enquiry, to 
**. offer for ybur advantage and the general good. 
^* Still actuated^ by the s^e principle of zeal 



IRISH EEBELLIOir. Ji3 

^^ and fidelity, they deem it their duty to caution 
■^^yott against the immense quantity of bank- 
*' notes, which government is fabricating without 
^^ bounds. We need not tell you that the value of 
' ^' any bank-note rests upon the credit of him who 
*^ issues it And in our opinion, the issuer of 
^^ this paper is a bankrupt, who, in all likelihood, 
" must shortly shut up and run away. The pre- 
^* sent convenience of circulation will be but poor 
^^ amends for the subsequent beggary an^ ruin 
^^ it' will bring on the holders ; foryou know that 
'^itwiil be waste^paper, and must stop some 
" where, as soon as there is a bursty. and tliat the 
"possessor (God help him) will be robbed of so 
"much property as he has taken it for."* In 
'consequence * of this monition the members of 
the union, afid those who were influenced by 
them, declined the acceptance of this paper 
motley, and great inconvenience was felt in 
pecuniary transactions ; but the circulation was 
forced, for the tender of bank-notes amounted 
to l^al payment, the rejection of which can- 
celled the debt; and those who refused to part 
with their goods for money jof this description, 
were liable to be heavily amerced byT:he quar- 
tering of soldiers on their houses. 

Hand-bills also were employed to assist the 
emissaries in attempts to seduce the army — 
attenipts which had commenced so early as thq. 
♦ Aj^ndix to the report^ &c. No, 28. 



^1, 



64f felSTORY OF THE - 

year 1792, but which were, by the active circum^ , 
spection of government, particularly that* most 
wise measure of augmenting the pay of the 
military, rendered abortive. Of one of these 
distributed papers, signed Skamroc, dated the 
27th of March, 1798, and addressed from 
Westmeath to the soldiers of Ireland, calculated 
to interest the feelings of these men, the fol- 
lowing is an extract. ^^ My countrymen, wtet 
** can you say when you hear of scenes of blood 
** acting on the spot where your native hamlets 
** once stood, but now no more : their owners, 
^' your friends, either sent to seek repose in thb - 
*- grave by the hands of these villainous Orange 
** murderers, or immured in the damp and dreary 
^'dungeons of the bastiles of this country:'' 
. ^* pining in chill despondency, waiting for a 
*^ trial seldom obtained, and when obtained, 
^* acquitted, after years of dreary solitary conr- 
^* finement 1! Some hurried on board prison- 
^* ships — some actually transported to the set- • 
<^ tlements on the coast .of Africa — others sent 
^* to serve in the West Indies, certain victims to 
<* the climate, or left to rot, chained in the hold 
<* of a .filthy coasting vessel! Your wives 
" despoiled to gratify the insatiable lust c£ 
^* these ravishers !— And these scenes, my coun- 
*^ trymen,^suflFered to go unpunished by those 
^^ in power, whom you ^ protect ; to who^e 
^^ frowns yo\ir array adds terror j to whom yoi\ 



miSH REBELLION. 55 

^^ give your isupport : for unless you please, they 
*' vanish ; without your protection these despots 
'^'faU — these desolators, that eacJi day refine oa 
*' such bloody deed§, would perish, and your 
** country be free. My brave countrymen ! do 
*' not let th<e world call us dastards: no, let us 
** shew tli^ wd'ld Aye are men, aiKl, above all, 
** that w^ are Irishmen. Let every man among 
^^ you feel the injuries your country, yourselves 
** have suffered; the insults you have received, 
/^ the stripes that have been dealt with. an un- 
' *' merciful hand on those Jbrave comrades who 
^- dared to think and feel for their country— 
*^ If you do, the glorious work will be complete, 
^' and in the unio^ of the citizen and his brave 
^' fcUow-soldier, the world (hitherto taught to 
^' look down upon us with contempt) will see 
^' that we can emancipate our country ; Ave will 
*^ convince surrounding nations that Irish sol- 
'* diers have avowed and adopted a maxim they 
•^ will maintain, or perish — ^namely, that every 
*^ man should be a soldier in defence of his liberty^ 
*' but nofie to take away the liberty of others."* 
While every engine of ^internal opposition 
against government was put in .motion, the Irish 
directory maintained a constant intercourse with 
the French, whose aid for the accomplishment 
of the revolution was eartiestly solicited. After 
several more early communications between the 
* Ap^en^ix to the report, &c» No. 30* 



56 HISTORY OF 'THE 

leading membets of the union and those of the 
French government, by the medium of some 
Irish fugitive^ at Paris, a formal intimation in 
1796, as I have already mentioned, was given 
by one of those fugitives, supposed to be Theo- 
hald' Wolfe. Tone, that, on a representation of 
. the state affairs, the French directory had come 
to a resolution to send a force into Ireland, for 
the purpose of co-operating with that of the 
conspirators. Acquiescing in this proposal, . 
after an extraordinary meeting for its conside- 
Tation, the chiefs .of the conspiracy sent with 
this advice a messenger, said to be Lord Edward 
Fitzgerald, who, accompanied by Arthur O'Con- 
nor, went by Hamburgh to Switzerland, where 
near the French frontier, he met Hoche, this 
French general^ and is thought to have thf^re 
cotacerted with him the plan of operation. In 
the October of the same year an accredited 
jnessenger arrived in Ireland from France, 
Announcing the design of invasion with an army 
of fifteen thousand men, which was attempted 
near the end of the following December, in the 
abortive expedition to the bay of Bantry. To 
solicit the assistance of another armament from 
France, which had been expected after the 
-failure of the first, a confidential agent, named 
Lewins, was deputed, who, leaving London iti 
tisLYch^ ] 797, and passing through Hamburgh; 
^rived about the end of May, in Paris, where 



IRISH flEBELLIOir, 57 

he afterwards remained as the ambassador of the 
Irish Union to the French directory. 

From a fear that a premature insurrection, 
unaided from abroad, the suppression of which 
.might ruin J their scheme, should be forced by 
the vigorous measures, already related, adopted 
ty government in the province of Ulster — a 
'most confidential mfeml^er of the directory, 
Ooctor . William James M^Nevin, who had 
fected as the secretary of this ruling comniittee, 
was, at the end of June, in the same year, sent 
with iirdeBs to press the French government, 
-with redoubled earnestness for immediate aid.. 
Meeting at' Hamburgh with an agent of the 
^French* republic, and finding some difficulty in 
the procuring ^ of a passport, M'Nevin trans- 
mitted a memorial by thi^agent to Paris, where 
he' himself afterwards delivered a second, having 
obtained ' permission to. proceed on his journey. 
In the fAriiier of these memoirs were made 4 
statement of the condition of the United Irish, 
and of the kingdom in general, for the recep- 
tion of the French auxiliaries; a promise of re- 
imbursement to the French government^ of its 
expences in the emancipation of Ireland, and a 
'lieniand 6f a body of troops ndt exceeding ten 
thousand men, nor falling short of five thour 
■^Sa-nd, with artillery, ammunition,, and arms for 
the supply of the insurgents. In the latter wa$- 
adduced every- argument which the writer con? 



$9 . HXSTORr OV I'HB 

ceived, for the hastening of the expedition. A 
request, whiph entirely failed,, was abo made, by^ 
the Irish negociators, of a loan of half a roillion, 
or at least three hundred thousand pounds, from 
France and Spain, successively, on the security 
of the ecclesiastical and other lands destined for 
confiscation by the r^voli^tionists.* The asi^ 
tance, however, of a military force was con- 
ceded, and an army much greater th^n had bee* 
requested, consisting of fifteen thousand in«q| 
was embarked fpr this purpose in a Putch ^et 
at the Texel, upder the command , of Cxenerftl 
Daendellsj^but the fear of the British navy, 
superior in strength^ opcasioned a sudden d#- 
barkatioq pf these troops; and when, contrary 
ta the judgment of its admir^, this armament 
was obliged to sail, at the ipstance of the Frepph 
directory, it was totally defeated on the eleventh 
of October, 1797, by a squadroa of BritisJi 
vessels yi^cler the cpmmand of Lord Vjscoupt 
Duncan, 

StiU after this disappointment, hopes of new 
succours ffom France were sedulously encoiji- 
jaged, and the members of the union admo- 
ni^h^d to be in a stat^ of preparation to receive 
them, In February, 1798, instructions in d^ 
tail were is&ued from the military committee (o 
the adjutant-generals, concerning the modes pf 
preparing for open warfare against governments 
* Appendix to tlie report, &c. No, ^1. 



• t 



IRISH JIEBELLIOK. 59 

and to the several regiments concerning their 
*^rms and appointments. — To extend the orga- 
nization, to augment the military stores, and to 
add in every way to the strength of the conspi- 
racy, continued to be the immediate object of 
its partisans till the arrival of their allies ; and 
the system of terror, by nocturnal plundering 
of arms, individual assassination, and other 
kinds of outrage, which had been adopted in 
' the north, was put in practice in the south. 
To give a catalogue of ^11 the particular acts of 
atrocity which have come within jjiy knowledge, 
committed on obnoxious pei-sons, would trespass 
on the reader's p^ience, and add very little to 
his information. I shall mention one, a^ au 
instance, which happened not many miles from 
my place of*iabode, ' The stacks of corn and the 
offices of a gentlewoman named Sherwood, ne^r 
Carnew, in the county of Wicklow, whose 
family were in the habit of speaking in very iti- 
temperate language against the Romanists, were 
set on fire at once in the night by persons mi- 
kpown^ and wholly consumed, wj^li twnty 
cows, beside horses and other cattle, th^ bellow* 
ings of which, amid the flames, were truly hor- 
rible. The dwellingrhouse, with its inhabitants, 
would have probably shared the same fate, if the 
- fire could have communicated to it on the out- 
side, from which it wai protected by. the slated 



"6& HISTOEY OF THE , 

But while on one side the chiefs of the United 
Irish proceeded in their plans, with a resolutioa 
^to avoid, if possible, an insurrection, till by th© 
laniding of the French aqxiliaries, or some other fer 
vourable event, their prospect of success might be 
nearly certain, or highly probable, the govern- 
ment, on the other, was determined to disorga- 
nize their system, if possible, and to destroy the 
strength of the conspiracy, before such an event 
should occur. After the proclaiming of many 
districts in the southern an'd midland counties, 
'the imprisonment and transportation of many 
persons, and other acts of power, a very severe 
"wound was inflicted on the union by the arrest 
of the thirteen members composing the provin- 
cial committee of Leinster, with other principals 
of the conspiracy, at the house of Oliver Bond 
of Bridge-street, in 'Dublin, on the 12th df 
March, This arrest was grounded on the infor- 
mation of Thomas Heynolds, a Roman catholic 
gentleman, of a place called Kilkea-castle, in the 
county of Kildare, colonel of an United Irish re- 
giment, treasurer of the county of- Kildare, and 
provincial delegate for Leinster, who having tra- 
velled in the same carriage with William Cope, 
a wealthy and respectable merchant of Merrion- 
square, in Dublin, about the twenty-fifth of the 
preceding month, had been induced by the ar- 
guments of that gentleman, and the picture 
which he drew of the horrors of a revolutionary 



IWSH REBELWOl^. 6l 

war in Ireland, to disclose for the use of govern* 
ment what he knew of the conspiracy — pretend- 
ing, however, to receive from time to time bis' 
information: from another person, not to be him- 
setf the original informer. — In this arrest were 
included the most able and active leaders of the 
imion — ^Thomas Addis Emmet, a lawyer of prime 
abilities ; Doctor William James M'Nevin ; Ar- 
thur O'Connor, and Oliver Bond* The vacan- 
cies made in the directory and elsewhere, by the 
ntiziiTe of these and other persons, were quickly 
filled, but with men less fit for the arduous at- 
tempt of overturning an old government, and 
fetablishing a new. To prevent a despondency 
among the members of the union on this occasion, 
a hand-bill, dated on St. Patrick's day, the seven 
teenth of March, was distributed, of which the 
following is an extract. 

'* For us, the keen but momentary anxiety, oc- 
*' casioned by the situation of our invaluable 
" friends, subsided, on learning all the circum- 
** stances of the case, intoacalmtrancjyillity, acon- 
^' soling conviction of mind, that they are as ^afe^s 
*^ innocence can make them now ; ^nd to these 
^* sentiments were quickly added a redoubled 
" energy, a tenfold activity of exertion, which 
*^ has already produced the happiest effects. I7?c 

* * organization of the capital is perfect. No vacan - 

* cies existing, arratigements have been made,: 
*^ and are still making, to secar.e for owr oppres- 



6^ ^ HifeTDRlr OF THE 

** sed brethren, whose trials approach, the behe^C 
*^ of legal defence; and the sentinels .whom you 
** have appointed to watch over your interests, 
'^ stand firm at their posts, vigilant of events, 
** and prompt to give you notice and advice, 
" which, on every occasion at all requiring it, 
" rely on receiving. — ^This recital. Irishmen, is 
** meant to guard those of you who are remote 
^* from the scene of the late events, against the 
'* consequences of misrepresentatioa and mistake* 
" The most unfounded rumours have been set 
•* afloat, fabricated for the double purpose of de- 
** lusion and intimidation. Your enemies talk 
" of treachery, in the vain and fallacious hope 
^^ of creating it; but you, who scorn equally to 
" be their dupes or their slaves, will meet their for- 
"^eries with dignified contepipt, incapable of 
** being either goaded into untimely violence, 
** or sunk into pusilanimous despondency. Be 
** firm, Irishmen — but be cool and cautious; be 
*' patient yet a while; trust to no unauthorised 
*' communications; and above all, we warn you 
<< — again and again we warn you — against do- 
*' ing the work of your tyrants, by prematurCy by 
^* partial^ or divided exertion." If Ireland shall 
** be forced to throw away the scabbard, let it be 
^' at her atvn time, not at theirs.''* • 

Ibis jgid the other arrests, and other strong 
measures to which the government had hitherto 
* Appoadix to tbe Report, &c* Ko. 25* 



ISISH REBELLION. 63 

had recourse, ,though very debilitating to the 
Conspiracy, were far froili sjifficient to destroy its 
^rca, or prevent its final success. Partial prq- 
clamations, or the putting of districts under the 
severity of the new l^ws enacted to prevent in- 
surrection, had only a partial effect ; the auda- 
city of the united in Leinster and Munster 
j^ielding so little on the whole amount, that many 
acts of hostility were committed against the 
peaceable inhabitants by men assembledin large 

. numbers; an instance of which has been thought 
worthy of notice in the report of the secret com- 

<*mittee of the commons house of parliament; 
that a body of men amounting to' about eight 
hundred, mostly on horseback, had entered the 
town of Cahir, in the county of Tipperary, 
openly in the day, and held possession of it un- 
til they collected all the arms and ammunition 
Fhich they could find after a regular search 
through all the houses. At length recourse was 
had to a general proclamation and military exe- 
cution. In the former, dated March the thirtieth, 
1798, was a declaration, that a traitorous con- 
spiracy, existing within the kingdom, for the 
destruction of the established government, had 
been considerably extended, and had manifested 
itself in acts of open violence and rebellion ; and 
that in consequence thereof, the most direct and 
positive orders had been issued to the officers 
commwKling his Majest^-'s forces to employ thcui 



64' piSTORV Ot THE 

with tjiei. utmost vigour and decision, for the int-: 
mediate suppression of t|iis conspiracy, and for 
the disarming of the rebels and all disaffected 
persons, by the itibst summary and effectual mca* 
sures. , ' 

ITo Sir Ralph Abercrombie, then chief com 
mander of the forces, orders were issued from 
the lord lieutenant to proceed with his army into 
the disturbed counties, vested with full powers • 
to act according to his discretion for the attain- 
ment of the proposed object. A manifesto, dated 
from his head quarters at Kildare, the third of 
April, was addressed to the inhabitants of the^ 
county by the general, requiring them to sur- 
render their arms in the space of ten days from 
the date of the notice, threatening, in case of 
non-compliance, to distribute large bodies of 
troops among them to live at free quarter — pro-, 
raising rewards to such as would give informa-^ 
tion of concealed arms or ammunition — and A%-^V>n^ 
nouncing his resolution of recurring to other 
severities if the county should still continue ;n a 
disturbed state. * 

On the advance of the military into each 
county, the same notjce was given to its inhabit 
tants, and at the expiration of the term pre- 
scribed, the troops were quartered on the houses 
of the disaffected or suspected, in numbers pro- 
portioned to the supposed guilt and ability of the 

* Appendix to the report, &c. Nos. 36 and 37» 



IRISH REBJILLIOX. 6$ 

bwners, whose pefcuniary circumstances W6re 
often deeply injured by the maintenance of the 
soldiery, and the- waste which was otherwise 
madfe of their effects. Great numbers of houses, 
with their furniture, were burned, where con- 
cealed atms were found — yhere meetings of the 
linited had been held, or whose occupants had 
been guilty of the fabrication of pikes, or of 
other practices for the promotion of the conspi- 
racy. Many of the common people, and some 
even in circumstances of life superior to that 
class, particularly in thejcity of Dublin^ were 
^ourged, some picketed, or otherwise put to 
pain, to force a confession of concealed arms or 
plots. Some irregularities may naturally be sup- 
posed also committed by common soldiers, with- 
out the approbation or knowledge of their 
officers, in such a state of affairs, "and many 
acts of severity by persons not in the regular 
troops — some from an unfeigned^ and others 
from an affected zeal for the service of the crown. 
These various vexations amounted on the whole 
to such a mass of disquietude and distress, that 
the exhortations of the chiefs to bear their evils 
with steady patience, until an opportunity of 
successful insurrection should occur, proved 
-irain with the lower , classes. Such numbers of 
these in the months of April and May were sur- 
rendering their arms, taking the oath of allegi- 
ancei ^^d giving mformation against theit 



66 HISTORY 1>F THE 

officers and seducers, particularly in the counties 
of Kildare and T^ipperary, which were by thest 
means in great measure disorganized, that the 
chiefs of the union, fearing a total derangement 
of their licheme, and destruction of their forc4( 
before a favourable opportunity of revolt should 
arrive, came to a determination to try thcif 
strength against government, without the assist- 
ance of their French allies, and a plan for the 
purpose wa$ accordingly digested by the military 
committee. 

To authorize the burning of houses and fur- 
niture, thie wisdom of administration may ha«^ 
seen as good reason as for other acts of severity^ 
though to me and many others that reason is not 
clear. These burnings doubtless caused no smiill 
terror and consternation to the disaffected, but 
they caused also a loss to the community at large^ 
rendered many quite desperate who were deprived 
of all, and augmented the violence of hatred in 
those among whom these houseless people took 
refuge^ The destruction of corn and other pro- 
visions^ of whibh great quantities wer% consumed 
by fire, together with houses, was, in my opinion, 
worse than impolitic ; and its effects were felt ia 
dearth and famine for two years after. Probably 
in this, as in other cases, the lower actors in tlie 
political scene sometimes exceeded the limits 
within which the wisdom of administration would 
have confined them, if that had been practicable^ 



ItttSfi HflB^LLIO** * 67 

ftftcr these liad tince been vested with authority:* 
feme 0f the lowest actors were in fact ready 
enough in other cases to exceed such hmits. 
Men imprifjoned on suspicion, or private infor- 
wktSonj were sometimes half-hanged, (as the act 
mi termed), or strangled almost to death, be- 
d>re their guilt or innocence could be ascertain-* 
M by trial, by such men as Serjeants in the 
militia, without the knowledge, as I suppose, of 
theit ' officers. Reflecting loyalists were much 
'ofeHcerned at the permission or impunity of such 
a^ts, which tended so strongly to confirm the 
^ejudices already so laboriously excited by the 
emissaries of sedition* 

Among the causes which, in the troubled in- 
terval of time, previous to the grand insurrection, 
contributed to the general uneasiness, were the in- 
i^lts practised by pretended zealots, to the an* 
noyance of the truest loyalists as well as male- 
•ontents, on persons who wore their hair short, 
or happened to have any part of their apparel of 
a green colour;^ both of which were considered as 
emblems of a republican or' of a revolutionary 
spirit Short unpowdered hair had been affected 
by persons in Britain, supposed to be republicans; 
yet the same was also worn by many loyalists for 
qpnvenience.'^ The term croppi/j however, was 

* Short hair, about which so senseless a bustle was made, 
lnras found so convenient, that it was generally adopted after - 
the rebellion, even by those who )iad instigated outrages 0% 
accQuat of it. 



68 BlSTOHlr #]» THB 

adopted in Ireland ta signify a fCvolutioDiBt^-of 
encoiy to the establirfied government, withol}| 
r.egard to the length or form of th* hair. Aj^ 
green had been adopted by the Irish malecon- 
tents as the revolutionary colour, in imitation W 
the shamroc, it was justly an object of xeprotti 
tion, when worn intentionally as a badge of 
party; but accidentally^; and without rellexio# 
on the consequence, many loyalists, particukfiy 
among the fair sex, had this colour in spmc ptrt 
of their dress, as handkerchiefs with green stripe% " 
green bonnets, green petticoats, green ribbon^ 
or green shoes. * Persons of malevolent mindi^ 
took advantage of these circumstances to in- 
dulge their general malignity or private malice,, 
when they could with impunity, ©n the head% 
of many who were selected as objects of outrage^ 
were fixed caps of course linen or strong browa 
paper, smeared with pitch on the inside, which, 
in some instances adhered so firmly as not to h% 

* I heard a clergyman (not now indeed in tbe diocese of 
Ferns) boasting of the following act of an officer, as if it haj 
been really an heroic exploit. Two young ladiiss, in passing 
come soldiers and an officer in Dublin, jocularly pronounced » 
word well known at that time to have been in use among tfaft: 
united Irish. The officer immediately seized the ladies, and 
finding, as he said, green garters on them,, caused them to 
be tied back to back, and to remain some hours in that positio§ 
in the street under a guard. Dfd this hero afterwards fi^ht the 
rebels ? If he were commander in a battle,, he would kill vUst 
j&umbers«*K>n paper. 



IRISH KEBELLION. ^ 

unengaged without a laceration of tlie hair and 
«?ven skin» An iflsult of this kind attempted on 
a mistaken object in Wicklow, in April, 1798, 
was in danger of being followed by fatal effects. 
A detachnuent of the North-Cork militia, in their 
inarch to Gorey, meeting and beginning to mal- 
treat a soldier with short hair, of the Downshirc 
miiitia, who, being servant to an officer, was not 
at the thne dressed in military uniform, were fu- 
liously repulsed -by some of the Downshire sol- 
ders, who ran to the rescue of their colleague, 
and a .Woody conflict would have ensued, if it 
had no* been prevented by the extraordinary ex- 
ertions of the officers on both sides, three of 
%hom, beside many of the soldiers, were wounded 
Id the fray. 

Among the species of injuries to which men 
♦ere innocently exposed, in the turbid state of 
the kingdom, preceding the grand insurrection, 
iras this, that numbers of malignant persons, 
mostly, I suppose, perhaps all, of the united 
party, made it a practice to seize violently such 
as they thought proper, or were able, and to crop 
0r cut their hair short, which rendered them li*' 
able to the outrage of the pitched cap of those 
who were, or rather pretended to be, strenuous 
plirtisans of the established constitution. Hand- 
kerchiefs, ribbons, and other parts of dress mark- 
ed with the obnoxious colour, were tprn or cut 
away from females uncQnscious of disloyalty. 



70 HISTORY OF TMB 

and undesignedly bearing the imaginary. hadHJ. 
Various other violait acts were committed, 90 
far as to cut away pieces of men's ears, even 
sometimes the whole e^r, or a part of the nose : 
lior could the stanchest loyalists be certain al- 
ways of exemption from insult by being clear 6f 
all imaginary marks of disloyalty ; for on the ar- 
rival of a detachment of the army in any part of 
the country where the inhabitants were unknown 
to the officers and soldiers, which was almost 
always the case, private malice was apt to convey 
in whispers false intelligence, marking individu^, 
perhaps the best members of society, bb proper 
pbjectSv of military outrage. 

That those who were most active to comhiM; 
these outrages, or to instigate others to the con>- 
TOissidn of them, welre not the best friends of go^? 
verntnent, I have good reason to suppose, Th^ 
conduct, whatever may have been their motives, 
was evidently adapted to, augment the ntimbw 
and rage the malecontents, which, in concur^ 
rerice with other circumstances, might have prof 
duced very fatal effects : besides, that in the hour 
of danger, when the great insurrection took place, 
Und government stood in need of the nidst Vigo- 
tons exertions* of its friends, most of these agita^ 
tors of insult stood aloof, and the rest; so far as 
my experience and information extends, were 
very shy in their movements against the rebels^ 
ftud cautious of their personal safety;; a conduct 



IRISH EEBELLldH. 71 

^ich implted either a defect of ccairage or of 
Royalty. The following instance of this mode of 
proceeding touches the extreme, A young gentle- 
man of a robust frame and healthy constitu* 
tion, a furious declaimer against croppies, and a 
private instigator of military insult, fled at the 
commencement of the insurrection to a town 
twenty miles distant from the lines of the rebels, 
where he remained very quiet until the rebellion 

* was totally suppressed: he then returned to his 
habitation, and with becoming modesty resumed 
his former language of ostentatious loyalty, to* 
gether ^ith a flaming suit of military uniform, 
and a martial air. 

By the system of secret accusation and espio- 
nage, necessarily adopted, with other extraor- 
dinary measures, in this dangerous crisis, govern* 

,ment unavoidably niade ample rOom for the 
exertions of private malice. Magistrates and 
milijary officers- were empowered to receive in- 
Corniations, to keep the names of the informers 
profoundly secret, and to proceed against the 

nccused according to discretion. I shall not 
suppose that any magistrate could have pretended 
to receive information, which he had not received^ 
for the indulgence of his private spite against any 
individual; but some of the gentlemen investe4 
with these new powers M^ere l^d into grievous 
errors by false informers, whose names notwitk- 

. stauding have never been divulged. One in- 



7ft HISTORT OF THE 

stance I shall mention, as it has been alreadly 
made public in the newspapers, and has given 
cause for a debate in parliament. Thomas Fitz- 
gerald, high sheriff of Tipperary, seized at 
Clonmel, a gentleman of the name of, Wright, 
against whom no grqunds of suspicion could be 
conjectured by his neighbours, caused five hun-r 
dred lashes to be inflicted on him in^the severest 
manner, apd confined him several days without 
permitting his wounds to be dressed, so that hu ^ 
recovery from such a state bf torture and lacera^ 
tian could hardly be expected. In a trial at 
law, after the rebellion, on an action of da- 
mages brought by Wright against this magis-r 
trate, the innocence of the plaintiff appeared 
so manifest, even at a time when prejudices 
ran amazingly high against persons accused of 
disloyalty, that the defendant was condemned 
to pay five hundred pounds to his prosecutor. 
Many other actions of damage on similar 
grounds would have been commenced, if the 
parliament had not put a stop to such pro-? 
ceedings, by an act of indemnity, •for all errors 
committed by magistrates from supposed zeal fo» 
the public service. A letter written in the French 
language, found in the pocket of Wright, waf 
tastily considered as a proof of guilt, though the . 
letter was of a perfectly innocent nature. This 
magistrate, however, whose want of knowledge 
of the French language confirmed, or seemed tft 



IRISH REBLELLIOir^ 73 

Confirm, him in so lamentable an error and out-* 
rage, seems to have had great merit in the pre- 
vention of rebellion in that county by his un-e 
remitted activity and . boisterous" exertions; 
though these unfortunately were too often ilU 
directed, as, among other instances, against a 
Mr. Scott, a respectable gentleman, who was in 
the most imminent danger of falling an innocent 
victim to the precipitancy or mis-information of 
this officer of justice, 

These disorders, unavoidable in such a state 
t)f affairs, increased with the alarm of the ap- 
proaching insurrection, M^hich the chiefs of the 
union, seeing its force declining, and in danger 
of being destroyed by the vigorous measures of 
government, appointed to comnience on the 
twenty-third of May, without wailing for 
French auxiliaries, lest, before that aid should 
arrive^ their system should be so disorganized as 
to be incapable of any promising effort Among 
the precautions taken on this occasipn by the 
'members of government, who wer^ fully iiv 
formed of the intended revolt, was the augmen- 
tation of the several companies of armed yeo-^ 
men, by the addition of supplementary men^ 
mostly infantry, and without uniform. These 
yeomen had begun to be embodied in October, 
in the year 179^, in a kind of independent com-r 
panics, each composed commonly of about fifty 
j»en, mostly cavalry, with a much smaller body 



74 HIStOAY OF THE 

of infantry attached to them, and each generally 
commanded by a captain and two lieutcnaatSi 
The infantry were armed Hke those of the regu* 
lar army, but the cavalry were furnished with 
only one pistol and a sword each, excepting a few 
who had carbines. In the formation of the cont- 
panics or corpse of yeomen, to appoint the ftt 
greater part of them cavalry was an error, as th« 
event clearly proved ; for in the rebellion which 
ensued, the yeomen infantry, supported by regut 
lar troops, fought steadily against the foe ; while 
the horsemen, from the nature of the country, 
uneven with hill^, and every where intersected 
with ditches — their want of proper subordinatioa 
imd discipline, and the facility of escape, W^re of 
little use except for patroles or expresses, though 
tl^eir horses were superior to those of the regular 
cavalry in the traversing of ditches and fields. 
If these troops had been habituated to dismount 
and engage on foot with carabines, their service 
Hiight have bedn of considerable effect ; but, ts 
the matter was, they could hardly ever be 
lirought to a charge on the rebels, or to make a 
yetreat with regularity, 

, The cause of this error in the institution of 
armed yeomen, of the appointment of mostly 
horapmen instead of infantry, so little efficacious 
for the end proposed, and so oppressive to indin 
viduak of the poorer sort, who were obliged, to 
furnish horses at their own expence, and mai#* 



' IKISH REBlLLlOir. '75 

tain them without much assistance of pay, wa« 
by some supposed to be the jealousy of govern'* 
ment, who suspected a general disaffection of 
the people, and feared to give sanction to such 
a military establishment, as, like the old volun- 
teers, might beconle a dangerous engine of popu- 
lar demands^ under the influence of designing 
men. But the protestants of Ireland in general 
^re too apprehensive of the hostile determina- 
tion of the Romanists against them, ever fully to 
coalesce with that body in an armed opposition to 
government; so that, with few exceptions, if 
the real sentiments of this description of people 
had been known, administration might have re- 
posed the fullest confidence in them. In that 
case the difference of pay to cavalry and foot-* 
men might have been saved, and the rebellion 
probably stifled in its commencemei^^or at least 
much more speedily suppressed. 

A necessary precaution was the arresting of 
several principals of the conspiracy. ^Among 
Ihe persohs apprehended at this critical time, 
iras Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who had escaped 
the arrest made at Oliver Bond's house, on the 
twelfth of the preceding March. This gentle-^ 
inan had served in his majesty's army, where h0 
had been highly esteemed for his courage and 
iliilitary conduct, his honour, humanity, and 
candour;, but because he avowed his approba^. 
tipn of the revolution in France, his »ame waSi 



7<5 nunonr of the 

expunged from the military list, as a person un- 
worthy to bear a l^ommission in the British 
army. Perhaps his expressions were stronger 
than propriety admitted ; and, perhaps, on the 
other hand, this procedure of administration was 
imprudent, since it was nearly followed by dis-? 
astrous consequences, and since on men of can- 
dour and franknei^s, dependance can be much 
more safely placed, than on those who express 
unqualified approbation of the ruling party- 
such men being generally ready to act the same 
part on the opposite side, with change oi cir^ 
^^Umstances. 

Lord Edward, who was brother to tihe duke 
of Leinster, and married to a French lady of the 
royal blood of the Capets, a daughter of the last 
duke of Orleans, was eminently qualified for the 
excitements and direction of revolutionary com- 
motions, being a man of daring courage, a most 
active spirit, considerable abilities of mind, and. 
Tbeing of a family highly respected for its ancient 
greatness by the lower classes of the Irish. In 
consequence of a, proclamation issued on the 
eleventh of May, accompanied with a promise of 
a thousand pounds reward for his apprehension, 
he was seized on the nineteenth, in the house *of 
Nicholas Murphy, a merchant in Thomas-street^ 
Dublin, by William Bellingham Swan, a most 
active magistrate, town-major Si rr, and captaia 
HyiiHi a yeoman officer^ a gentleman possessed 



IRISH EEBBLLIOir. Tf 

6f great courage ; but hife lordship made so des-' 
jwsrate a defence with no other arms than a 
dagger, that Swan was wounded, and Ryan died 
of his wounds eleven days after. Lord Edward 
liimself expired in great agony on the third of 
tlie following month, from .the effects of this 
furious conflict, as he had been wounided in the 
shoulder by the shot of a pistol from major Sirr. 
On the nineteenth and twenty-first of May, 
seteral other arrests were made, and among the 
arrested were Henry and John Sheares, brothers/ 
natives of Cork, men of great abilities, and 
la\vyers, who had made a visit to Paris in 1792^ 
where they had imbibed very deeply revolu- 
tionary ideas ; had, on their return to Ireland^ 
been active in the united conspiracy, and had, a» 
we have good reason to believe, at last been 
^ taiscd to the fatal eminence of the directorial 
x^ommittee. From a belief of his being an United 
Irbhman — 2l belief doubtless impressed by some 
dextrous management on his part, and the hop© 
^f his co-operatiott in the business — they con- 
fided the secret of the time and plan of thein- 
450rr^ction to Captain Armstrong, of the King's 
County militia, who had procured an introduc- 
tion to them through the medium of Patrick 
Byrne, bookseller of Graf ton-street, Dublin. 
The intelligence occasionally received by this 
officer, who had procured his introduction for 
tlje service of government, was regularly con- 



78 MISTOBY OF THE 

veyed to, the lord lieutenant. In the hous(e &f 
Hemy Sheares, at the- time of his arrest, and iif 
tlie hand- writing of John, was found a nian& 
festo evidently intended for publication after the 
capital should be in possession ef tlic conspi* 
rators. In this^.were expressed very sanguinary 
sentiments, quite contrary, as I have reason to 
' believe, to the natural disposition of these gen-* 
tlemen; but, in the poet's phrase, "tosliut the 
^^ gate's of mercy on mankind,"* may be jt 
maxim with revolutionists; and, in fact, the 
severe and terrible measures to which govern-* 
ment, for the preservation of its existence, had 
been obliged to have recourse, must naturally 
.excite a spirit of revenge ^ and cruelty in the 
malecontent faction : yet the former members of 
the directory, among whom was Thomas Addi« 
Emmett, had intended to avoid bloodshed as 
much as possible, and only to banish those who 
should prove refractory, allowing their families a 
maintenance out of their properties, f If the 
affairs of the union had continued to be con* 
ducted with the ability of these foniier membere, 
probably the government, with all its vigilance, 
would. have been overturned, greatly, 1 appre- 
hend, to the detriment of the British islands and- 
Europe in general. 

The above-mentioned manifesto, which was 

* Gray's Elegy in a Country Church-yard, 
i Appendix to the report, &c. Ko. 31* 



not quite finished for publication, ran in the fol- 
lowing terms. " Irishmen, your country is 
*^ free, and you are about to be avenged. That 
" vile government, which has so long and so 
** cruelly oppressed you, is no more. Soma of 
*' its most atrocious monsters have already paid 
*^ the forfeit of their lives, and the rest are in 
*^ our hands. The national flag, the sacred 
** green^ is at this moment flying over the ruins 
** of despotism ; and that capital, which a fe\r 
** houFSpast had witnessed the debauchery, the 
** plots, and the crimes of your tyrants, is now 
'*• the citadel of triumphant patriotism and vir- 
*S tue. Arise then, united sons of Ireland, arise 
*^ like a great and powerful people, determined 
** to live free, or die. Arm yourselves by every 
*■* means in your power, and rush like lions on 
*^ your foes. * Consider that for every enemy 
'* you dijiafm, you arm a friend, and thus be- 
*^ coniie doubly pawerful. In the cause of Hberty, 
♦^ inaction is cowardice; and the coward shall 
** forfeit the property he has not the courage to 
** protect. Let his arms be secured and trans- 
** f erred to those gallant spirits who want and 
^* will use them. Yes, Irishmen, we swear by 
*i that Eternal Justice, in whose cause you fight, 
*^- that the brave patriot who survives the present 
** glorious struggle, and the family of him who 
" has fallen, or hereafter shall fall in it, shall re- 
** oeive from the hands of a grateful* nation an 



60 HiJTOfty OF THE 

^' ample recompense out of that property which 
" the crimes of our enemies have forfeited into 
" its hands, and his. name shall be inscribed oa 
*' the great national record of Irish revolutidn, 
*^ as a glorious example to all posterity; but we 
** likewise swear to punish robbery with death 
** atid infamy. .We also swear that we will 
^ never sheath the sword till every being in the 
** country is restored to those equal rights Avhich 
** the God of nature has given to all men ; until 
** an order of things shall be established in which 
" no superiority shall be acknowledged among 
** the citizens of Erin but that of virtue and 
" talent. As for those degenerate wretfches who 
*' turn their swords against their native country, 
*^ the national vengeance awaits them : Let them 
** find no quarter, unless they shall prove their 
*^ repentance by speedily exchanging the stand- 
•' aid of slavery for that of freedom, under 
** which their former errors may be buried, and 
•* they may sharethe glory and advantages that 
** are due to the patriot bands of Ireland. Many 
*^ \s£ the military feel the love of liberty glow 
*^ Vithin their breasts, and have joined the na- 
^^ tiotial: standard. Receive with open arms 
" such as shall follow so glorious an example-*^ 
•* they can render signal service to the cau?le of 
*^ freedom, and shall be rewarded "aceording to 
'* their deserts. But for the wretch who turns 
*^ his jsword against his native country, let the 



*f national vengeance be visit€id on llim ; let him 
^^ find BO quarter* Two other crimes diemand 
k( #######«####. Rouse all the energies of your 
*^ souls: call fbtth. all the merit and abilities 
** which a vicious government copsigncd to 
*^ obscurity; and under the conduct Of your 
" chosen leaders march with a steady step to 
*^ victoryi Heed not the g1ar€l of hired sddiery 
** or aristocratic yeomanry: they cannot stand 
*' the vigorous shock of freedom^ Their traj^- 
** pings and their arms ^ill soon he yours ; an4 
" the detested government of England, to which 
*' we vow eternal hatred, shall learn^ that the 
** treasures it exhausts on its accoutered slaves^ 
** for the purpose of butchering Irishmen, shall 
" but further enable us to turn their swords on 
•^ its devoted head; Attack them in every di- 
^ rection by day and by night: avail yourselves 
•* of the natural advantages of your country, 
** which are innumerable, and with which you 
'f are better acquainted than they; Where you 
** cannot oppose them in full force, constantly 
** harass their rear and their flanks: cut otf 
** their provisions and magazines^ and prevent 
'^ them as much as possible from uniting their 
** forces^ let whatever moments you cannot de- 
** vote to fighting for your country, be passed 
" in learning how to fight for it, or preparing 
** the means of war — for war, war oXom must 



8^ HISTORY OF THE 

'f occupy every mind and every hand in Ireland^ 
" until Its long oppressed soil be pui:ged-of all 
^* its Enemies. Vengeance, Irishmen— vengeance 
" on your oppressors. Remember Avhat thou- 
** sands of your dearest friends have perished by 
" their nierciless orders — Remember their burn- 
^* ings, their racfcings, their torturings, their 
*' military massacres, and their legal murders— 
^' Remember Orr I"* 

• Appendix to tlie report, &c. No. 20. WHliam Orr, a;nan 
of gooi family and connexions, had been hanged at Cankk-* 
fergm for hjgh trea$6ti* 



IRISH REBELLION,; 83 



GHAP. IL 



insurrection — MaiU Coach — Skirmishes — JProsperous-^ 
Nads — Kilcullon — Martial Law — Cartow — Sir Ed- 
ward CrosUe^Mofiasterevan --Hacketstowh—Tdrah^-m 
tlathangavr-^Surrendry at Knockawlinr^Gilhit-rath 
'^County dffVedffoi-d — Mountnorris-^Terror ofwhip^^ 

. pings-^Father John Murphy — Kilthomai — Ouldrt-^ 
Eflniscorlhy -^ Wexford — Arrest — Mission of Col^' 
dough — Three Rocks — Meath Militia — Repulse of 
CoL Maxwell — Wexford evacuated — Gorey — Earl of 
Courtown-^Arklow — Newtownbarry-^Camps — BaU 
iycanoo — Wdlpole — TulLerneering — Ross -^^ Sculla^ 
logiie-^Slyeevekeetter^^Lacken'^Ai^klow^^SkerfetU 

By feucli atrests, and other precautions, the 
'plan of insitrrectidti was frustrated, which was 
to commence on the tiight of the 23d of May,, 
by an attdcik dtt the anxly eticamped at Lehaiins- 
tOwti, or LaugllUii&town^ ^even miles south of ' 
Dubhn — an attack on the artillery stationed at 
Chapelizod, two miles west of the same— an at- 
tack on the castle, aiid other parts of the metro-J' 
poUs, as soon as the iieWS of the two former 
assaults should reach the city, in all which the 
counties^ of Dublin, Wicklow, arid ^ildare wei^e 
ttJ co-operate— atxd the destruction or detention 
of the ipail-coaches oti the north and south roadd^ 



84 HISTORY Of tui: 

which was to serve as a signal of insurrection to 
the rest of the kingdom. The plot had been an-s 
nounced late ip the evening of the 21st, by a 
letter from the secretary of the lord lieutenant 
to Thomas Fleming, the lord mayor of Dublin, 
and on the £2d by a message from the lord 
lieutenant to both houses of parliament; and 
to prevent its execution, tlxe troops of the line^ 
militia, and yeomanry^ were disposed under arms 
in what were supposed tqr W tbe most advanta- 
geous poskions^ By a variety brppecautiens the 
capital was restrained in tranquiHity ; but in the 
neighbouring counties, notwithstanding the dfe- 
organisation of the confederacy by the various 
operations of government, the appointment m^ 
observe^^ by considerable, numbers; the mail- 
coaches on the northern, western, and southern 
roads were destroyed ; the first at Saatry, threp^ 
n^iles from. Dublin ;, the second between LupaU: 
and Lcixlip, eight miles frpm the same ; and tjie: 
third near Naas, fifteen miks fvom\ tjhe capita}; 
insjurgents assembled i|i ?nany places ; and in that* 
nigl^t and the foUpwing day ^Several skirmished! 
were fought, and the towns of Naas, Claine, 
Pjosperous, Bally more- Eustace^ and Kilcullect 
were attacked ;. as were also,^ in the next sue* 
ceeding night and day, thos^ of Carlow, Ifcck- 
etstown, and Monasterevan, 

An>qng the skirmishes of tjie recent insurrec- 
tion were th&je which took place new Rathfam- 



IRISH HEBELLIOK. «S 

faam, Tallagh, Lucan, Ltisk, Dunboyne/ Bar- 
reistown, Collon, and Baltinglass. In all these 
petty actions, except those near Dunboyne and 
Barretstown, and in all the attacks of towns, ex"- 
cept that of Prosperous, the insurgents were de- 
feated, though Kilcullen was aboiidoned to them 
after their defeat. In these and other eonflifits 
in tlie course bf the rebellion, the number of the 
killed and wounded of the rebels is extremely 
uncertain, and almost always vastly exaggerated 
in the public pi'ints. The action near Dunboyne, 
eight miles from Dublin, in the county of Meatli, 
wa§ the surprise of a small party of the regiment 
of Reay fencibles by a body of rebels, who 
seized the baggage of two companies of the 
king's troops escorted by the above party ; and 
that near Barretstown was also a surprise of a 
small body of the Suffolk fencibles, who lost aH 
their baggage in their march to Kildare. Thfe 
engagement in the neighbourhood of Baltinglass, 
twenty-nine miles from Dublin, southward, was 
one of the most considerable of the skirmishes 
which happened at this time- A body of at 
leaat foiir or five hundred insurgents were on the 
24th, at one o'clock, attacked in the town of 
Stratford-upon-Slanfey, near JB$ltinglass, on onfe 
iide by asmaU body of troops composed of thirty 
of the Antrim miKtia, under lieutenant Macau- 
ley, and twenty of the ninth dragoons, under 
cpm€t Love ; and on thfe other by a party of 



86 * HISTORY OF THE 

yeomen, commanded by captain Stratford. By 
this double attaqk they were totally routed, with 
the slaughter perhaps of near a hundred; while 
of the loyalists jione were killed, but several 
wounded. 

The attack of Prosperous, a small toAvn in the 
pounty of KJldare, intended for a seat of cotton 
manufactures, seventeen miles distant from Dub- 
lin, was made an hour after midnight, on . the 
night of the 23d? or worning of the 24th, by a 
large body of men, supposed to be conducted 
t)y Johu Esmond, a I^omish gentleman, firrt 
lieutenant of a troop of yeoman cavalry. The 
small garrison y^as assailed by surprise. The 
barrack was fired, and twenty-eight of the city 
of Cork inilitia, ' with their commapder, captain 
Swayne, perished in the flames, and by the pikes 
of the enen[iy. Nine men also of ^ Welch regir 
ment of cavalry, stiled ^nqient Britons, were 
slaughtered in the houses where they had been 
billetted, and five were m^de prisoners. Many 
of the perpetrators of this atrocious butchery 
were, by tbe trembling loyalist inhabitants, re- 
cognized to be the same who on the preceding 
4ay had surrejidered to captain Swayne, and, in 
the presence of a Rqmish priest, had expressed 
the deepest contrition for haviug engaged in th^ 
conspiracy of United I^ish, andinade mpi§t sor 
Icmti prpmises of future loyalty — a melancholy 
instance of dissimulation, practised elsewhere iu 



IRISH REBELLia)^. *Sf 

Bimilar circumstances! Here, as in all other 
places where the insurgents had success, iii the 
early part of the rebellion, while their hopes wer^ 
high, a tumultuous an4 frantic exultation took 
place, with congratulations of Naas and Dublin 
being in the possession of their associates; the 
conveyance of such false intelligence, to inspirit 
their followers, being a part of the policy almost 
constantly practised by the leaders of the revolt 
Loud shouts were heard, especially from a multi-f 
tude of women, who always followed the men on 
such occasions, of down xdth the Orangemen! ancl/T 
which marked the object of insurrection at its 1 
very commencement in the minds of the common } 
people, dawn with the heretics! They accord-? ) 
• ingly murdered with deliberate ceremony, and 
mangled their bodies in a horrid manner, two 
gentlemen of the uames of Stamer and Brewer, 
and an old man who had been seijeant in thq 
king's army* That a slaughter of the remaining^ 
protestant inhabitants would have been perpe- 
trated, is highly probable, if it had not been? 
prevented by the approach of a body of troops, 
through fear of whom the rebels fled. Richard 
Griffith, Esq. with part of his troop of yeomen 
cavalry, and forty of the Armagh militia, who - 
had repulsed the assailants, at Claine, pursued 
them almost to Prosperous,, three miles distant, 
which caused much terror to the rebels in posses-* 
won of th^ttown. . 



f4 Hi^Toitr OF Tim 

The att^cfk of Naas, tbc most tomiderable of 
tfte irtjlitary statioiis aesaited^by the msui^entSj, 
#t the very commencement of the rebellion, wa^ 
m hour and a half later thap that of Prosperous. 
Jn this town, fifteen miles south-westward of 
Dublin, were posfeda part of the Armagh militia, 
tlelachments of the fourth regiment of dragoon 
guards and of the ancient Britons, under the 
command of lord viscount Gosford, colonel of 
the Armagh regimont. The surprise of this post 
was prevented by the vigilance of the garrison. 
The approach of near a thousand insurgents, under 
\he conduct of a chief toamed Michael Eeynolds^^ 
being announced by ^ dragoon, the troops had 
time tt? form actording to a preconcerted plan. 
Repulsed in their fi^t bnset at^ the County gaol, 
which stands ih this town, tl>e rebels poss[esse4 
themselves of all the avenues, and made a gene* 
j-al assault in almost every dir«:;tion* Unable ta 
l»ake an impressi6n on the troops, they fled on 
all sides after about forty minutes of irr^ular 
firing, and were pursued with slaughter by the 
cavalry. Of the king's forces, two oflficers m^ 
some privates were slain; of the rebels abcmt 
thirty wers found ilead in the streets, and a^ 
,gi*e^ter numbi^r, perhaps near a hundwed, may 
]iave be€n slaughtered in the toadfe and fields int 
%he pursuit. ; Ih the course of the day the inha- 
bitants of Na^ beheld sut^h ncenes, as were after- 
ijjrards exhibited elsewhere on a larger .s€ale> aad 



wif It much higher cokraring, the terrified loyalistt 
of the neighbouring towns and country, inen, 
women, and children, who had abandoned their 
possessions to the rapacity of the foe, flocking 
i^to this place of arms with the troops who re*- 
treated from the inferior posts. ' The little gar^ 
rispn of Glaine arrived here in the morning, 
where lieutenant Esmond, taking his place iA 
Captain Griffith's troop, apparently unconscious 
of theaiFair of Prosperous, was arrested! The troops 
who bad fought at Kilcullen arrived noi before 
ijiae in the evening; the fugitive loyalists wh6 
djCcompanied them were obligied to remain in the 
street all night, yet they fared much better thaft 
m?iny people afterwards in similar situations, ai 
they were supplied with provisions from the 
military stores while they continued in this town, 
which was during some time after in a state of 
alarm. 

In the action at Kilcullen, v^hich had takeft 
place at seven in the morning, the inefficacy of 
cavalry against embattled pikemen Was W6 
clearly shewn, A body of about three hundred 
rebels having taken post at the church of Old 
Kilcullten, general Difndas without' waiting foi^ 
his infenfry, ordered his cavalry, consisting of 
forty men of the light dtagoons and Romneys f<J 
charge , And, in this service, three times repeated, 
they were repiilsed with the loss of captains Er-?* 
sfcine and Cooks, and twenty privates, besid* 



i90 BISTORT or THE 

|en wounded, most of them mortally, Retmng 
to Kilcirflen bridge, he attacked the enemy, who 
had followed hhn thither, mth twenty-seven Suf- 
folk infentry m front, who, in three destructive 
discharges of musketry, discomfited and dis- 
persed the rebels. 

In my relation of this affair I by no means in-r 
tend any censure on the general; nor, if I were 
• not hidispensably bound to strict impartiality and 
truth, would I mention any circumstance, which 
might be wrested into a sinister sense against one 
whom I consider as ^n excellent officer and a 
worthy man. A mistaken opinion of the force of 
cavalry against pikemen seepis tohjive been almost 
imiversal until experience brought conviction. 

War being now openly commenced by the 
conspirators, government necessarily proceeded 
to the strongest me^ure of coercion. The lord 
lieutenant issued a proclamation on the 24th, 
giving notice, that orders were conveyed to all 
Jiis majesty> general officers in Ireland to punish 
accprdinglo martial law, by death orqthprwise, 
as their judgment should appro v?, all personsi 
^ting, or in ^ny manner s^ssisting, in the rebek 
lion. This proclamation was notified the same 
flay to both houses of parliament, by a message. 
from his excellency, who received in consequence 
addresses of thanks and approbation from both. 
The effects of this procedure, the necessity of 
firl^ich marked t^he calamitous conditiqn of the 



IRISH REBELLIOK. 91 

4K0untry, were quickly fdt by great numbers of 
the lower, and son^e of the higher classes of tlie 
people. An instance of its fatality to the lattei 
immediately occurred 4on the sanguinary repulse 
pf the rebels at Carlow, 

Of the intended surprise of this town, forty miles 
south-westward' from Dublin, the garrison was 
apprised, both by an intercepted letter, and by 
the intelligence of lieutenant Roe, of the Norths 
Cork militia, who had observed the peasants asr 
sembling in the vicinity late in the evening of 
the 24 th of May. The garrison, consisting of a 
|)ody of the ninth dragoons, the light company 
of the North-Cork militia, under captain Heard, 
some of the I^uth militia, under lieutenant Qgle, 
the yeoman infantry of Carlow under captains 
Burton ^nd Eustace^ Sir Charles Burton's yeoman 
cavalry, and about forty volunteers — the whole 
about four hundred and fifty in number, under 
the command of colonel MahpQ, of the ninth 
dragoons, was judicipusly distributed at vatious 
posts for the reception cf the assailants. The 
plan of assault was ill contrived,, or ill executed, 
Piffereiit parties were appointed to enter the 
tpvvn at diflferent avenues; but only one, that 
whiph ariived sopne^, attempted an entrance, 
the rest beiijg deterred: by the incessant firing of 
the troops. This body, perhaps amounting, to 
9. thousand or fifteen hundred, assen^bling at the 
house of Sir Edward Cro$bje, a mile and a half 



9 HWTOKT ot.THae: 

Aisisad^fvcm Cailow, nmrclied into the town at 
two o'clock of tibc mbhimg of the 2dth of 
May,, with bo little precaution as to alarm . the 
garrboQ at a quarter of aimile's distance^ by the' 
discharge of a gun, in the eiiiecatioa of a man 
who scrupled to accotnpdny them in their enter- 
price. Shouting as they rushed into Tullow 
street, with that vain confidence, which is com- 
monly followed by disappointn^ent, that tfie tmcn 
was their oaw, they received so destructive ^ 
fire from the garrison, that they recoiled and 
todeavoured to retreat ; but finding their flight 
intercepted, numbers took Refuge in tte houses^ 
where they found a miserable exit, these being 
immediately fired by the soldiery. About eight 
houses were consume^ in this conflagration, an4 
ibr some days the roasted remains of unhappy 
men were falling down the chimnies in which 
they had perished^ As about half this column of 
assailants had atrived within the town, and few* 
jescaped from that situation, their loss can hardly 
be estimated at less than four hundred ; while not 4 
milk was even wounded on thesid^ of theloyalists* 
After t^e defeat, executions conimeiiced, a$ 
dsewhe^ kk this calamitous period, and about 
two hundred in a fehort timp weye hanged or 
shot, according to niartikl law, Among the 
earliest victims were Sir Edward Crosbie, and 
ftme Heydori, a yeoman of Sir Charles Burton's 
tyoop. The latter is beli^wd to have been the 



feader of flie rebel cplunm ; to Have conducted 
the assaikntsi into the to.v:!^ and on ii^ iltsuc* 
aess fto hsLv6 afaajaxfened them*. . He had eerikmly 
in that crisis, taken hispl^^eas a jreoinaii) and 
j^iaed m the slan^lati^n cf the assaila&tsu Siif 
Edwafd, at whose house the- rebel coliurm had 
assembled^ but wh^ certeiinly had not accom{)a>* 
nied them in their maroh^ ivvas condemned and 
hanged as aa United IriBhrn^a-t can say nothing 
from mji own knowledge of this imf&rtwnQ*^ 
baronet, with whom I had nevff any aoquaid*i 
^nce; but his friends havealKrmed witil' tllith^ 
timt he fell a sacrifice to the ^opfusionr whioH 
necessarily attends a trial by military law, itt 
the ra^ of a rebellion ; and tliit hia infiocenctf 
WouM be mani^^t if cer^fai cii'^i^nnstandis ^^m 
made public, wJ^icllthey chose' to witbhbld' 'fbf 
a; tim^ through respect to adfeinistratioi^ dii^if 
dangerously sitPu^ed. The^ *feole of hi^ gteiJt' 
could onty have <5onsistec^ in his having givtim 
it^y to a tide of theoretic: politics, whibh iwany 
speculative men had not sufficient clearaess of 
judgment to correct, or duplicity to conceit,:, 
though they^ might u*tei»ly abhor the conse- 
^uencefr of an attempt to redncfe these theories to^ 
practice by force of arms. 

- Since the . ptiblication' of my first edition, a^ 
pamphlet has appeared, stiled, '^ A Narrative 6f 
'*»the Appreheifeion, Trial, and Execution of Sir 

^1 Edward WiiKam'€f0sbie,* Ba*t| in which the^ 



^4 ^ msrotr of the 

^* innocence of Sii* Edward, and the Iniquity at 
" the Proceedings against him are indubitably 
" and clearly proved:*'. This publication record* 
one aJjroCious instance^ out of a multiticde which 
occurred, of the abuse of ptower delegated by the 
tnembers of administration to inferior actors iit 
a time of lamentable distraction. Protestant 
loyalists, witnesses in favour of the accused, 
were forcibly prevented by the military from en- 
tering the court Roiifilan c&tholie prisoners 
weife tortured by repeated floggings^ to force 
them to give evidence against hinii and appear 
to have been promised their lives upon no othet 
condition than that of his cbnvictioiii Not- 
, withstanding all these and othfer violent mea^ 
sures, no charge was proved against him ; of 
which defect /)f evidence his judges were so sen-* 
sibti^ that^ in defiance of an act of parliament, a 
copy of the proceedings was withheld from his 
widow and family. The court was irregularly 
constjitiited and illegal^ destitute of a judge 
advocate. The execution of the sentence was 
precipitate, at an unusual hour, and attended 
with atrocious circumstances, not wananted by 
the sentence, and reflecting indelible disgrace 
on the parties concerned. I refer the reader to 
the pamphlet itself. I insert som^ papers in thd 
appendixy No. 7. 

Sometimes one of those nnmetous little ind-' 
dents, which occur in times of civil distraction^ 



though of no importance in themselves, may assist 
to give the reader some idea of the state of the 
country on such occasions. A gentleman, 
named Thomas Elliot, going from Carlow, after 
.the repulse of the rebek, to visit hi^ house, three 
miles from the , town, saw thirty or forty of the 
peasants, his neighbours, assembfed in the road 
at the end of his avenue, whom he supposed to 
have met for mutual enquiries about news. He 
was advancing without apprehension of danger, 
when observing two guns levelled at hifli, he 
wheeled, galloped away, and fortunately escaped 
both shots. Hearing a shout from them, with 
a declaration that he might come to them with 
confidence of safety, he returned, and called to 
them to meet him without arms. Finding that 
they declined this proof of pacific intention, he 
again, galloped away and escaped some shots. 
When he returned soon after with a body of 
yeomen, the peasants, expecting no mercy, fled to 
places of concealment; but perceiving that, 
quite contrary to their expectation, their cabins 
were not burned, nor any severe punishment 
intended, they returned to their occupations, and 
remained perfectly quiet. A contrary conduct 
in this gentleman would have sent these and 
others to augment the rebel forces. 

The defeats of the rebels at Monasterevan and 
Hacketstown, in the same morning with th^t at 
(barlow, were nearly as bloodless on the side of 



ihe loyatists^ The girrison of tfee former, dOii- 
sisting of eig:hty-five yeom€ti^ tiot three week* 
anbodied, of who^n forty-three were cavalry, 
iias|a$sailed by a body of men^ perhaps a thoiH 
sand ia Bumber, a little aftet four o- clock j btt*- 
such wa$ the spirit and steadiness of this^ Kttte 
army, assisted by some volunteers, that the as^ 
sailaots hereon every side completely repulsed, 
though they coukl not be prevetited from setting 
fire to^ part of the town" The infantry, under" 
Ikiitefwinfe George Bagot, had advanced against 
1^ main body of the ehenry on the bank of the 
grand canal, where the town is situate} while* 
tile cavalry, under Captain Haystead, skirmished 
witfe another party in ^e street. On the return 
of part of the infantry from the pursuit, a fiirioud 
attack was made in conjimction with the 
cavalry, and' the rebels were driven from the 
town with slaughter. Sixty-eight of their dead 
were said to be collected and buried by the- 
victors ; some aue supposed to have been cjtrried 
away by the vanquished, many of whom werd^' 
doubtless wounded. Of the loyalists, nine were: 
slain, of whom two were of the volunteer class. 
The incaution and vain confidence of the 
insurgents was no where more strongly exem- 
plified than in their attack of Hacketstown, ict 
the county of Cai:lo, forty-four miles from 
Ihiblin. The garrison, which was composed of 
a- detachment of the Aritrim militia, uiider 



iklSH I^£B£LLld^. $7 

lieutenant Gardinlir, and ^ body of yeomen 
under captain Hardy, being a]^prized of the 
approach of the insurgents, marbhed out to 
meet them * but on sight of the enfemy, \rhose 
nunibet apj^eated to be above three thousand, 
the troops retreated, lest they should be sur- 
rounded, and took refuge in the barrack. This, 
as the event soon prov^ answered the purpose of 
a feint. The rebels, from joy of their imagined 
victory^ raised a vehemfetit shdut, and i-ushing 
forward in the uti^ost confusion, were on the 
sudden arrival of captain Hume, with thirty of 
his yeomen, charged v^ith such address and 
Spirit as to be completely routed, with the loss 
of perhaps two hundred of their men ; while not 
tone of the loyalists was hurt, except a soldier 
who received a contusion on the arm; and 
lieutenant Gardiner, who was vidlently bruised 
by the stroke of a stone on the breast. 

While the rebellion was thus checked in its 
extension so^th-^westward of the capital, exer- 
,tions were made, and arrangements to suppress 
it, on the northern and western sides. In con- 
sequence of these arrangements, on the evening 
of the 26th, a large bpdy of rebels assembled on 
the hill of Tarah, in the county of Meath, situate 
eighteen miles northward of Dublin, was com- 
pletely routed, with the slaughter^ we are told, 
of three hundred and fifty of their men, found 
dead on the field of battle, together with their 

H 



9% UtSTORT OF THE 

Reader in his imiform ; with the loss of ninekiffe^ 
^nd sixteen ,wounded of the victorious party^ 
. which was composed of three companies of the 
jegiment of Reay fericibles, with a field-piece 
of artill^y, under, the command of c^tain 
IVI'Lean ; lord Fingal's troop of yeoman cavalry; 
those of captain Preston and Lower-Kells; and 
captain Molly's company of yeoman infantry, 
in aU about four hundred. The position of this 
Jiill, insulated in a widely surrounding plain, is- 
well adapted for defence against an attacking 
foe,, but ill for escape from victorious cavalry, 
from whose pursuit they could be protected only 
by the inclosures of the fieldjs, so that many 
doubtless were killed or wounded* 

As this victory laid open the communicatbn 
of the metropolis. y^itU tlie northern parts of the 
kingdom, so other sifGccssful mtovenients pro* 
duced the same effect on the western side. Ok 
the 29thi a little after eleven o'clock in the 
morning, a body of rebels, who had posted 
themselves in the village of Rathangan, on the 
grand canal, in the county of Kildare, situate 
twenty-nine miles westward of IXublin^ had Com- 
mitted nfiurders, and had fortified their post 
with bavricadoes and chains across the streets,, 
was dislodged, and about sixty of them^ slaugh- 
tered, by a party under the command of lieu- 
tenant-colonel Longfield, of the royal Cork 
inilitia, who advanced against the .to:wn with hi^ 



Irish liEBELLiolf, ^ 

kttillery in the frobt, his iiifanti?^ Suppbrt^ng ft 
behind, and his cavalry bo placfed as^ to support^ 
both* No loss was sustained by the ktng^ 
troops, as the rebels gave way on the second 
discharge of thei cannon. 

Discouraged by defeats, many of the rebtkr 

began to wish for leave to tetirer in safety tf 

their homes, and resume their peaceful oocupa* 

tions. Of this a remarkable instahce occntted: 

on the 28th, and another on the 31st of Mayj 

Lieutenant Genei-al Dunda^, who had^ in^ thd • 

afternoon of ihb 24th, deff?ated d rebel force 

iiear Kilcullen, and reliev6^d that little txnm^^- 

received on the^Sth, at his jqiiSiTters at Naas, bjr 

I'horaas Kelly^ Es(|, a magrsti-atej- a inessagd 

from a rebel chief named Pefktn^^ Who \?as tifcn: 

at the head of about two thousand men, ptosted 

on an eminence called Knockawlin-hill, :on. the 

border of the Curragh of Kildare, a beiantifnl 

plain, used as a race-coll^se, twenty »-two. tertl^ 

south- westward of the^ metropolis, The prirpatt 

of this message wasi that Perkins^ tnen ^shoutd 

surrender their arms, on condition of their being 

permitted to retire unmolested to their habitat 

.tions, and of the liberation of Perkms' brother 

from the jail of Naas. - The general, having 

seiit a messenger for advice to Dublin Castle, 

and received permission, assented to the tchna, 

«ind, approaching the post of Knockawlfn on j^e 

. 31st, received the personal surrendry of Pei> 



Id© HISTORT O? tut 

l^nSf iLtvi a feVof his associates; the rest diis-^ 
pcrsing homewards in all directions with shouts 
of joy, and leaving . thirteen cart-loads of pike& 
l^hihd. 

This disposition to surrender, which geod 
pcdicy would have encouraged among the insur- 
gents, was blasted three days after by military 
ardour, which, when it eludes the salutary 
restraints of discipline, and j» exerted against an 
unresisting object, ceases to be laudable. Major- 
General Sir James Duff, who had made a rapid 
inarch from Limerick with six hundred men, to 
open the communication of the me|:ropolis witl^ 
that quarter, received intelligence of a large 
body of men assembled at a place eallM Gibbit- 
rat§, on the Curragh^ for the purpose of sui'ren^ 
flry, to which they had been admitted by gene- 
ral Dundas. Unfortunately, as the troops adr 
vanced near the insurgents to receive their surren* . 
idered weapons, one of the latter foolishly swearing 
thsit he would not deliver his gun otherwise than 
empty, discharged it with the muzzle upwards* 
The soldiers instantly, pfetending to conside? 
this as an act of hostility, fired on the unre- 
.sisting multitude, who fled with the utmost pre- 
cipitation, and were pursued with slaughter by 
a company of fencible cavaky, denominated 
lord Jocelyn's fox-hunters. Above two hundred 
of the insurgents fell upon this occasion, and a 
hr greater number would have shared theirjate* 



imSH REBELLION. 101 

if a retreat had not been sounded with all possible 
dispatch, agreeably to the instructions of general 
Dundas, who had sent an express from his Quar- 
ters at Kilcullen, to prevent such an accident* 

* The following address from the corps of Athy lojral inCenUjf 
is very honourable to that body, as well as to the general. 
'< To lieutenant-general Dundas, 8cc. Sec. 

^* Sir, the arrangements, which follow the termination of a 
** glorious war, being likely' to, deprive us of the man, whott 
^* wise and humane conduct saved the lives of thousands, wd 
'* cannot sufier the opportunity to pass, without expressing to 
^^ our brave general the sentiments of gratitude vnth which 
** our hearts are filled. 

'* Placed at the head of our c(istrict, during a period most 
^ eventful and talamitous, your command has been distin* 
** guished by the zeal of your conduct, and the kumamh/ 6E 
** yourx:ouncil, surrounded by armed bands of our mi^;uided 
*f countrymen. You first subdued them by your sword, and 
" then disarmed them by your clemency. In you, sir, we have 
^* seen the brightest ornament of the soldier's character-* 
** humanity^ united with true courage. And when the ua* 
*< prejudiced historian shall vmte the events of the day, the 
*^ name of Dundas will be applauded by rising generations. 

** Your kind partiality and attention to the Athy yeoman 
*^ infantry, raised on the spur of the moment,, have induced 
*^ them to offer this (the only tribute in their power) to their 
•* revered general. Wherever you go, you will carry witk 
« you their invariable attachn^nt, and the applauses of all 
** true lov^ of their country and oi humanity » 

*' For the corps of Athy loyal yeoman infantry (141) 

Athy, * Tho. I. Rawson, Captain. 

1st January, 1802. 

See Dublin evening post. No. 6181, in which is also an 
address from the principal inhabitants of the district to the 
tame general, with the presentation of a piece of plate. , 



lOfi ' iySTO|iy ^F THE 

• Ifi the p,ut)Hp prints xhh body .of insurgentJi 
Is ^ssert^d to haye asseppcble^ for the purpose of 
battk> atn4 t^ b^ve acti,ii^,lly fired ou.the troops 
lii|t |hp tfu^liotight to be r^l^fcd without respect 
of persons or party. The affair is well known to 
fiave been otherwise; and the rebels were crowded 
in a place neither fit for defence nor escape — a 
yide plain without, hedge, ditch, or bog, quite 
contrary to their constantly practised modes of 
t\rarfare. 

This eagerness of the soldiery for the slaugh- 
ter of unresisting rebels, was often fatal to loyal- 
ists; for frequeq.t;ly ^ome of the latter were 
prisoners with the former, and being found 
among them by the troops, were not always dis- , 
tinguished from them, A remarkable instance, 
ifnthe march of this army, was on the point of 

^ liaying place in thp melancholy catalogue which 
might be authentically formed. A protestant 
clergyman of an amiable character, Mr. Wiljiam- 
son of Kildare, who had fallen into tlie hands 
pf the insurgents, and been saved from slaugh-. 
tpr by the humanity of a Roman catholic priest, 
was, B^ having been spared by the rebels, deemed 
^ rebel by the soldiery, who were proceeding^ in- 
stantly to hang him, when they were in a critical 
tnoirient prevented by the inteiference of his 
bj'other-in-law, colonel Sankey. 
" While, hy the above-mentioned operations, the 
communication was, in great measure laid oper^. 



Ibetween the several patts of the kingdom and the 
capital, which had for some days actoally sus-^ 
tained a species of blockade, an insurrection had 
burst oiit in a part where it was least expected; 
and was growing into so formidable a force, as 
to occasion the most serious alarms for the saffety 
of government. The county of Wexford had 
been but very recently and but partially orga- 
nized, and many of its Romanist inhabitants had 
addressed the lord lieutenant through the medium 
of the Earl of Mountnorris, protesting their 
loyalty, and pledging themselves to arm, if per- 
mitted, in defi^ce of government, whenever 
there, should be occasion. , Not above six hun- 
dred men, at most, of the regular army o? 
militia, were stationed in the county, the de- 
fence of which was almost abandoned to the 
troops of yeomen and theijr suppjementaries, ' 
while the magistrates in the several districts 
were employed in ordering the seizure, impri- 
sonment, and whipping of numbers of sus- 
pected persons.* These yeomen, being pro-^ 
testants, prejudiced against the Rbmanists by f 
traditionary and other accounts of the former \ 
cruelties of that sect in Ireland, fearing such I 
crudties in case of insurrection, and confirmed* i 

♦ I ai3i well ittformed that 'no floggings bad place in tbe town 
of Wexford, nor in the baronies of Forth and Bargy ; and that 
in those baronies no atrocities wete committed before or since 
the rebeUioxj^ 



10* HISTQRT OF THi; 

/ ixvthis fear by papers ifomid in the pockets of 
I some prisoners;, containing some of th^ old san^ 
I guinary dqctrines of th^ Romish church, which 
. I aui^oriTed the extermination of her«tics» acted 
I vith i spirit ill fitted tp all?iy religious hatred, or 
' \t9.pr^vpnt a proneness to rebel- 
How far the assurances, conveyed through 
Earl Mountnorris, of the loyalty, or peaceable 
^nteqtiojris, of the Romanists inhabiting the; 
^ounty of Wexford, was the cause of that fatal 
' security in government, &ial to the lives and 
prope^ies of thousands, or) acpount of which this 
county .was left iu so defenseless a condition, I 
am not authorized to pronounce. Doubtless, to 
ej^cite so violent an irritation by floggings, im- 
prisonnaents, and a variety of insults, without 
SuflScien^ means to enforce obedience, appears to 
have been an unfortunate mistake, as was that of 
the iijistitutipu qf yeoman cavalry instead of in- 
fantry. I havp nojt the least doubt that of the 
latter a force might have been raised within the 
county of Wexford sufficient to crush the xcr 
bellioQ in its CQmqnencement in this part of 
Ireland. 

Whether an insurrection would iu the then 
existingstatcQf the kingdom have taken place in 
the^ county of Wexford, or, in case of its erup- 
tion, how much less formidable and sanguinary 
it would have been if no acts of severity had 
been committed by the soldiery, the yeomei)^ q^ 



mXSH REBELLION* lOS 

their supplementary associates, without the direct 
authority of their superiors, or command of thd \ 
magistrates, is a questidh which I am not able \ 
positively to answer.* In the neighbourhood ■ 
of Gorey, if I am not mistaken, the terror of tho 
whippings was in particular, so great, that the 
people would have been extremely glad to re- 
nounce for ever all notions of opposition to go4 
vemmeiit, if they could have been assured of 

^ Perhaps the tme state of tbe oise is this :-p-^The people were 
fb deterzx^ned fm insurrection, that it could not otherwi^ have 
))een prevented than by a proper diq>otttion of a large; military 
force. The sending of such a force was prevented by the rcr s 
presentations of Earl Mountnorris, and therefore the insurrection 
took place. In my opinipn, the force which was sent, ill com- 
inandedf and, with some e}(ceptions> ill officered, promoted the 
work of r^b^llion by pr«vioua irritation and posterior timidity. 

Some magistrates of thf county of Wexford a$nn t^at not 
more than one man was flogged in all the county before 
die insurrection. I wish these gentlemen would publish their 
«ffirmation or negation in print. They mus^ admit that several 
weje flogged in the town of Gqrey alone. Of these I knew 
three : Anthony Bolger, Michael Davis, and one Howlet ; an4 
they must admit that at l^asf^pne fis^eliation, if pot more« was ex < 
acted in tl^f town pf little Limerick, near Gorey. I have not at 
present sufficient mund tp suspect that any of the^e were flogged 
without proper cause; but half-hangings enough were com< 
mitted by others witl^ut any eomultation of magistrates. The. 
flogging however^ in xh^ county of Wexfoffd, were alp^ost 
notiiing.comps^tively with other counties; and the terror o^ 
people of this county arose chiefly from floggings inflicted else- 
where ; and the incipiescy of floggings amopg themselvc^' 
|iousf:J)}^irnings, &c. 



166 HISTORY OF THE 

permi^on to remain in a state of quietness.. As 
an instance; of this terror, I shall relate the folr 
lowing fact On the morning of the 23d of 
May, a labouring nian,:named Dennis M 'Daniel, 
came to my house, with looks of the utmost con- 
sternatiQu and dismay, and confessed to me that 
he had taken the United Irishman's oath, and 
)iad paid far a pike with which be had not yet 
been furnished, nineteen-pence-^halfpenny,^ to one 
Kilty, a smith, who had administered the oath to 
him and many others. While I sent my eldest 
son, who was a lieutenant of yeomanry, to arrest 
Kilty, I exhorted M'Daniel to surrender himself 
to a magistrate and make his confession; but 
this he positively refused, saying that he should 
in that case be lashed to make him produce a 
pike which he had not, and to confess what he 
knew nptt I then advised him, as the only 
alternative, to remain quietly at home, promisting 
that if he should be arrested on the information 
of others, I would represent bis ease to the 
magistrates, He took my advice, but the fear of 
arrest and lashing, had so taken possession of hr^ 
thought^, that be could neither eat nor sleep, 
and on the paprning of the ?5th, he- fell on his 
&jce and expired in a little grovernear my house; 
Whatever might have been the estate of affairs 
witH ditfe'rent management, the standard of 
rebellion, after an apparently pa^ive.submissionj. 



IRISH tEBELLrON^ 107 

was at last hoisted between Gorey and Wexford, 
oh the night of the 26th of May, by John Mur- 
phy, Romish priest of Boulavogue, commonly 
Jcnown by the denomination of Father John, as 
in the south of Ireland the title oi father is comr 
monly prefixed to the name of each priest This 
man, who was coadjutor, or assistant curate, of 
the parish priest, was a man of shallow intel- 
lect, a fanatic in religion, and, from the latter 
circumstance, too well qualified to inflame the 
superstitious minds of the ignorant multitude. In 
an attempt to disperse a body of the insurgents, 
»t the head of a part of his troop, Thomas 
Bool^ey, a brave young man, first lieutenant of 
the Camolin cg-valry, was killed, as he incauti- 
ously advanced before his men to harangue the 
rebels; and his house, ' about seven miles from ^ 
Gorey, was burned. From this commenceQ;ient 
of hostility, the commotion spread rapidly on 
- all sjides ; and the collection of rebel parties was 
^ greatly promoted by the reports disseminated of 
numbers of people shot in the roads, at Avork in 
theufidds, and even in their houses, unarmed an4 
vnofFending, by straggling parties of yeomen;, 
Influenced by these reports, which certainly 
were not without too much foundation, grea^ 
immbers took refuge with their friends in arms, 
msomuch that, on the following morning of 
Whit-Sunday, the 27th of M^y, two large bodies' 
Hjere collected, one on the hill of Oulart, nearly 



JOB, , .HISTORY OF THE 

midway between Gorey and Wexford, about 
eleven miles to the south of the former; the other 
on Kilthomas hill, an inferior ridge of Slyeeve- 
Bwee mountain^ about nine miles westward of 
Gorey. Each, especially that of Oulart, where 
the number of combatants was less than at Kil- 
thomas, was a confused multitude of both sexfes 
and all ages. 

^ Against the latter body of insurgents, consist- 
ing of two or three, thousand men in arms, 
marched a body of yeomen, on the same morning, 
between two and three hundred in number, in-» 
fan try and cavalry, from the neighbouring town 
of Carnew, in the county of Wicklow. The 
infantry of this little army, or corps of Shillela 
yeoman, flanked at a considerable distance on 
the left by the cavalry, advanced intrepidly up 
the hill against the rebels, who were posted on 
the summit. 7'he latter, if they had been sen- 
sible of their advantage, and kno^vvn how to im- 
prove it, might, as has appeared by subsequent, 
events. Have surrounded and destroyed this little 
body of brave men ; but they were struck with 
a panic, and fled, after a few discharges of 
musketry from the yeomen, at too great a dis- 
tance to make any considerable execution. About 
a hundred and fifty of the rebels were killed in 
the pursuit, and the yeomen, exasperated 1^ the^ 
death of lieutenant Bookey, and other violent 
acts, burned two Romish chapels, and about ^ 



IfllSH ffEBELLIONT. I0j> 

hutidfed cabins and farm-houses of Ilomanists^, 
in the course of seven miles march. 

Tfie event of battle was very different, on the 
same day, on the hill of Oulart, where Father 
John commanded. A detachment of a hundred 
and ten chosen men of the North-Cork militia, 
Under the command of heutenant colonel Foote, 
marched from Wexford, and attacked the rebeb 
on the southern side of the hill. Such contempt 
of an enemy, as creates incatition^ has often 
proved fatal- The rebels fled at the first onsets 
and were pursued at fall speed by the militia, 
who were so little apprehensivie of resistance, 
that no rank or order\ was observed. While the 
rebels were making their escape with precipita* 
tion toward the northern sid6 of the hill, they 
'were admonished that a large body of cavalry 
had been seen that morning advancing against 
them in the opposite direction, apparently with 
design to intercept their flight, or co-operate 
with the militia in a donble attack. As the 
Wexfordian insurgents as yet were totally un- 
acquainted with warfare, the onset of Cavalry 
waiS^ in the imaginations of many among them 
more terrible than that of infantry. They there- 
fore ignorantly supposing the cavalry to be still 
in their ncighbourhoody while Father John ex-" 
claimed that they must either conquer or perish^ 
turned against the militia, who were now arrived 
4»ear the summit, almost breathless; and charg- 



ilO HIStORY* OF Trifi- 

Jog them with their pikes, killed almost in ail* 
instant all of the detachment, except the lieu- 
tenant colonel, a Serjeant and three privates. If 
we may believe the accounfs of some of the m- 
siargents engaged in this butchei-y, no more than 
about three hundred of their number ventured to 
make this furious attack, of whom only six were 
.armed with firelocks^ the rest carrying pikes, 
with which they made so sudden and close ^n 
assault that only three of them wfere killed, and 
six wounded, by the disordered soldiery. The 
body of cavalry, who terrified the rebels into 
this feat of courage against the militia, consisted 
of two troops und^r captain Hawtrey White* 
These had marched from Gorey very early that 
morning, with design to attack the iiisurgent3 j 
but after a march of twelve or thirteen miles, 
the number and position of the enemy were ima- 
gined to be such as to render a retreat necefssary; 
and after-the killing of some few unarmed strag- 
glers, tod sonie old men who had remained ia 
their houses, they returned to Gorey quite igno- , 
rant of the intended march of troops from Wex- 
. ford, on the opposite side, and unappriehensive of 
the unhappy fate which awaited that detach- 
ment. 

While the country exhibited a scene of distress 
and consternation — houses in flames, and families 
ifying on all sides for asylum : the loyalists to the 
t^wns, others to the hills, the body of rebel% 



tfUSH RtBIElXMOir. Ill 

under Father John, marched from Oulart, (lushed 
with victory,' and perpetually augmented on its 
way by new accessions. They first took posses* 
sion of Camolin, a small town six miles west- 
ward of Gorey, the loyal inhabitants of which 
had taken refuge in the latter; and thence ad- 
vanced to .Ferns two miles further, whence the 
loyalists had fled, six miles southward to Ennis- 
corthy, whither they were followed by the rebels, 
nie number of the latter, on their arrival at En- 
niscorthy, which they attacked at ope o'clock 
in the afternoon, amounted to about seven thou- 
sand, of whom about eight hundred were armed 
with guns,* The town, situate on both sides of 
the river Slaney, was garrisoned by about two 
hundred and ninety men, consisting of militia, 
y^)naan infantry and cavalry, beside some volun- 
teers* At the Avestern side of the town, called 
the Duffry-gate, whither the yeoman -infentry 
had marched ta meet them, the rebels, driving 
before them a number of horses and othei* cattle 
to disorder the ranks of their oponents, a strata- 
gem which had been practised by other bodies of 
insurgents at Tara-hill and elsewhere,! and rais- 

* A large quantity of fire arms had been sent at such a time to 
Camolin, and left in such a manner, as to answer the same 
purpose to the rebels as if they had been sent designedly for 
their use ; the intention doubtless was quite otherwise, as iir 
was done by the management of Earl Mountnorris. 

t This rude stratagem, of driving cattle against the ranks of 
an enemy, we find succ^fally put in practice against the old" 



lie HtSTOUT dF THE 

ing loUd and horrible shouts, according to thcil' 
universal custom oh such occasions, made an 
irregular but furious ohset As the North-Cork 
militia/ whose cdmmaiider, with a conduct not 
easily Comprehensible by unihilitary men, had 
nbt without the utmost difficulty, anid most car- 
nest entreaties, been persuaded to lead his men 
fiom the bridge, and to form a left wing to the 
defending aitiiy, retreated to their former station^ 
the brave yeomen, who composed the right 
wing, finding themselves totally unsupported, 
and unable to withstand alone the multitude 
of assailants, retreated after a few discharges of 
musketry to the market-house, where they made 
a stand. A disorderly fight was maintained iu 
the to>yn, which, to reader it untenable, was 
filled in many parts by the disaffected part of the 
inhabitants, some of whom also aimed shots 
from the windows at the garrison. The assail- 
ants in a short time extending themselves, 
around, and making dispositions to ford, the 
river in several places, were gall(?d from tl>e 
l\ridg/5, which was now become the station of de- 
fence, by the fife of the militia, who doubtless^ 
if their force had been properly directed from 
the beginning of the attack, in conjunction with 

Irish inhabitants of the county of Waterford, by Raymond l6 
Gross, who landed near Waterford in the year II71, witb 
•ighty men, the advanced guard of Earl Strongbow*^ ^tinfy. 
Leland^s Hi$t< of Ireland, B. u chap. 2. 



IRISH REBELLION. 113 

the yeomen, would have either entirely repulsed 
the rebels, or committed such havoc among them 
as greatly > to check their ardour for the prosecu- 
tion of their schemes. Notwithstanding the 
little assistance, except at the bridge, received 
from the militia by the yeomen and volunteers, 
go fluctuating for some time was the success of 
the day, that many persons, to avoid the fury of 
each prevailing party in turn, alternately hoisted 
the orange and the green ribbon. At length,, 
when th^ rebels,, wading across the river, which 
was then low, both above and below the bridge, 
up to the middle in water, some to the neck, 
had entered the eastern part, called Templeshan- 
Bon, and set sonie houses on fire, the garrison, 
after a gallant defence of above t^hree hours, in. 
^hich the Enuiscorthy ii^fantry, commanded by 
captaiij Jqshua Poundeu^ fired above forty rounds 
each m^-n, abandoned; the. town, .and retreated 
in gr^at disorder tp Wexford, Thie loss of the 
garrison, including vq^unteers, amounted to near 
ninety, among whom was John Pounden, of 
Daphne, Esq ; a gentleman universally beloved; 
that of the rebels, whq certainly si^ffered a very 
galling fife, was said to be five hundred; but I 
am inclined to think that half that number would 
be nearer the truth.* Before the yeomanry quitted 

♦ Edward Roche, one of the chief leaders of the rebels in their ' 
Oiarchto Enniscorthy, is said to have decided in the tiime of h»' 
iinprisomnent, that fourteen hundred chosen xoen, most or aS^ 



Jl^ HISTORY OF THE 

the town they had expended their ammunition, 
though they had repeatedly filled their pouchesi 
from the militia magazines 

I hav6 given this account from a comparison 
of different statements made hy men who had 
been on the scene of action ; but captain Snowe, 
who commanded on this occasion, has published 
^ pamphlet in his own vindication, which appears 
to me to be candid and satisfactory, Expecting 
4x) be attacked by two columns of rebels at once^j 
one on each Side of the river, which would have 
beeii the case if they had been skilfully con- 
ducted, he took post on the bridge, the only 
statioti whence he could hope to defend the 
wholCi Finding that they had advanced in one 
column only, he mirched with his whole force 
to support the yeomen at the Duffry-gate ; but 
whien he was proceeding to put his men iii order 
cJf battle> he was advised by captaiii Richatds of 
the yeoman cavalry to file to ,the left, to oppose 
^ body of rebels, ^ho were taking a circuit to 
enter the town at the rear of the army, by what; 
is called the Daphne road, Observing that this 
body, instead of facing his men, took a wider 

furaislied "with fire»iirms, composed the front of the rebel columnj^ 
«nd that of these i^qt less tnan sk hundred were slain. Wha 
will vpuch for the existence of this declaration, and for the 
^dcuracy dF knowledge, the veracity^ and the sanity of Roch)?, 
wha, if { am lightly informtd^ V^as deranged wh^u a jptit 



IRISH REBELLION, 115 

Circuit to cross the river, and to seize the now 
unguarded part on the opposite side, he was 
obliged to retreat with all possible haste to his 
former post, where he arrived soon enough to 
make a great slaughter, and to frustrate their 
intention at that time. I am informed that cap- 
tain Snowe was deserted by his two subaltern 
officers on this trying occasion* * I believe his 
situation to have be^n such as might have 
puzzled the brain of even a Buonaparte, and 
that his conduct has been too severely criticised 
by his fellow combatants in this business. 

Most of the loyal inhabitants of Enniscorthy, 
and a multitude of others, who had come thither 
for protection, fled through the flames toward 
Wexford ; and providentially the direction and 
weakness of the wind favoured their escape, for 
they could not have otherwise passed through 
the burning streets. The, terror, consternation, 
and distress, of these fugitives, is not to be de- 
scribed, flying for their lives in a confused mul»- 
titude, without distinction of rank, sex, or age, 
almost all on foot, and leaving all their effects 
in the hands of their enemies. The state of their 
minds may be somewhat conceived from the fol- 
lowing circumstance, that women, habituated 
to all the indulgence which an affluent fortune 
affords, not only fled on foot, but also in that 
situation carried tjheir infants on their backs to 



\ 



116 MISTOET OP THE 

Wexford,* the distknce of which from Ennis^ 
c'orthy is eleven Irish, or fourteen English miles. 
Some ladies, however, were utterly unable to 
perform this march, and must haxe been aban- 
doned to their fate if they had not found some 
means of conveyance. For instance, Mrs. Ilandr 
cock, wife to a very respectable clergyman, fell, 
in her attempt to escape through the streets, on 
a heap of burning matter, from which horrible 
situation she was with diificulty raised by her 
husband, assisted by a soldier, named John Mac- 
Donough, and could proceed no farther until 
she was accommodated with a horse by the 
humanity of a yeoman. In the deplorable condi- 
tion of these fugitives, two circumstances were 
favourable: the weather was remarkable fine, and 
tliey were not pursued. Without the latter cir- 
cumstance most of them must have been de- 
stroyed or captured. Some, who found not the 
opportunity of escape, were butchered in the 
streets, or imprisoned and reserved for future 
butcliery by the rebels. 

The miserable fugitives fronl Enniscorthy^ 
found their situation far from safe in Wexford. 
This town had been in a state of alarm since the 

f Mrs. Poui^den, wife of captain Pounden, waded twice 
tjirough the river Slaney, under the fire of both parties, anc(, 
escaped, with one child, unhurt. She was obliged to leave 
m children behind her in the burning town. 



lI^rSH REBELLION. ^ 11 7 

first ti6ws of the insurrection, but particularly 
ifter the slaughter of the. North-Cork militia at 
Oulart on the 27th. The defence of this post^ 
instead of a field-battle with the rebels, Was now 
the object of the garrison. Among, the modes 
of preparation for defence, adopted on this occa- 
sion, the fires were ordered to be extinguished, 
and the roofs of the thatched houses to be strip- 
ped, lest the disaffected inhabitants should .fire 
the town, to favour the assailants^ as those of. 
Enniscorthy had donfe* 

To disperse the insurgents, if possible, with* 
Out battle or concession, or perhaps, to divert 
their attention and retard their progress, an ex- 
pedient was assayed by captain Boyd, of the 
Wexford cavalry. This officer had, in conse- 
quence of a resolution to that purpose of the . 
sheriff^ and other gentlemen, On the 26th and 
27th, from information or suspicion of treason- 
able designs, arrested Beauchamp Bagenal Har- 
vey, of Bargycastle, John Henry Colcloughj of 
Ballyteig; and Edward Fitzgerald, of Newpark 
— all three gentlemen of the county of Wexford, 
Visiting them in prison ,on the 29th, captaia 
Boyd agreed with these gentlemen that one of 
them should go to the rebels at Jinniscorthy, 
and endeavour to persuade them to disperse and 
return to their homes ; but would not give authqr 
rity to promise any terms to the insurgents in 
case of submission. Colclough^ at the requesit 



llg HISTORY OJr THE 

of Harvey, stipulated to go on condition of ^ 
being permitted to bring Fitzgerald with him* 
On the arrival of these two gentlemen at En* 
hiscorthy, about Four in the afternoon of the 
same day, they found the rebels in a state of 
confusion, distracted in their councils, and un- 
determined in any plan of operations — some 
proposing to attack Newtownbarry, others Ross, 
others Wexford, others to remain in their present 
post, the greatest numbei; to march home for the 
defence of their houses against orangemen. But 
when shouts, repeated from group to group, an- 
nounced the arrival of the gentlemen prisonersy as 
they were called, from Wexford, the straggling 
Multitude soon collected into one body. The 
rebel gentlemen's message being delivered with- 
out effect, XI!olclough, a man of honour, retired 
with intention of re-entering his prison, accord- 
ing to his promise ; but Fitzgerald remained with 
the rebels, and marched with them that evening 
to a post called the Three-rocks, two miles and 
a half from Wexford, which town they had^ 
in^mediately after the arrival of the messengers, 
determined to attack. Three-rocks, which the 
tebels now chose for their military station, and 
where they remained until the following day, is 
the termination of a long, but not high ridge, 
called -the Mountain of Forth, separating the 
baronit^s of Bargy and Forth from the rest of 
the county. 



. E^riy in the morning of the 29th, colond 
Maxwell, of the Donegal militia, with two hun* 
dred men of his regiment and a six-poun^er, 
accompanied by dolonel ColvillCj captain Youngs 
ind lieutenant Sodon of the thirteen;th regiment^ 
who volunteered on the occasion, arrived in 
Wexford from Duncannon-^fortj dispatdied by 
general Faw:Qet, who had been appriz^ed of t^i? 
insurrection on the 27th, by captain Knox, aqi 
officer sent to escort :seijeant Sttoley, a ju4g^ 
pf assise, on his way to MUuater. This rein*^ 
forcement not being sufficient, a gentlema^^ 
named Joshua Sutton, carried a ktter from the 
mayor of Wexford to the general, requesting au 
additional fdrce ; ind returned with an exhilir 
bating answer, that the general himself woulcj 
commence liis march for Wexford tiie sam* 
cvenilig, from Duncannon, with the thirteenth 
regiment, four companies of the Meath militia^ 
and a party of artillery with two howitzers* 
On the receipt of this intelligence, colonel 
Maxwell, leaving the five passes into the 
town guarded by the yeomen and North-Cork 
militia, took post with his men on /the Windmillt 
hill above the town, at day break on the fol- 
lowing morning, the 30th,* with resolution .to 

♦ At this time, tte great and beautifpl wooden bridge of 
Wexford .was, for purposes as yet unknown, set on fire by 
some rebels. Some imagine the end proposed to be, the pr^» 
rention of luccours from the opposite side of the river. 



I2d - HISTORY OF THfi' 

. march against the^neihy on the aitival of general 
Fawcejt's army. - 

' The geh'^rd had marched aceoi-dirig to hU 
p^omisip, on the evening of the 29th ; biit un- 
fortunately halting at Taghmon, seven miles 
from Wexford^ he had sent forward ai detach- 
ment of eighty-eight men, including eighteen 
of the artillery; with the howitzers, under the 
command of captain Adams, of the Meath 
militia. This detachment was^ intmcepted early 
in the morning of the 30th, under three rocks, 
by the rebel* artny, the howitzers taken, and 
almost the whale ' party slain. The- general is 
said to have been in bed when he received th^ 
news of this disaster, and faliing back prec^in 
tatdy with his army to Dunc^nion, to have stent 
his family to England — detaining, the: :pack«t* 
boat two hours for that purpose^' r 

Informed €^f the destruction of captain Adam's 
detachment by lieutenant Fairclough,, of the 
Meath militia, and lieutenant Birch of the artil* 
lery, who had escaped the slaughter, and were 
brought to Windmill-hill by the patrole guards^ 
colonel Maxwell advanced immediately with 
what forces he could collect towards the eaenlyi 
'With design to':retake the howitzers, and to go* 
operate with general Fa wcet, of whose retreat he 
liad no suspicion. When he arrived within can- 
non-shot of the rebels, he found that the how- 
itzers had been drawn to tl>e top of t|fp ridgje^. 



Irish JiE6:ELtiokr. TSTl 

;atid that shells were thrown at his army with a 
precision which evinced the operation of some 
skilfiil managers. After some discharges of his 
^ix-pouiide^» in return, the colonel observing his 
left flank exposed by the retreat of ^ome of the 
Taghmon cavairy, tKte enemy making a. motion 
to surround hirii, and no appearance of general 
Fawcet, retired, in good order ;to Wexford,- with 
•the loss of lieutenant-colonel Watson killed, and 
two privates Wounded. r 

The situation of WexfOrd, comrifianded. by 
hills, rendered it indefensible against artillery, 
by a garrison of only six hundred nien^ when 
the increasing, number of the :rebels at Three- 
rocks amounted to .fifteen, thousand, beside a 
strong force : left at Enniscorthy. A nunaber of 
disaffected yeomen deserted to the ^nemy ; many 
concealed rebels Were with good reason suspected 
to be awaiting within the town an opportunity of 
co-operating with their associates without ; and, 
to complete the distrust and depression of spirits 
of the rest of the garrison, the North-Cork 
militia, who had been stationed near the barrack, 
quitted their post about half after ten o'clock, 
directing their march to Duncannon ; and were 
followed immediately, and soon overtaken, by 
Captain Gornock with bis yeoman infantry, who 
retreated in like manner.* — These considerations 

♦ In excuse of captain Coraock who is generaUy admitted 
lK) have behaved well in the defence of Enniscorthy, his frien<is 



Ii2 iiisTORt ^t i%^ 

obliged colonel Majcwdl to evtcttate Wex#or4 } 
knd two deputies, counsellor Eich^i^s, an^ bif> 
brother, an apotliecai^y, being jsent to fw?tiify the 
^evacuation to the rebels^ to prevent thcan from 
acting as if the town had been taken by atorm, the 
army retreated to the fort of Duncannon, twoity 
three miles distant, accompanied by such of 
;the loyal inbabitants and refugees from othef 
places as were apprised of the intended evacu- 
ation, and were willing and able to perform the 
march; hut, as the troops may be said to iave 
.stolen away frojn the town, great numbers wene 
icft in the power of the rebels, merely by theii" 
ignorance of an intended retreat. 

allege that, seeing the retteat df the North-Cork militia, he 
thought it a retreat of the whole garrison, and that he was con- 
Nfirmed in that miststke by the ertoneons information of a Mr^ 
Jones. But captain Snowe seems to intimate, that the re-» 
treat was begun at least as soon by captsdn Cornock's men ^ 
by his. His words are these : (p. 16.) "I was preparing i6 
<* march my men back to the barack, when the Scarawaish 
*• yeomanry, with their officersrand part of the Ifbrth-Cori^ 
*^ from the barrack, with an officer and 'serjeant major, ad- 
<' vanned to die barrier y the men of the North-Cork at the 
<* barrier immediately' joined them, and in spite of toy utmost 
•* endeavours, marched out along with them ; some even 
** scaled the breast-work. Here I thought it my duty not to 
•* abandon such a number of Tnen. I Uierefore took charge 
'*' of them, and succeded in keeping them together on 
** Ae retreat, and preventing every species of depredation zdA 
** violence^ not a single instance of which occured, eicept thd 
<* taking of some horses from the adjacent fields, tomcruntjome 
'' of th« fainting and worn-out soldiers.^' > 



litlsH ittiBEtLioir* 123 

t am sorry to have^ to add, that the troops iii 
their progress, on this occasion, through tht 
baronies of Forth and JBargy, are said to have pro- 
ceeded in such disorder, that in case of pursuit^ 
which was very strenuously advised by one of 
the chiefs, they might have been destroyed by 
the rebel army ; while by the devastations com- 
piitted in their way, by the burning of cabins, 
and shooting of peasants,* they augmented the 
number and rage of the insurgepts — who took 
possession of Wexford without opposition. A 
great number of loyalists in the town, who had 
not escaped with the retreating army, endear 
voured to crowd on board the yessels in the 
harbour, to take refuge in Britain; but of these 
only a few effected their purpose, for most of the 
vessels being manned by Romanists, when the 
town was observed to be in possession of the 
rebels, returned to the quays from the mouth of 
the harbour, and relanded their people. 

While the southern parts of the county of Wex- 
ford were in this horribl.e state of commotion, the 
northern, about Gorey, were also frightfully agi- 
tated. The retreat, already mentioned, of the 
yeoman cavalry from Oulart, early on the morn- 

* I am informed by a respectable gentleman of Wexford, that 
the yeomen of the retreating apny ought to be exempt from 
tins censure ; that they behaved to the satisfaction of colonel 
ColvUle, who •ommanded the retret^t, "and were by him place* 
lA the front. 



1^1 MtSTORY ^F Tfifi 

ing of the 27th of May, to Gorey, was folio W 
by great numbers of people hastening to thi 
town for protection, and carrying what they 
could of their effecte ^ith them ; many, however^ 
through terror and precipitation, ^ leaving all 
behind. As Gorey, consisting only of one street ' 
with, a number of lanes, was garrisoned by no 
mclre than; thirty of the North-Cork milida, 
under lieutenantSwayne, and at) umber of yeomen, 
assisted by an undisciplined crowd, some of 
whom were armed only with pikes, to abandon 
the town, and retreat to ArkloW, nihe miles' to 
the north, in the county of Wicklow, was at iSrst 
resolved ; but afterwards to defend the town was 
determined, carts and waggons being drawn by 
way of ramparts across the avenues and the 
street— the undisciplined men placed at the win- 
dpws to fire on the approaching enemy, and thfc 
disciplined arranged about the centre of the town. 
In the evening arrived a reinforcement of the 
Antrim militia, under lieutenant Elliot, an expe- 
rienced and excellent officer ; but as accountis 
of devastations and murders, received in the 
course, of the day, seemed to indicate the ap- 
proach of an army of rebels, the apprehensions of 
whom were rendered far more terrible by the 
news of the North-Gork militia slaughtered at 
Oulart, orders were issued to abandon the town, 
and retire to Arklow at five o'clock on the fol-^ 
lowing morning, the 28th of May. 



IHISH REBELLION-^ 125 

The Earl of Courtown, who had resolved to 
defend Gorey, if possible, and who, for want of 
an adequate force, was obliged to abandon it, 
Tiad embodied a troop of yeoman cavalry in 
October, of the year "1 796, and had added to it a 
body of infantry and .a considerable number of 
supplementary men. In other parts, of the coun-: 
try, where troops of this kind had been embodied, 
subscriptions liad been raised, and a stock-purse 
formed, for the defraying of a variety of extraor- 
dinary expences; but not a farthing was con-- 
tributed by the gentlemen in the neighbourhood 
of Gorey to assist the earl, on whom was thrown 
the whole expence, and who exerted himself with 
an uncommon assiduity and activity. As he 
had performed much in the providing of a force 
to obviate or suppress rebellion, so his treatment 
of the common people, by his affable manners, 
had been always such as was best adapted to pro- 
duce content in the lower classes, and prevent a 
proneness to insurrection. I consider myself as 
bound in strictness of justice to society, thus 
far to represent the conduct of this nobleman, 
iDoubtless, the people in tke neighbourhood of 
Gorey were the last and least violent of all in the 
county of Wej^ford, in rising against the esta-r 
blished authority ; and certainly the behaviour of 
the Stopford family in that neighbourhood, toward 
their inferiors, had always b^fn remarkably 
conciliating and huinan^. 



12S HISTORY OP THK 

As the order to retreat was very sudden, on 
account of ttie imagined rapid approach of 
a resistless and ferocious enemy, a melancholy 
scene of trepidation, confusion, and flight Aiiras 
the consequence; the affrighted crowd of people 
running in all directions for their horses, har-^ 
nessing their cars and placing their families on 
them with precipitation, and escaping speedily 
as possible from the town. The road was soon 
iilled to a great extent with a train of cars loaded 
with women and children, accompanied by a 
multitude on foot, many of whom were women 
with infants on their back§. The weather being 
hot and dry, the cloud of dust raised by the 
fugitive multitude, of whom I with my family was 
a part, rendered respiration difficult. The recep*. 
tion which we found at Arklow was not well 
suited to our calamitous condition* Almost 
fainting with hunger, thirst, fatigue, and want 
of sleep, we were denied admittance into the * 
town, by orders of the commanding officer of 
the garrison, captain Rowan of the Antrim regi^ 
ment; and great part of the poorer fugitives 
retiring, took refuge that day and night undei^ 
the neighbouring hedges; but the better sort 
after a little delay, were admitted, on condition 
of quitting the town in half ^n hqjir, The loy- 
alists, on permission to enter Arklov^ were 
obliged to deliver their arms at the gate of the 
barrack to the guard, who promised to restor* 



IRISH REBELLIO:tT. 127 

them; but, instead of this, they ><rere aftenvarcj* 
formed into a pile m the yard of the barrack and 
burned, A man named Taylor, clerk of Camolln 
church, who made some scruple to surrender his 
arms was shot by the guard* After our admis-? 
sion, our situation was not s/o comfortable ^s wc 
might have expected, for no refreshment could 
be procured by money for men or horses, and 
the hearts of the inhabitants in general seemed 
quite hardened against us. But, for my own 
part, I found very humane treatn^ent After 
remaining some time in the street, my family were 
courteously invited by a lady, to whom we were 
totally unknown, a IVfrs. Hunte, into her hous^ 
where we were kindly refreshed with fbod and 
drink ; and a gentleman, Mr. Joseph Alford, to 
whom we were equally unknown, coming acci- 
dentally where we were, insisted on our going to 
his house, three miles from Arklo\<^, where we 
found a number of refugees^ all of wliom were 
treated with the most humane attention. 

Gorey, meantime, was in a singular predica-t 
jnent — abandoned by the loyalists, while the res| 
of the inhabitants in fear and dubious anxiety 
remained closely shut within their houses, inso-t 
IBUch that all was in silence and solitude, except 
that an unprincipled female, frantic with joy afc 
the flight of her imagined eneftiies, Capered in an 
Extraordinary manner in the street ; end that ^ 
pacH of hound* belonging to one of the f ugitivd 



1^8 HrSTORY OF THB 

gentry, ^expressed their feelings on the occasion, 
by a hideous and mournful yell; and that six 
men who had been that morning, though un-» 
armed, taken prisoners, shot through the body 
and left for dead in the street, were writhing 
with pain-^one of whom in particular, was lying 
against a wall, and, though unable to speak, 
threatened with his fist a protestant who had run 
back into thetownforsomething whichhe had for- 
gotten. The yeomen returned in a few hours to 
Gorey, but immediately retreated again to Ark- 
low; and one of them, in riding through the 
former, n^et with a dangerous accident; — a quan-. 
tity of gunpowder had* been spilled on the pave- 
ment by the militia in their hasty retreat, which, 
by a spark struck by one of the horses shoes, blew 
up, and singed, both horse and man in a frightful 
manner, without, however, any fatal effects. As 
the rebels had bent their march toward the 
southern parts, Gorey remained unmolested, 
^though destitute of defence. Filled as it was 
with a variety of goods, great part oi which had; 
been, carried tl^ither for safety from the neigh* 
bouring p^rtjs, it pfresented a tempting object of 
depredation; but the pilfering of the lower class 
qf the towns people was prevented by the better* 
sgjct of Romanist inhabitants, who formed themr! 
selves into guards to protect the houses: of their 
protestant neighbours; and when a multitude of ^ 
v^pmeij. h^d assembled at some distance, to K^omej 



IRISH REBELLtON. 129 

and plunder the town, they dispersed in a fright 
OH the receipt of fabe news that the Ancient- 
British Regiment of cavalry was approaching* 
At length John Hunter Gowan, Esq. a magis* 
trate who had in a most meritorious and success- 
ful manner exerted himself many years in the 
apprehending and prosecuting of robbers, and 

' had been partly rewarded for his services by a 
pension from government of lOOl. a year, col- 
lected a^ body of men to garrison the town. On 
the 30th and 31st of May, the greater part of 
the fugitives returned from Arklow to their 
homes, and the militia and yeomanry, who had 
abandoned Gorey on the 28th, resumed their 
station in it. 

In the mean time the insurgents having pos- 
session of all the southern parts of the county of 
Wexford, except Ross and Duncannon, on the 
western border, began to turn their attention 
toward the north; and on the morning of the 1st 
of June, the beautiful little town of Bunclody, 
otherwise termed Newtownbarry, situate ten 
miles north-westward of Enniscorthy, was at- 
tacked by a great body of rebels, detached from 
their post of Vinegar-hill, an emmence at the 
foot of which the town of Enniscorthy is built. 
The garrison, including yeomen and volunteers, 
consisted of about five hundred men, of whom 
about three hundred were militia, under Colonel 

. Lestrange, of the King's county regiment. The 

K 



196 HISTORY OJ? THft 

fdbNel f<urce, amotmthig perhaps to five thomae^ 
m number, conducted by several chiefs, amo^g 
idiom vt»i Father K^n, a ftian of extraordinary 
statitre, strength, and fer^ity, tranced to the 
attack on bolii sides of the river Slaney, on th« 
imtern bank of which the tolvn is built, and 
ccmmenced a fire iiiom a brass six-pounder, a 
hoirit^er, aii<i|^ .^tne swivel guns. The colonel; 
according to the too-commonly praictised mode 
(sf th^ king's officers, ordered the troops to 
abandon the town, contrary to the earnest reiiion* 
strances of tlie yeomen (^cers and volunteer j 
but after a retreat of about a mile, he yielded tc^ 
the solicitations of lieutenant- colonel Westenra, 
and suffered the troops to be led back to th^ 
succour erf" a few determined loyalists, who had 
remained in the towUi and continued a fiti on 
the enemy from some houses. This accidental 
manoeuvre had all the advantages of a preconcerted 
stratagem. The rebels, who had rushed into 
the street in a confused multitude, intent on 
pitmder and devastation, and totally unappre-^ 
hmsive of the return of the troops, were unpre- 
pared to withstand the onset of the soldiery^ 
preceded by the fire of two pieces of cannon. 
Witii the loss of only two men on the side of the 
loyalists, that of the rebels may have amounted 
to near t^vo hundred. This victory wss of no 
small importance, as their conquest of Bunclody 
would have opened a way for the Wexfbrdiaa 



lEISH REBEtLIOX, , IJJl 

tebeU into the county of Carlow, the rising of • 
whose inhabitants to co-operate with -those of 
Wicklow and Kildare, ahready in arms, must iu 
the state of the country, as it was then circum«( 
stanced, have given great embarrassment to 

. administpation^ • 

On advice received by the garrison of Bun* 
''clody of the. attack intended by the rebeb, an 
express had been sent to Clonnegall, twcf inile^ 
and a half distant; ordering the troops posted 
there' to march immediately to Bunclody. The . 
commander of these troops, lieutenant Young o£ 
the Donegal militia, instead of marching imme^ 
diately, spent two hours in the hanging of four 
prisoners, in spite of the most earnest remon- 
strances of the gentlemen of the town, and an 
officer of the North- Cork, who considered these 
men as not deserving death, some at least of 
whom had actually declined to join the rebels 
when it was fully in their power. By this delays 
and an unaccountably circuitous march, three 
miles longer than the direct road, the troops 
arrived not at Bunclody till after the action was 
entirely ovw, yet the North-Cmk officer pursued 
with such alacrity, that with the assistance of 
some yeoman cavalry, he took two car-loads of 

. ammunition from the rebels, Mr. Young, on 
his arrival in Clonnegall, had commanded the 
inhabitants to furnish every individual of his 
soldiers with a feather-bed, and had, without th% 



133 HISTORY OF THE 

least necessity, turned Mr. Derin:?ey, a brave 
^nd loyal gentleman and his children, out pf 
their beds; and when any remonstrance was 
made to him by another officer for the incessant 
depredations of his men, his answer was, ' I am 
the commanding officer, and damn the croppies.* 
After his march to Newtownbarry, Mr. Young 
returned not again to Clonnegall, and that town 
remained under thfe command of the North-Cork 
officer above-mentioned, lieutenant Holmes 
Justice, who maintained a laudable discipline, 
and held his very dangerous post with such 
intrepidity, that, though it lies in the neighbour- 
hood of Carnew, it never fell into the hands of 
the rebels. 

Hills of a commanding prospect were always 
chosen by the rebels for their stations orjposts* 
These posts they termed camps, tliough they 
were destitute of tents, except a. few for their 
chiefs, and the people remained in the open air 
iti vast multitudes, men and women promiscu- 
ously, some lying covered with blankets at night, 
and some without other covering than the clothes 
which they wore in the day. This mode of 
warfare was favoured by an uninterrupted conti- 
nuance of dry and -warm weather, to such a 
length of time as is very unusual in Ireland ia 
that season, or g.ny season of the year. This was 
regarded by the rebels as a particular interposition^ 
improvidence in their favour j and some among 



IKISH REBELLION. 13S 

them are said to have declared, in a prophetic 
tone, that not a drop of rain was to fall until 
they should be masters of all Ireland. On the 
other hand, the same was considered by thefugi- ^ 
tive loyalists as a merciful favour of heaven, 
since bad weather must have miserably augmented 
their distress, and have caused many to perish. 
In these encampments jot stations, among such 
crowds of riotous undisciplined men, under no 
regular authority, the greatest disorder must be 
supposed to have prevailed. Often when a rebel 
was in a sound sleep in the night, he was robbed 
by some associate of his gun, or some other article 
at that time valuable; to sleep flat on the belly, 
with the hat and shoe$ tied under the breast, for 
the prevention of stealth, was a custom with 
many. They were in nothing more irregular 
than in the cookingof provisions, .many of them 
cutting pieces at random out of cattle scarcely 
dead, without waiting to flay them, and roasting 
those pieces on the points of their pikes, together 
with the parts of the hide which belong^ed to 
them. The heads of cattle were seldom eaten, but 
generally left to rot on the surface of the ground; 
and sowereoftenlarge parts of the, carcases, after 
many pieces had been cut from them, which 
practice might in a short time have caused a 
pestilence. 

The station which the rebels chose, when they 
bent their force toward Gorey^ was the HU 9i 



134- HtSTQBY OF THE 

Corri|frua, seven mileft towards the southwest 
from that town* A fKxly of above a thousand, 
IK>me say four thousand, detached from this post, 
took po?sje$s}on of the little village of Bally- 
cannoo^ fwr miles from Gorey, to the south, cm 
the evening df the Istof June^ and were advanc* 
mg to fix their station on the hill of Bally- 
TOanaann, midway between the above-named 
village and town, when they were met near th$ 
village by the garrison' of Gorey, who ha4 
inarche^ to stop their progress. Having returned 
hotne the preceding day with ray family from 
Arfclow, I happened to be at that time on the 
road near Gorey, when a man on the top of a 
)rouse cried out to me that all the country to the 
south was in a blaze ; for straggling parties of 
the rebels attending the motions of the njain 
body had as usual set fire to many houses. 'I 
had hardly got a view of the conflagration, when 
I heard a discharge of musketry, which conti- 
nued some time without intermission. Since I 
have learned the particulars of this engagement, 
I consider it, though small and unnoticed, as 
one of the most briUiant of the croppy war, 
' The little army, which had marched from 
Gorey on this occasion, consisted of twenty of 
the Antrim militia, under lieutenant Elliot, who 
directed the movements of the whole ; twenty 
of the North-Cork; aboutfifty yeoman iqfantry, 
including supplementary men j and three troops . 



IRISH R£B£I«LIOV* IdS 

of yeoman cavalry, the last of whom, I mean all 
the cavalry, were useless in battle. As the rebels 
had not procured accurate intelligence, and as 
troops from Publin had been some days e^pected^ 
the cloudiofdust, excited by the little army of 
Gorey, caused tiiem to imagine that a formidable 
force was coming against them. Under this 
persuasion, they disposed not themselves to the 
best advantage^ for they might easily have sur- 
rounded and destroyed tlije little band opposed 
to them. They attempted it however in a dis- 
orderly manner; but so regular and steady a 
fire was mfiintained by the militia, paiticularly 
the Antrim, that the half-disciplined supple- 
mentals of the yeomen, encouraged thereby, 
behaved with equal steadiness ; and such was 
the effect, that the rebels were totally routed, 
and fled in the utmost confusion in all directions; 
The yeoman cavalry, notwithstanding repeated 
orders from lieuteiiant Elliot, delayed too long, 
through mistake of one of their officers, to pur- 
Bue the runaways, otherwise a great slaughter 
might have been made. The victorious band 
advancing fired some houses in Ballycannoo^ 
and spread such a terror that no attempt was 
made against them from the post of Corrigrua; 
90 that they returned safely to Gorey^ with abow 
a hundred captive horses and other spoil. 

In this engagement, and all others in the begin 
fting of the rebellipi^ the rebeU elevated theit 



f " 



136 HISTORY OF THE 

guns too much for execution, so that only three 
loyalists were wounded, none killed. The num- 
ber of slain on the opposite side was probably 
about sixty, perhaps near a hundred. Many 
fine horses,, which the routed party was obliged 
to leave behind, \Vere by them killed or maimed, 
that they might be rendered useless. The hardi- 
ness and agility of the labouring classes of the 
Irish were on this and other occasions in the 
course of the rebellion, very remarkable. Their 
swiftness of foot, and activity in passing over 
brooks and ditches, were such that they could 
not always in crossing the fields be overtaken by 
horsemen ; and with so much strength of consti- 
tution were they found to be endued, that tp kill 
them was difficult, many after a multitude of 
stabs not expiring until their necks were cut 
across. In fact, the number of persons who in 
the various battles, massacres, and skirmishes of 
this war, were shot through the .body, and reco-. 
vered of their wounds, has greatly surprised me. 
A small occurrence after the battle, of which a 
son of ipine was a witness, may help to illustrate 
the state of the country at that time: — Two 
yeomen coming to a brake or clump of bushes, 
^nd observing a small motion as if some persons 
were hiding there, one of them fired into it, and 
the shot was answered by a most piteous and 
loud screech of a child. The other yeoman was. 
Xh^H Virgedb^.his companion to fire^ l$ut i4 



IRISH REBELLIOK- 137 

being a gentleman, and less ferocious, instead 
of firing, commanded the concealed persons to 
appear, when a poor woman aqd eight children, 
almost naked, one of whom was severely wounded, 
came trembling froni the brake, where they had 
secreted themselves for safety. 

Disappointed, by the defeat at Ballycanhoo, of 
taking post on Ballymanaan-hill on the 1st of 
June, and of advancing thence to Gorey on the 
2nd, the rebel army on Corrigrua-hill remained 
in that station till the 4th, Meantime the long 
and anxiously expected army under major- 
general Loftus arrived in Gorey. The sight of 
fifteen hundred fine troops, with five pieces of 
artillery, filled every loyal breast with confidence, 
insomuch that not a doubt was entertained of 
the immediate and total dispersion, of the rebels. 
The plan was to march the army in two divisions, 
by two different roads, to the post of Corrigrua, 
and to attack the enemy with combined forces^ iu 
which attack they expected the co-operation of 
some other troops. But while this arrangement 
was made, on the 4th of June, by the army, the 
rebels were preparing to quit Corrigrua, and to 
inarch to Gorey ; for, by a letter from Gorey to 
a priest named Philip Roche, then in bed in the 
house of Richard Donovan, Esq. of Ballymore, 
at, the fpot of the above-mentioned hill, infor- 
mation was received by the rebel chiefs, about 
one o'clock in ^ morning, of the intended 



138 HISTORY OF THE 

moticms of the army. The publicity of the 
adopted plan of operations, by which the disaf- 
fected in the town were enabled to give this infor* 
mation to the enemy, was probably occasioned 
by the imprudence of colonel Walpole^ who 
claimed an independent and discretionary com- 
mand. Intelligence of the plan of the rebels 
inarch was carried to the army with the most 
tiger disjpatcb, by a respectable farmer, named 
Thomas Do\v4ing, who made application 9ucce3- 
sively to ^eVeral officers, all of whom despised 
liis information, and some threatened him with 
imprisonment and chastisement if he should not 
cease bis nonsense. — The army began its march 
in two divisions, according to the above plan, 
about the same time that the rebels began theirs 
in one body. The latter were met nearly mid-» 
way between Gorey and Corrigrua by the divi- 
sion under colonel Walpole— a gentleman much 
a^ore fit for the place of a courtier than that of 
a military leader. . As no scout$ nior flanking- 
parties were etpployed by this commander, he 
knew nothing of the approach of the enemy 
until he actually saw them, at the distance of ^ 
few yards, advancing on him in a place called 
Tubberaeeriiig. Walpole seems not to have jbieea 
fieficient in courage. The action commenced 
in a confused manner. The rebels poured a 
tremendous fire from the fields on botli sides of 
the road, aad he received a faidlet through th§ 



bead in a few minutes. His troops fled in the 
utmost disorder, leaving their cannon, consist* 
ing of two six^pounders and a smaller piece, in 
the hands of the enemy. They were pursued as 
far as Gorey^ in their flight through which, they 
were galled by a fire ot* guns from some of the 
houses, where ^ome rebels had taken their station. 
The unfortunate loyalists of Gorey, who a fevr 
minutes before had thought tliemselves perfectly 
secure, 6cd, as many as could esci4>e, to Arklaw 
with the routed army, leaving all their effects 
behind. 

While Walpok's division was engaged with the 
enemy, general Loftus, marching by a different 
road, that of Bally cannoo, and hearing the noise 
of battle, detached seventy men, the grenadier 
company of the Antrim regiment of militia, across 
the fields to its assistance. This body w^ inter- . 
cepted by the rebels, who were in pursuit of the 
routed army, and almost all killed or taken; and 
as near forty men of VVal pole's division were losl^ 
the detriment on the whole amount was consider- 
able. Meanwhile, the general, ignorant of the 
colonel's fete, and xmable to bring bis artillery 
across the fields, continued his march along the 
highway^ and coming round by a long circiiit 
to the field of battle^ was at last made acquainted 
with the event He then followed the march of 
the rebels toward G^ey, and coming within^ 
?iew 9f tben^t^ fbmid thesft posted on Gorey*hiIi, 



140 HISTORY or THE 

a commanding eminence, at the foot of which 
the town is built. Convinced that he could 
neither attack them in their post with any 
prospect of success, nor pass by them into the 
town without great hazard, he retreated to Car- 
new, and in his retreat was saluted with a fire of 
the artillery of the rebels from the top of the hill, 
whither they had, by the strength of men, drawn ' 
the cannon taken from Walpole's men, beside 
some pieces brought from Wexford. Thinking 
Camew an unsafe post, though the gentlemen 
of that neighbourhood thought, and still think, 
quite otherwise, as he was there at the head of 
twelve hundred effective men, he abandoned that 
part of the country to the rebels, and retreated 
nine miles farther, to the town of TuUow, in the 
county of Carlo w. 

While one formidable body of the Wexfordian 
insurgents w^s advancing its position toward 
the north, another still more formidable was pre- 
paring to attempt the same toward the south- 
west. The conquest of New Ross, in that 
quarter, situate on the river formed by the 
united streams of the Nord and Barrow, wQnld 
have laid open a communication with the disaf- 
fected in the counties of Waterford and Kilkenny, 
many thousands of whom were supposed ready 
to rise in arms at the appearance of their sue* 
cessful confederates. The seizure of that im-? 
portant post, when it might have been efFecte(( 



IRISH REBELLION. 14 1 

without opposition, on the 29th of May, the day 
succeeding that iu which Enniscorthy had fallen 
into the hands of the insurgents, had been vehe- 
mently urged at Enniscorthy by a chief named 
Hay, and a great number had agreed to march 
with him for that purpose. Fortunately, on the 
arrival, already related, of Edward Fitzgerald, 
accompanied by Colclough, from Wexford prison, 
this plan was for a time laid aside. — Fitzgerald, 
between whom and Hay an enmity had subsisted, 
and even a duel been fought, opposed the scheme 
of marching to Ross, and recommended the release 
of the prisoners in Wexford by the capture of 
that town. His influence being superior to that 
of Hay, his proposal was adopted ; and thus . 
captain Boyd, by the sending of this man to 
Enniscorthy, prevented a most dangerous exten^ 
sion of the rebellion. 

When the immediate object recommended by 
Fitzgerald was attained, the rebel army at Wex- 
ford, choosing Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey, now 
liberated from prison, for their generalissimo, 
divided into two main bodies : one of which 
directed its course northward to Gorey ; the 
other, conducted by Harvey in person, had for 
its object tfie conquest of Ross. The latter, 
after having taken post on Carricbum-moun- 
tain, within six miles of Ross, where it was 
reviewed and organized, advanced on the fourth 
of June to Corbet-hill, within a mile of that 



town, the bbjcct of attack for the next morning. 
Harvey, though neither destitute of personal 
cour^gej nor in some respects of a good undet- 
standing, posi^ssed not that calm intrepidity 
which is necessary in the composition of a mili- 
tary officer, nor those rare talents by which an 
undisciplined multitude may be. directed and 
controuled. He formed the plan of an attack 
on three different parts of the town at once, 
which would probably have succeeded if it had 
been: put in execution. — Having sent a summon* 
for surrendry of the town to the commander of 
the king's trpops, with a flag of truce, the 
^ bearer of which, of the name of Furlong, fell by 
a shot in the performance of his mission,* he 
was arranging his forces for the assault, when, 
finding them galled by a fire from the t)ut*posts 
of the garrison, he ordered a brave young man,^ 
of the name of Kelly, to pUt himself at the head 
of five hundred men, and to dislodge the troops 
who were giving this annoyance. Kelly, 
followed confusedly by a much greater number 
than he wished, executed his commission ; but 
his men, instead of returning to the main body 
as they had been ordered, rushed headlong into 

* To shoot all persons carrying flags of truce from the 
rebels, appears to have been a maxim with his majesty's forces. 
The measure may have been unintelligibly wise, but it may 
htve retidered the rebels more ferocibus, and prevented thtf 
•scape of loyalists who otherwise might attempt to rua &Oak 
the rebels and take r^uge with the roya!l troops. 



IRISH JlEBkXLlDK- 143 

the town, drove back the cavalry, with slaughter, 
on the irifaatry; seized the cjitinon, and bem^ 
followed iii thdr succ^ssfiil career by crowds 
irom the hill, seemed some time nearly masters 
of tile town.—From a full persuasion ofji decided 
victi)^ in fevour of the rebel army, some officers 
of the garrison fled to Waterford, twelve ttiil^ 
distant, with this alarming intelligence* 

As the original plan of attack was neglected 
and forgotten by the rebels, flushed with the 
tococss of this premature onset ifi one quarter, 
the troops of the Dublin and Donegal militia 
maintaining their posts at the market^house, and 
i, statbti called Faii^ate, prevented them from 
penetratiBg into the centre of the town ; while 
major general Johnson, the commander, a maa 
of consummate courage and fervent zeal for the 
welfare of his country, was, by vehement exer-^ 
tions, aided by those of an extraordinary gentle- 
man, an inh^^itant of ftoss, named MOormick, 
lai>ourmg to rally the discomfitted soldiery. 

Mr. M*Cormick, who had served in the army, 
acted with skill and activity on this occasion,- 
flying from post to post, conspicuous, like th^ 
Gre^^ian ajax, with a brazen helmet and lofty 
stature. Brought back to the charge by uncom-^ 
mon efforts, after they had fled across the river 
to the Kilkenny side, the troops of the gallant 
Johnson recovered tlieir post, and drove the 
rebels from the town — the outskirts of which were 



14* HISTORY OF THE 

now in flames, fired by the assailants and disaf* 
fected inhabitants, as Enniscorthy had been. 
The rebels in their turn, rallied by their chiefs^ 
returned with fury to the assault, and regained 
some ground. Again dislodged by the ^ same 
exertions as before, and a third time rallied, they 
were at last finally repulsed, after an engage-* 
ment of above ten hours, ending about two 
o'clock in the afternoon. 

Though this was doubtless the most bloody 
battle of the croppy war, I am not convinced 
that the loss of the assailants amounted to three 
thousand, or even two thirds of that number. 
That of the royal army in Jcilled, wounded, and 
missing, was acknowledged to be two hundred 
and thirty, of whom ninety lay dead on the 
scene of action** This army, before the battle^ 
had consisted of about twelve, hundred men. — 
The rebels left behind them in their retreat 
fourteen swivel guns, and four cannon on ship- 
carriages. An artillery man of the royal army, 
a prisoner of the rebels, had been appointed to 
the managen>ent of one of those cannon, with 
menaces of instant death if he should not level 
right, and death he instantly found for aiming 
high. The fight had been so irregularly main- 
tained by the rebel forces, that beside the neglect 

* Amoag the slain were cornet Ladwell, of tBe 5iK 
dragoons, and lord Mountjoy, colonel of the county of Dubliir 
militia. 



I«IISH REBELLIOy. -145 

'of their original plan, probably not half, or 
even a fourth part of their number, (supposed to 
be near twenty thousand) ^ver descended from 
Corbet-hill to share the danger ; and many in 
the beginning of the action fled to their homes,. 
an4 were, some hours before the decision of the 
combat, giving a fancied narration of the success 
of the day. 

The alliance of cowardice with cruelty cannot \ 
perhaps be more strongly exemplified than in/ 
some of this day's transactions. Some run- away / 
rebels, ^yho had not dared to hazard their persons* 
in the battle, turned their fury against objects \ 
equally void of criminality as incapable of \ 
lesistauce. Beside tlie massacre of three protes- \ 
tant men, who had fought courageously on the 1 
side of the rebels against the king's forces, they I 
committed an act of such atrocity as requires no j 
comment:— At the house of Sc4illabogue, the i 
property of a Mr. King, at the foot of Carrick- \ 
burn-mountain, had been left, when the rebel . 
army marched to Corbet^hill, above two 
hundred protestant prisoners of both sexes 
and all ages, under a guard, commanded by ' 
John M^rpby, of Loghnagheer. The run- 
aways declared, that the royal army in Ross were \ 
shooting all the prisoners, and butchering the ; 
catholics who had fallen ii^to their hands, feigned 
;in ordet from Harvev for the execution of those 
.at Scullabogue. . This order, >vhich Harvey, 



14fl HISTORY OF THE 

himself,, a protestant, and a man of humanity, 

' was utterly incapable of giving, Murphy is said 

^ to have resisted — but his resistance was vain. 

I Thirty-seven were shot and piked at the halU 

] door ; and the rest, a hundred and eighty-four 

I in number, crammed into a barn, were burned 

I alive — the roof being fired, and straw thrown 

j into the flames to feed the conflagration. I have 

I conversed with some respectable men who viewed 

I the scene of this diabolical action on the follow^ 

\ Aug day, and who were struck with inexpressible 

I horrors at the sight. Father John Shallow, 

Roman catholic priest of Adamstowii, has been 

charged by some with being concerned in, or 

approving of this horrid business ; but from the 

affidavits of three protestants which I have read, 

and other grounds, I am decidedly inclined to 

think the charge not well founded. Another 

priest is on more probable grounds considered 

\ by some as the chief instigator of this horrible 

■ deed — whose name I forbear to mentOn, lest he 

may possibly be innocent, and I should unjustly 

{ bring odium on him.''*' 'A few Romanists, 

according to some accounts fifteen in number, 

one of whom was Father Shallow's clerk, had 

been, |5artly by mistake or inadvertence, partly 

* I, however, after having written this volume, now find his 
name (Father Murphy of Taghmon) given in Sir Richard 
IVTusgrave's great collection, stiled, " Memoirs of the different 
BebelUons in Ireland." * I wish he may prove bis innocenc^f 



rRISH REBELLION. l*? 

ft'om obnoxious circumstances in the unfortu- 
nate objects, inclosed in the barn with the pro- 
testants, and by the precipitancy of. the mur- 
derers shared the same fate.* 

Be-occupying, on the day of their defeat at 
Ross, their former post on Carrickburn, the 
rebel troops murmured against the military 
conduct of Harvey, who in consequence res^gned 
a command not better than nominal, and retired 
to Wexford. Removing from this position, 
after a stay of two days, they took post on 
Slyeeve-Keelter, a hill which rises over the river' 
of Ross, formed by the united streams of the 
Nore and Barrow, probably with design to inter- 
cept the navigation of this channel between 
Waterford, Rioss, and Duncannon-fort. ^ In this 

* How strangely are the feelings of mankind governed by 
party-spirit ? Many, who have felt a just horror (and too 
great they could hardly feel) for this atrocious massacre, have 
admired the conduct of men who committed acts not less 
atrocious on the right side of the contest. For instance, 
Suwarrow or Suvarof, who fought against the Poles and 
French, caused, beside other massacres, all the inhabitants of 
Praga, men, women, and children, to be butchered, in number 
at least ten thousand, beside the garrison. Most of these 
miserable people were burned alive, with circurpstances not less 
horrible than those of Scullabogue : and Suvarof, next day, sat 
on horseback exulting over the inexpressibly shocking scene of 
desolation. Yet, what loyalist would have refused to drink 
the he.alth of Suvarof in the temporary Career of his success, or 
refuse him the praise of a virtuous hero? No rouRterfeit 
loyalist could refuse it. 



148 HISTORY OF THE 

they in some degree succeeded; for, though 
they failed in their attempts on some gun-boat^, 
' in their engagements with which some * lives 
were lost, they obliged some small vessels to 
surrender; in one of these was a mail, from 
which they learned much concerning the state 
of the kingdom in general from news-papers 
and private letters. Here, by a tumultuous 
election, was chosen for general, in. the place of 
Harvey, Father Philip Roche, already mentioned 
as a leader at the battle of Tubbemeering, a man 
of large stature and boisterous manners, not ill 
adapted to direct by influence the disorderly 
bands among whom he acted. Without such 
influence, titles of command were merely nomi- 
nal ; nor among a number of chiefs in a rebel 
army, could any - one with truth be said to 
govern the whole body, The priests, by their 
habitual government in spiritual matters, had 
naturally the principal sway, especially those 
whose rage of bigotry was most conspicuous. 
Great numbers of the rebels acknowledged no 
other leader than Father John Murphy, the 
fanatic who first raised the flag of insurrection 
in the county of Wexford. 

Quitting the post of Slyeeve-Keelter in three 
days after their arrival, the troops of Philip 
Roche occupied the hill of Lacken, within twQ 
miles of Ross, where they formed a less irregular 
encampment than usual, many tents beingerecte^ 



IRISH REBELLIOX. 149 

'for the lodgment of their officers. A detach- 
hient, sent hence for arms and ammunition 
to the town of Borris, in the county of Carlo, 
twelve miles distafit, on the 12th, was, by a, 
fire of the garrison ' from the house of Mn 
,Cave^agh, used on the occa3ion asafortressi 
repulsed with the loss of tep killed and many 
wounded, while only one soldier fe\l on the side 
of the loyalists ; but this handsome little town 
was in great part burned. With exception of 
this fruitless attempt, the bands on Lacken lay 
inactive, regaling themselves on the slaughtered 
cattle and liquorSj which were procured in plenty 
from the country in their possession, and so neg- 
ligent of their safety, that, in any night after 
the two first, they might have been surprised 
and put to the rout by a small detachment from 
the garrison of Ross. 

Inactivity, at least procrastination^ among tlie 
rebels was not confined to the army of Philip 
Roche 5 for to the terrible repulse at Ross, received 
by their forces on the south-western border^ was ' 
^dded an errot of conduct on the northern^ 
which, providentially for the British ^pire in 
general) and the protestants of Ireland %7>arti- 
cular, caused the ruin of their scheme. Many 
persons are of opinion that government had, by 
burnings, imprisonments, free quarters of soU 
diers, floggings, and other severe measures^ 
intended to force a partial insurrection of the 



15(5 HISTORT OF THE 

Unitfirf Irish, in order that by the suppression of 
it, all schemea of Rebellion might be eradicated. 
In my opinion, .to prevent, not raise insurrec- 
tions, must have been the object of government; 
the latter being too dangerous^ a stratagem for 
any: wise politician to design,- If the lebek, 
immediately after the rout of Walpoie^s * army^ 
had asdvanced to Arklow, they could have takeii ' 
|iossession of it without the least resistance; for 
the garrison fled from it on the morning of the 
Sth of June, before day, to Wicklow- The 
insurgents then, of the county of Wicklow, who 
had with the utmost difficulty been kept in 
check by major Hardy, the comnVdtider in that 
part, and who had been repulsed in fiv^ different 
actions, neither easily describ^blfe, nor of use to 
be: :described, must have become far more auda* 
cious, and have co-operated with the Wexfordiaii 
rebels. - The garrison of Wicklow must, like 
that of Arklow, have abandoned its post, on the 
approacii of the united multitudes, and fallen 
back on Bray, only ten miles from the capital. 
The rebels might have proceeded with perpe^- 
tualiy. encreasing numbers, and seized Bray in 
like-mahher; .and what in all probabih'ty would 
ihave-.becn the ^flfect of this motion, wlien so 
many tliousands in Dublin and the adjacent 
coan ties .were waiting for such an of^ortunity 
tatake arms, I am unwilling to state, I am 
tiUo "ton able to ex^iiain the motive for a piece of 



tkiSfi EEBELtlOlf. 151 

' Conduct in the officer wild commanded in Arklow 
when the garrison was preparing for flight ; ord^r$ 
Were issued that no person should be permitted 
to quit the town until the garrison had marched; 
so that if the Rebels had come, as they were every 
moment expected, the whole multitudeof fugiti\^ 
women and children of the loyalist party must 
have fallen into their hands. If this order Ava3 
intended to prevent the intelligence of Walpole's 
defeat from being carried northward, it was 
quite nugatory, as that intelligence was conveyed, 
by several different roads :* and to imagine^ihat 
the commander proposed to delay the vehels ia 
their pursuit of the garrison, by the incumbrance 
of this captive multitude wo^ d be to charge 
him with both cruelty and fqtty. The condition, 
however, of the poorer fj-tgitives, was altered 
greatly for the better by the evacuation of 
Arklow, where they had been starving. On 
their way tb Wicklow they were unmercifully 
plundered by the soldiery^ but on their arrival 
there they found a Comfortable subsistence, 
contributed by the charitable inhabitants of that 
town and neighbouiiioud. 

As major Hardy was ignorant of the gi-eat 
force of the rebels posted at Gorey, he highly 

* An exaggerated account of this disaster was received by 
the disaffected in Dublin, before it was known by the member^ 
of administration at the ca$tle ; fot the societies of the conspi- 
racy had an established mode of speedy conveyance by verbak 
messages from one secretary to another. 



iSt ' HIStGRV OF TkE 

disapproved of the evacuation of Arklow, a^cl 
commanded the garrison instantly to return from 
Wickiow to their post, without even permission 
to taste any refreshment. It was augiqented on 
the sixth by the arrival of the Cavan regiment 
of militia, and at one O^clock on the morning 
of the 5th by that of the Durham fencibles. The 
arrival of this regiment, one of the best disci- 
plmedin the service of his Britannic majesty, 
was extremely critical^ as it pi^evented the taking 
>f Arklow by the rebels, the consequences of 
wnir^i would in all probability have been so great 
and disii'^trotis that I shudder at the thoughts of 
them. Thisa;,egiment had been most remarkably 
active and succeSi^ful, rn the preceding year^ m 

. the county of Dpiifn, in disarming the United 
Irish, and thereby j^eventing rebellion in that 
part. When orderedisouthward^ on account of 
the insurrection in Deinster, an ambuscade of 
seven thousand n?en wl^s placed in the county 

/ofMeath, to the north YfBalbriggen, to sur-^ 
round and cut it to piecei on its march ; but by 
the excellent dispositions^ade by its leader, 
colonel Skerrett, it passed N^is formidable am- 
buscade witliout loss, and arrived safely in Dub- . 
Hh; whence, ^fter luuch deliberation, and a 
delay. dangerous at such a. crisis, it was sent to 
Arklow ; carriages being wisely procured for the 
men, in the French republican fashion, that they 
might be brought unfatigued to the scene of 



^ ■ - 

IKISH REBELLtOHr. t53 

action. This was fortunate; for their utmost 
vigour, discipline, and firmness, were soon put 
to a severe trial. ' 

A few hours after their arrival, one of those 
ludicrous incidents occurred, which, amid the 
calamities, of war, serve to exhilarate the spirits 
of military men. Two of the officers: of thist 
regiment, passing by the house of Mr. Miles' 
O'Neile, in Arklow, where general Needham 
was quartered, and where a great breakfast Av^as 
prepared for the general and his guests, were 
mistaken by a servant for two of these guesb, 
and informed that breakfast was ready for them 
and their associates. This intellisrence beinor 
communicated, the Durham officers came instantly 
in a body and devoured the whole breakfast. 
One of them, captain Wailingtun, remaining 
behind the rest, assembled about him the drivers 
of the carriages in which the regimettt had tra- 
velled from Dublin, to pay them severally their 
dues. The general, at length arriving with his 
company of hungry guests, was at first astonished 
when he saw his lodgings occupied with a crow4 
of wrangling coachmen ; but soon being informed 
of the fate of his breakfast, he burst inti? a rage, 
aijd drove out the intruders with such f^ry, that 
they, with their paymaster^ tumbled one over 
another in the street, in their haste to escape. 

More serious objects in some^ hours more en- 
gaged the attention of the troops. The rebek. 



154 HISTORY OF thJ; 

who after the defeat of- Walpole's army on ttift 
4th of Junfe, had wasted their time in burning 
the town of Carnew, in trials of prisoners for 
orange-men, the plundering of houses, ^nd 
other acts of like nature, at length collected theif 
force at Gorey, and advanced to attack Arklow 
on the 9th, the only day in which that post had 
been prepared for defence. Their number pro- 
bably amounted to twenty-seven thousand, of 
whom near five thousand were armed with guns, 
the rest with pikes, which gave them in some 
points of view the appearance of a moving 
forest, and they were furnished with three ser- 
viceable pieces of artillery. The troops posted 
for the defence of this, at that time, most impor-' 
tant station, c(Hisisted of sixteen hundred men, 
including yeomen, supplementary men, aiid those 
of^the artillery. The rebels attacked the town 
on all sidca, except that which is washed by the 
riven The approach of that column, which 
advanced by the sea s]iore, was so rapid, that 
the picket guard of yeoman cavalry, stationed in 
that quarter, was in extreme danger, a party of 
the rebels having entered and fired what is called 
the fishery, a part of the town on that side, com- 
posed of thatched cabins,' before they could 
effect their escape, so that they were obliged to 
gallop throiigh the flames> while the main body 
of this rebel column was at their heels. So great 
^a^ the terror of this troop of yeomen that most 



IltlSIH REBELLION. 155 

of them stopped not their flight till they had 
lirossed the river, swimming that, horses, in great 

. peril of drowning,, across that broad stream. The 
farther progress of the assailants was prevented 
by the charge of the regular cavalry, supported 

, by the fire of the infantry, who had been formed 
for the defence of the town, in a line composed of 
three regiments, with their battalion artillery, 
those of the Armagh and Cavan militia, and the 
Durham fencibles. The main effort of the rebels, 
who commenced the attack near four o'clock ia 
the evening, was directed again^ the station of 
the Durham, whose line extended through the 
field in front of the town to the road leading 
from Gorey. 

. As the rebels poured their fire from the shelter 
of ditches, so that the opposite fire of the soldiery 
iiadno effect, colonel Skerrett, the second in com* 
mand, to whom major-general Needham, the 
first in comn^and, had wisely given discretionary 
orders to make the best use of his abilities and 
professional skill, commanded his men to stand 
with ordered armS; their left wing covered by a 
breast-work, and the right by a natural rising of 
the ground, until the enemy leaving their cover 
should advance to an open attack. This open 
^attack was made three times in most formidable 
Force, the assailants rushing within a few yards 
of the cannons mouths; but they were received 
with sfo. close and effective a fire, that they were 



156 kisTORir OF tnii 

tepulsed with great slaughter in every attferil^t; 
The Durhams were not only exposed to the fird 
of the enemy's small arms, but were also galled 
by their cannon. A piece jof these, directed at 
first much too high, designedly by a soldiet^ 
taken prisoner by the rebels, of ^ the name of 
Shepherd, appointed to manage the gun, was 
afterwards levelled so by Esmond Kyati, a rebel 
chief, that it broke the carriage of one of the 
battalion guns, and obliged the left wing of the 
regiment to shift its ground, by advancing 
twenty paces, to avoid being enfiladed by th6 
shot. : O^e of the balls carried away the whole 
belly of a soldier, who yet lived some minutes in 
that miserable condition, extended on the groundi 
and stretching forth his hands to his associates. 
Whatever talents general Needham may have 
possessed as a leader, of which I think it not 
necessary to give my opinion, he displayed for 
some time the courage of a soldier, riding from 
post to post exposed to the enemy's fire. He^ 
however, at last, began to talk of a retreat. The 
resolution of/colonel Skerrett, on tliat occasion, 
saved Arklow, and, in my opinion, the kingdom. 
His reply to the general, when addressed on the 
jsubject of a retreat, was in words to this effect* 

* This proposal of a retreat has been most uncandidly 
denied in a pamphlet, by Sir Richard Musgrave, who bas, 
however, acted in this quite consistently with his general man« 
aer as a writer. I refer the reader to Appendix, No, 9. 



IRISH REBELLIOIT. . 157 

'^ Wc cannot hope for victory otherwise than by 
'^ preserving our ranks : if we break, all is lost j 
^* and from the spirit Avhich I have seen displayed 
^* at this awful crisis by the Durham regiment, I 
^' cau never bear the idea of its giving ground.'* 
By this magnanimous answer of the colonel the 
general was diverted some time from his scheme 
of a retreat, and in that time the business was 
decided by the retreat of the rebels, who retired 
in despair, when frustrated in their most furious 
assault, in which Father Michael Murphy, priest 
of Ballycahnoo, was killed, by a cannon shot, 
within thirty yards of the Durham line, while 
he was leading his people to the attack- This 
pjiest had been supposed by the more ignorant 
of his followers to be invulnerable by bullets or 
any other kind of weapon; to confirm them in 
which belief he freqtiently shewed them musket 
balls, which he said he caught in his hands as 
thty flew from the guns of the enemy. Though 
I was well acquainted with the extreme credulity 
of the lower classes of my Romanist country? 
men, I could not give credit to this account 
until I found it confirmed beyond a doubt by 
various concurring testimonies. The same divine 
protection was believed tt> be possessed by Fathep 
John, the famous fanatic already mentioned. 

This battle, though not altogether the most 
bloody, was perhaps the most important of thii^ 
war, since it probably decided the fate of Ireland. 



158 HISTORY OF THE 

As the rebejs were iu)t pursued, for a pursuit 
would have been very hazardous, particularly 
near the close of the evening, which was the 
time of their retreat, they carried away most of 
their wounded, sq that their loss could not be 
ascertained, but may have amounted to three or 
four hundred. The loss of the Durham regiment, 
,out of three hundred and sixty men, of which 
it consisted, was twenty privates killed and 
woqndedl The loss of men sustained by the 
rest of the army I could not accurately learn; 
but it was very small, much less than might have 
been' expected : for though the weight of the 
combat lay oh the Durhams, the action was 
every where warm, and the defeiice . bravely 
ipaiptained. 



IRISH REBELLION. 159 



CHAP III. 



Reflections '^Tlnnehehf — True Hues — Kilcavan — Ask 
Hill — Vinegar Hill — Roche — Davis — Killegny-^ 
Killan — Vinegar Hill — Needham's Gap — Horetown-^ 
Wexford — Dixon — Massacre — Priests -r- Offers of 
Surrender-^Captain Boyde — Bloody Friday. 

As the repulse at Arklow decided the fate of 
the rebellion, so it fortunately left undecided a 
question how far the Romanists would have car- 
ried religious animosity if the insurrection had. 
been successful. The violent acts of the insur- 
gents in Gorey and its, neighbourhood were not 
near so great as in the southern parts of the 
county. Of the latter I shall speak hereafter. 
The former m%ht, by an advocate of their cause, 
be coloured with a pretext of retaliation, since 
acts of the same kind had been committed by 
the loyalists, as the burning of houses, the quar- 
tering of men on families for subsistence, impri-r 
sonments, trials of prisoners by court-mactial, 
the shooting of prisoners without any trial, and 
the insulting of others by cropping the hair and 
covering the head with a pitched cap. But an 
opinion is entertained, I fear indeed with too 
xnudi foundation, that if the post of Arklow 



I6e HlSrOUY OF THE 

had been taken, and thus a wide prospect opened 
for the success of thcv rebellion, the protestants 
remaining in the power of the rebels, in the 
county of Wexford, were to ,be massacred with 
few exceptions. Many also beheve that the 
.persons excepted from this fii^t massacre were 
destined for an ultimate slaughter on the final 
success of the insurgents, and that even the 
leaders of the rebels, who were protestants, w6rc 
to be included in this proscription. The war 
from the beginning, in direct violation of the 
oath pf United Irishmen, had, taken a religious 
turn, as every civil war in the south or west of 
Ireland must be expected totake^ by any man 
well acquainted with the prejudices of the inhabi- 
tants. The terms protestant and orangeman were 
almost s5monymous with th^ mass of the insur- 
gents; and the protestants whom they meant 
to favour, were generally baptized into the Romish 
church by the priests of that communion. But 
whatever degree of religious bigotry or party 
hatred had been hitherto discovered by the insur- 
gents in general, many individuals had evinced 
much humanity in their endeavours to mitigate 
the fury of their associates. 

This bigotry and fury I consider not as attri- 
butable to well educated and well informed Roman 
catholics. From political causes, which I now 
hope to see speedily removed, the lower orders 
are so degraded by superstition and enflamed with 



IRISH REBELLION*. iGl 

its rancour, compounded with political and 
personal resentment, that in the hour of triumph 
tl^eir own priests and leaders were unable to 
prevent the pernicious effifcb. If the catholic 
clergy were salaried by the state, and the arm of 
the law rendered stronger than tliat of magistrates 
and great men of the country, We might hope to 
see shortly a moral and intellectual improvement 
in the great body of Irish peasantry, a body of 
splendid elements, very well deserving the atten- 
tion of a wise legislature. 

The rebels had burned only a very small part 
of the town of Gorey, and only two houses of 
gentlemen in its immediate vicinity, those of 
Eamsfort and Clonattin; the former the mansion 
of Stephen Ram, Esq. the latter, that of colonel 
Abel Ram, of the Wexford regiment of militia^ 
As the owner of the latter was bravely fighting 
agaii)ist the insurgents, its destruction can cause 
no surprise, though it was much regretted « by 
many among them, because his father and himself 
in succession had been remarkable for their 
humanity and generosity to their tenants. The 
very amiable character of the females who had 
dwelt in the f6rmer — lady Charlotte Ram, sister 
of the Earl of Court own, and her daughters, who 
possess the disposition of the Stopford family- 
might have been expected to save it, from the 
flames, since the veneration of the insurgents for 
9, <jhafact?r of extraordinary beneficence^ even 

M . 



162 HISTORY OF THE 

when the person possessed of it was in drrect 
opposition both to their political and religions 
principles, was demonstrated in a manner which 
the modesty of the person concerned permits me 
not to mention. 

Repulsed at Arklow, the rebels were obliged 
to adopt a defensive plan. They hoped to main-? 
tain at least some of their posts until the arrival 
of a French army should alter the state of affairs. 
Th^y intended not, however, to omit any oppor- 
tunity of annoyingtheir opponents in the interim; 
and the main body of their force posted at Gorey, 
and on Limerick hill, four miles distant, moved 
away twelves miles, to a place called Mount- 
pleasant, near the town of Tinnehely, in tl^ 
county of Wicklow. This town and neighbour-: 
Jiood had hitherto been protected by the activity 
of the protestant inhabitants, who, in thepreceding 
April, bad embodied themselves, to the number 
of a hundred and fifty-one, under the title of the 
True-Blues o(TiuTf.ehe\y, choosingHenry Morton, 
Esq. the next resident magistrate, for their leader; 
and uniting with the Shilela company of yeonfan . 
infantry, under captain James Morton, in cour 
junction with Avhom they performed regular and 
active duty both day and night The town was 
now, pn the 17th of June, burned, and many 
houses in the country around; many persons were 
put to death with pikes, under the charge of 
)?piDg prapgeip^n ; g^nd many mqre would hjivp 



miSH REBELLIOlif. l6^$ 

suffered if they had not been spared, "at the 
humane intercession of a Romanist lady, a Mrs, 
Maher, in that neighbourhoods The True- Blues, 
who had retreated to ' Hacketstown, six miles 
distant,returned, accompanied by other companies s 
and troops of yeomen, (the whole forming a body 
of about five hundred men) to attack the rebels; 
but finding them furnished with cannon, and 
their number formidable, they again fetreated to 
the same post On the following day, the tSth 
of June, a considerable body of troops, which 
had arrived from Baltinglass, und^r the cpnqniand 
of lieutenantrgeiierg.! Pundas, furnished with a 
train of artillery, marched from Hacketstown, 
where the True- Blues were left as a garrison, and 
went to attack the rebels at Tinnehely; but these 
had retreated, and taken post on Kilcavan hill — 
a lofty eminence two miles distant from Carnew. 
This army of insurgents, at whose head wa^ . 
Garret Byrne, of Ballymanus, a Romish gentle- 
man, of the county of Wicklow, had intended tQ 
surprise Hacketstown, biit were prevented by the 
.arrival of the troops under Dundas. These 
troops, forming adjunction with those of general 
^ Loftus froni TuUow, marched to attack the rebel^ 
on Kilcavan. To surround and oblige the whole 
body to surrender* was thought by many a matter 
^pf easy accomplishment, but this was judged by< 
general Lake, who commanded the combined 
^rces on tl^^t occasion, either not ptactics^ble oy 



164 HlfitDRY 0¥ THE 

not adviseable; for, after a cannonacie on both 
sides, with little execution, and tremendous shouts 
of defiance from the rebels, with their hats raised 
on pikes, according to their constant practice, 
the general retired to Camew, and Byrne's army^ 
the same night, the SOth of June, directed its 
march to Vinegar-hill* 

During these traiisactions, the rebels who had 
remained in Gorey and its neighbourhood were 
gradually dispersing. A part of them retired to 
Wexford, bringing with them the prisoners who 
had been confined in the market-house of Gorey* 
These had been severely treated; they had been 
supplied with food only once in the twenty-four 
hours^ cropped, pitch-capped, and exposed from 
the windows, to the insults of the shouting 
Jnultitudes on their march to attack Arklow. 
Some had been shot or piked td deaths The 
mass of remaining rebel? todk their station 
^n the hill of Ask> above a mile from Gorey, 
On the way to Arklow, After the battle at the, 
last-named town, the royal army remained some 
days close within its quarters there, sending 
dut patroles with great caution, at first to a very 
ismall distance, and afterwards gradually farther. 
At last a troop of yeoman cavalry ventured so far 
dn the road toward Gorey as to approach near 
the rebel station on Ask hill. This post had 
been so thinned by perpetual desertions, that not 
more than about a hundred men fit, for action 



IRISH REBELLION* 165 

y^ete then Temaining in it, and these without a 
leader. How very differently different men n^ay 
be excited to act by theit natural feelings, when 
under no external controul, on the sudden appear- 
ance of danger, was forcibly shewn on this 
occasion. About half of the rebel warriors fled 
with precipitation at the approach of the cavalry ; 
while the rest of them, stripping to their shirts, 
that they might be more expedite for the busmess, 
ran full speed to charge the cavalry with their 
pikes: but the letter avoided the attack, and 
retreated to Arklow with expeditipn. Immedi^ 
ately after this, the country about Gorey wasi 
completely evacuated by the rebels, to thp no 
small joy of many loyalist families, who, by the 
$udden and unexpected victory over Walpole, 
had been prevented from escaping, and on whom 
the enemy had been living at free quarter. 

The army, at last, under majpr-general Need- 
liam, moved from Arklow to Gqi^ey, on the 19th 
of June, and thence toward En^iscprtby on the 
20th, according to a conoerte^i plan, conducted 
by lieutenant-general Lake, that the great statioa 
of the rebels at Vin6gar-hill should be surrounded 
by his majesty's forces, and attacked in all poiutii 
at once. Fpr this purpose, different armies moved 
at the same time from different quarters— on^ 
under lieutenant-general Dundas J another uhder 
major-generals Sir James Duff and Loftus; that 
already no^ntioned from Arklow; aa4 ^ ffmth 



16^ MisTOtiY oi' tnt 

from Ross,- under major-generals Jphrisori and' 
Eustace — who Avei*e to make the attack oh the 
town of Enniscorthy. The march of the afmy 
from Ross was a kind of surprise to thtf bands of 
Philip Roche on Lacken hill, who fled in the 
utmost confusion, leaving their tpnts and a gfeat 
quantity of plunder behind; and separating into 
two bodies, one of which took its way to Wexford, 
the other to Vinegar-hill, where the Wexfordiaa 
insurgents were concentrating their force. 

This now famous eminence, rather infamous 
as a scene of religious butchery, had, with the 
town of Enniscorthy at its foot, and the country 
far around, been in possession of the rebels above 
three weeks from the 28th of May. During all 
this time the face of affairs had been' indescri-^ 
bably hideous. Horrors and incessant apprehen^ 
sions of death attended the hapless^ protestants 
who had not effected their escape from the devoted 
ground : — they were every where seized : a few 
put to death where they were discovered, but 
most of them dragged to Vinegar-hill, whete, 
after a shant trial, often without any form of 
trial, they were shot, or transfixed with pikes ; 
manly lashed, or otherwifc barbarously treated 
before the final execution. To state with indu- 
bitable accuracy the exact number of men thus 
butchered in this.fatal spot I will not pretend to 
say; but it appears from unquestionable docu- 
ments to have fallen little i^liort of four hundred. 



ikiSH REBELLIOi^. iSf ^ 

*rhe bloody list of sacfifices immolated to the 
spirit bf religious or divil rancJour, far m6t6 
especially the former, would have still been 
loiiger, if individual humanity or'ftieridship had 
not" in some instances interposed to arrest the 
hand df murdei*. This in terpositioti came some-* 
' times from a quarter whence it was least expected.^ 
Thus Philip Roche was in appearance fierce and 
Sanguinary ; yet several persons now living owe 
Hieir lives to his boisterous interference. An in- 
stance may serve in some small degree to illustrate * 
the tumultuous transactions of these calamitous 
times; 

Two prot^stahtS, iti a respectable situation iil 
life, brothers, of the natne of Robim^on,- inhabi- 
tants of the parish of Killegny,* being S6i2ed apd 
carried to Vinegar-hill, -some of theii^ Sloman 
catholic tenants, anxious for their safety, galloped 
at full speed to Ro<^he's quarters at Lacken, and ' 
begged his assfStahce. He immediately sent an 
e^ipress with orders to bring the two Robinsons 
to Lacken, pretending to have charges of a 
criminal nature against them, for which they 
should be tried. The miscreants on Vinegar-hill^ 
who were preparing to, butcher these men^ 
though they were advanced in years, and unim* 
peachable with any other crime than that of 
protestantism, on receipt of Roche's orders 
relinquished their preyj not doubting that death 
siwaited tliem at Lacken. But Roche> whose . 



169 fiXSTORY OF THE 

object was to snatch these mpocent men frqfn 
the jaws of the blood-hounds, immediately on 
their arrival at his quai:ters, gave- them written 
protections, and sent them to their Hopes, where 
they were soon after in danger of being hanged 
by the king's troops, who were too ready to. 
pronounce disloyal, all such as had been spared 
by the rebel partiesi. 

A few persons, after being supposed to be 
slain outright, recovered so far as to attempt aar 
escape, but were apprehended in the attempt, 
and filially dispatched. The recovery of Ghp^rles 
Davis of Enniscorthy, ^ glazier, was extraordi- 
nary. After having jemained four days con- 
cealed i^ the sink of a privy, during ^hich 
time he;had no, other sustenance than the raw 
body of a cock, which had by accident alighted 
on the ^eat, he fled frotn this loathsome abode, 
but was taken at some distaiice from the tQwn> 
brought to Vinegar-hill, shot through the body 
^nd one of his arms, violently struck in several 
pjart^ of the head with thrusts of ^ pike, which, 
however, penetrated not into the brain, and 
thrown into a grave on his back, with a heap of 
e^rth and stones over him. His faithful dog 
ha,ving scraped away .the covering from his face, ' 
and cleansed it by licking the blood, he 
returned to life after an intjcrmoat of twelve 
jh6ur8, dreaming that pikemen w^e proceeding 
to stab him, and pronouncing the name of 



IRISH REBELLION. 1^9 

Father Roche, by whose* interposition he hoped 
to be released. Some superstitious persons 
hearing the name, and imagining the maa to 
have been revivified by the favour of Heaven, in 
order that he might receive salvation from the 
priest, by becoming a catVlic, before bis final 
dq>arture, took him from the grave to a house, 
and treated him with i^uch kind attention that 
he recovered, and is now living in apparently 
perfect health. 

The exception of the protestants of Killegny^ 
a parish five miles to the south-west of £nnis« 
corthy, of which I am at present the incumbent, 
from the general daughter of such as fell into 
.the hands of the rebels in this part of the 
country, is somewhat remarkable, not one 
protestant of this parish haviiig been killed ia 
the rebellion, nor a house burned. These 
people, surrounded on all sides before they were 
aware, found flight impracticable. Their 
preservation, beside secondary causes, appears 
chiefly ascribable to their temporising confor- 
mity ^ith the Romish worship, and to the very 
laudable conduct of the parish priest. Father 
Thomas Rogers, who, without any hint of a wish 
for their actual conversion, encouraged the belief 
of it among his bigotted flock. A few indeed of 
the poorer sort of protestants in this parish remain 
to this day coafortnistS; probably through fear 



tf6 riisTORir ot i!kt 

of a second insurrection, f The Rev. Sdtmi^l 
Francis, my predecessor, ^nd his family, afteir 
being once brought to the Romish chapel, were 
permitted to remain at home; but were in 
dariger^ of perishing for want of sustenance, until 
victuails were sent thenv by the same priest, and 
by a Roitiatt 'Xiatholix:- family of the. name of* 
Fitzhenry.i Mrj Eranci% however^ died five 
months after the rebellion^ perhaps in conse^ 
quence of the agitations of mind which he^had 
suffered. We may naturally supp6se, from the 
then prevailing teitiper of the:multitude, that the^ 
fate of the pi^otestants of Killegny wa3 only 
suspended, andithata longer continuapce: of the 
rebel force in thii^ quarter. must have involved 
their destruction! Aruthless mob were collecting 
the' protestants of: both sexes in the adjoining 
parish of Killari, with intention to burn them 
alive in the parish church, or, according to 
thfeir phrase, to mdkt an orange pye of them £ 
for whix:h purpose a sufficient quantity of faggpts 
was prepared, when a body oF brave yeomen 
from Kiledmond in the comity of Carlo w, and 
^ the ra^^rch of the army fmm JRoss, prevented 
the execution of the infernal design. 

'This army, together with all the troops ^ 
already ^mentioned, commanded to march from 
different quarters to surround the rebel post of 

* They are now again all become protestants, except i 
young man named Charles Edwards. 



ifttSH REBELLION'. l7l 

Vinegai'-lKll, constituted in the whole amount 
k force of above thirteen thousand effective" 
men, with a formidable train of artillery. With 
such a force the whole insurgent army at this 
post, in which lay almost the whole strength of 
the rebellion, miist have been annihilated by 
slaughter or surrendry, if the plan had been well 
executed. The attack began at seven o'clock 
on the morning of the 21st, with a firing of 
cannon and mortars, and all the armies were in 
their several posts, except that of general 
Needham, who arrived not at the appointed 
position till nine, when the business was over. 
For this the hoiiourable commander can doubtless 
account in the most satisfactory manner, though 
the matter is not clear to me.* However, this 
and other occurrences gavfe^. occasion to somc« 

• Sir R. Musgrave says, tliat ttis piece of conduct of general 
Needham arose from orders iiicOnSistent, and imppssible to be 
etecuted^ sent him by general JLake. As general Lake is cei;- 
^ainly of nosuchpuny intellect as to merit the title of an old 
woman, he had doubtless good reasons fojr what orders he issued, 
and knew how to apply each instrument to its proper purpose. 
The commonly received opinion is, that general Lake, 
unwilling to permit the slaughter of so many thousands, whicU 
would have been horrible ; or to lirge their despair, whi^h might 
have been dangerous; and distrusting the discipline "fiff his - 

men, who perhaps oould not possibly be restrained from slaughter 
in case of the surrendry of the rebels, contrived a gap for their ^' 
escape in the quarter t)f general Needham, without deigning tf 
♦onfide his p\an to that commander, - /^\ 



172 . JUtSTOttT?' 61? tHE 

ill-nature^ persons to bestow on him the epithet 
of the late generctt Needhani. The rebels after 
sustaining the fire of the artillery and small arms 
for an hour and a half, abandoned their station 
and fled where the passage lay open for them, 
which passage has been ludicrously termed 
i^eedham's gap^ most of them directing their 
course toward Wexford. Some hundreds were 
killed, who were found straggling from the main 
body after the battle; but unfortunately almost 
all the real rebels escaped, and the killed were 
persons who had been forced away contrary to 
their inclinations, and who took this opportunity 
of escaping ^from the rebel ^rmy, but, as* they 
could not be distinguished^ foi^ndno mercy; 
Bome of them were loyal protestants, prisoners 
urith the rebels.* As the flight was precipitate, 
they left behind them a great quantity of rich 

» 

♦ Doctor Hill> of Saint-John's, near Enniscorthy, a gentle* 
man highly esteemed, by all his acquaintances* was with his two 
brothers, within a hair's breadth of augmenting the number of 
slaughtered loyalists on this occasion. These three gentlemen, 
who had been prisoners with the rebels, and in the most immi- 
nent danger of their lives, ran for protection to the first whom 
they saw of the royal troops, and these happened to be 
Hessians. Three of these protectors immediately put their 
cocked pistols to the heads of the three gentlemen, when a 
[nkeman, r^onning at full speed past them to escape from other 
soldiers, diverted their attention for the moment : they thought 
proper to dispatch him first^ but he led them such a chace a^ 
fayed the gendemen. 



IRISH REBKLLIOK, . 173 

{>Iuiider, together with all their catmon, 
amounting t;o thirteen in number, of which three 
were six-pounders. The loss on the side of the 
king's forces was very inconsiderable,* though 
one officer, lieutenant Sandys of the Longford 
militia was killed, and four others slightly 
wounded, colonel King of the Sligo Regi-r 
ment, colonel Vesey of the county of Dublin 
Regiment, lord Blaney, and lieutenant-colonel 
Cole. 

Enhiscorthy being thus recovered after having 
been above three weeks in the hands of the 
rebels, many loyalists in it were relieved from 
a dreadful state of terror and distress. Excesses, 
as must be expected in such a state of affairs, 
were committed by the soldiery, particularly by 
the Hessian troops, who co-operated with the 
British on this occasion, and made no distinction 
between Royalists and rebels. The most remark- 
able act of this kind was the firing of a house 
which had been used as an hospital by the rebels, 
where a number of men, fourteen at least, who 
by wounds and sickness were unable to escape 
from the flames, were burped to ashes. I merely 
mention the fact, which is too consonant with 
the spirit of civil and religious warfare. Different 

* The loss in general Johnson's army alone, which suftred 
snore than all the rest, amounted to twenty lulled, sixty-seven 
wonnded, and six missing. 



J 74 HISTORY OF THE 

readers will judge differently/ according to' 
their several feelings and prejudices.* 

The town of Wexford was relieved on the sarn^ 
day with Enniscorthy. Brigadier-general Moore, 
accordii)g to the plan formed by general Lake, 
having made a^movementtpward that quarter from 
the side of Hoss, on the Iptl^, with abody of twelve 
hundred troops, fumrshed with artillery; and 
Jiaving directed his march to Taghmon, in his in- 
tended way to Enniscorthy, on the 20th, was, on 
hisway thither, between one and two o'clock in the 
afternoon, attacked by a large force of the enemy 
from Wexforcj, perhaps fiye or six thousand, 
near a place palled GofF's bridge^ not far from 
Horetown.-r- After an ap^ion,- which continued 
till near eight, the febels were repulsed with 
considerable slaughter, not without spme loss on 
the other side, though the only two officers 
mortally wounded were major Daniel, and lieu-? 
tenant Green. Thjs engagement, fought in 
loose aui-ay, or in scattered parties, over a wide 
extent of ground, was, if I have not miscon- . 
ceived it,, on a comparison of several accounts 
from spectators of the scpne, the best fough^ ' 
battle of thp croppy war, with respect to 
inanoeuvres of the field on both sides. By the 
positions and evolutions of the soldiery, and 

. * I fim informed by a surgeqn, that the burning was accir 
Cental ; the bed-dothes being set on fire by the wadding of th|i 
soldiers* guns, who were shooting the patients in their beds* 



miSH RfiBELUON. 175 

tlieir own want of subordination to their chiefs, 
the pikemen of the ^rebels were prevented from., 
coming into action; while no more, I am 
credibly informed, than five hundred and sixty 
of their gun-men were engaged. Yet the combat^ 
was Icrn^ doubtful. In the short space of three 
weeks, an undisciplined and unorganized mob 
had arrived at some degree of military skill, and 
acquired much resolution in battle : — a lesson to 
governments to lose no time in taking the most 
efficacious means in their power to extinguish 
rebellion in its first bla:ie ! I am assured,' how- ^ 
ever, by respectable witnesses, that great 
numbers ill this rebel army manifested much fear 
and reluctance in their march to the field of 
battle, frequently halting to kneel, and pray, 
and receive the benedictions of the clergy, till 
Father Roche at length lost all patience, and 
asked them \vith a hearty curse did they think 
that they had nothing to do but pray? And 
was it not time to think of fighting ?. The plan 
of Roche, who seems to have been intended by 
nature for a military map, is supposed to have 
been to surprise the town of Ross with one part 
of his army, while the other was engaged with 
general Moore ; which p}an was frustrated by the 
irregularity of his ;nen. 

Joined by two regiments under lord Dalhousie, 
the army took post on the field of battle ; and 
Pft the mornipg of the 21st was pfocepding tq 



t76 HISTORY OF THB 

Taghmon, when captain M*Manus, of the 
Antrim, and lieutenant Hay, of the North-Cork 
militia, who had been prisoners with the rebels, 
arrived with proposals from the inhabitants of 
Wexford to surrender the town, and to return 
to their allegiance, provided that their lives and 
properties should he guaranteed by the com- 
manding officer. To these proposals, which 
were forwarded to his superior commander, no 
answer was returned by general Moore;' but, 
instead of proceeding to Taghmon, he imme- 
diately directed his march to Wexford, and 
stationed his army within a mile of that town. 

The loyalists of Wexford, like those of Ennis- 
corthy, had, since the place had fallen into the 
hands of the insurgents, been in a state of woe 
and incessant fe^. Of a vast number of 
protestants assembled in this^plaoe, inhabitants 
of the town, and refugees and prisoners from 
several parts of the country, two hundred and 
sixty were confined in the goal, and other places 
of imprisonment ; the rest were prisoners in 
their houses, undei* perpetual apprehensions of 
being shot, piked, or starved to death. Among 
the latter, was the Rev. John Elgee, rector of 
Wexford, whose life was saved by the gratitude 
of some of the lowest of the people, for the 
Christian charity which he had on all occasions 
manifested to unfortunate wretches committed 
to the public prison* The R^v. William E^t* 



IRISH itEBELLIOHr. 177 

wood, rector of Killaft, ^fie was fully e!>ti«kd 
to the same gratitude on the same account, had 
the good fortune to escape to Waifes without 
hazarding a trial of this virtue in^ the rebde* 
Great numbers were saved by the humsm^ endea-* 
vours of the chiefs, whose influence, though very- 
far from controuling the furious rabbfe in all 
cases, had so far an effect as to prevent th^ 
massacres of Wexford, (which were, however^ 
horribly atrocious) from equa|Rng in extent 
those of Enniscorthy. The chiefs themselves, 
particularly those few among them who had been 
educated in the protestant religion, were in per* 
petual d?inger of death, or violence at least, from 
the ungovernable multitude, whom they had 
unwisely hoped to coihmand, A strong instanett 
of this was, that captain Keugh, whrr/had been 
appointed governor of Wexford by the rebels, 
. was one day, as he was sitting in committee with 
^ number of other chiefs, arrested by a common 
fellow, by the authority of the rabble, as a traitor 
in league with orange-m6n; and when the arrest 
was resisted by the membef^s of the committee, 
the infuriate multitude without, who were 
crowdted together in thousands in the streets, 
roated with horrid vehemence to those who stood 
most convenient for the purpose, to drive out thd 
committee, and pull down the house. Thiur 
alarming tumult was appeased by the address of 
Keugh, who, in a speech from a window^ 

N 



|y^ nUTotY of rut. 

displayed on the oecasioa no despicable talenff 
ofeloqMenee/ . ^ 

As I am fully persuaded that most, I hopcf 
all, of the, Fe;bel officers, who had received the 
edMcatioft of gentlemen, most certainly those 
who were protestants, would have prevented 
massacres, if it had been in their power, so I 
have reason to -believe that some low-bred 
persons^ chosen to this rank by the •rebels, rather 
instigated than restrained the sanguinary dispo^ 
sition of the rabble. Of the latter description 
appears to have been Thomas Dixon, who from 
a captain, and in* part owner, of a trading 
vessel, became captain in the rebel army;;, 
a man who, like Robespierre, and other unfeeling 
monsters in the French, revolution^ would 
probably, in case of success on the side of the 
rebels, have endeavoured to raise himself to 
eminence by exciting the lowest of the rabble, 
under the mask of zeal for their cause^ to the 
murder^ not only of all those who had not 
acceded to their party, but also of the then 
existing chiefs of the insurrection. Orange 
furiviture being found by the wife of this man 
in the drawing-room, of Mr. Le Ilunte, four 
miles from Wexford, particularly two .firc-» 
screens, with emblematical figures, Dixon ' 
informed the mob that this room had been the 
meeting place of orange-mpij> and that the figures 
4lenotcd the manner in" whicli tl]e Homaa 



c 



tWSH REBELLION. \1^ 

Catholics were to be put to death 'by thesp 
conspirators ; that they were to be first deprived 
of their sight, and then burned alive, without th(? 
exception even of children ; and particularly that 
the seamen of this communion were to be roasted 
to death on red-hot anchors. Le Hunte, whp 
had hitherto been, permitted to remain with little 
molestation in a private house in the town, was 
instantly dragged into the street by the rabble, 
who would soon have torn him in pieces, if h^ 
had not been saved by the exertions of two of 
the chiefs, Edward Hay,* and Robert Cartyv 
who hurried him into the gaol, under pretence 
of bringing him to trial, and parried in tha 
crowd the thrusts of the pikes, two of which, ia 

. spite of their endeavours, wounded him slightly 
in the back. 

In so perturbed a state of affairs^ among a 
mob so absurdly credulous, so imflammable and 
ferocious, a general massacre might justly be 
apprehended; and if partial massacres had fre- 
quently taken place we could not be surpriser?, 

^ On the 6th of June, the day after the battle of 
Ross, perhaps as an immolation to the departed 
souls of Romanists killed in that bloody encounter, 
ten men werC" selected for execution by a rebel 
guard sent for that purpose from Enniscorthy;. 

*Iam conviiiC5ed that Mr. Hay had no command among 
the rebels, and exerted himself only to save lives and property, 
See appendix, No. 8« 



180 HISTORY OP THE 

These victims were protestants from that utifbrtu- 
tiate place; and thither they were conveyed back 
by the guard, and massacred. The difference in 
degree of resentment shewn by the rebels to the 
loyalists of Enniscorthy and Wexfotd may have 
arisen from the different receptions which they 
had found at these two towns ;- the yeomen and 
Volunteers of the former having fought with a 
valour fatal to many of the assailants, while the 
latter had surrendered without a struggle, the 
post being abandoned by the army, whose retreat 
was notified by a deputation to the rebels. This 
distinction, however, could produce only a short 
respite. A geiieral slaughter of the prisoners, 
to which the townsmen of Wexford were adverse, 
was twice in vain attempted by Dixon, at the head 
of bands of peasants. He was magnanimously 
opposed, first by one Hore, a butcher, and next 
by one Scallion a nautical trader, the former with 
a sword, the latter with a pistol, defying him to 
single combat, and insisting that he must shew 
himself a man before he should dare to put 
deffenceless men to death. 

Dixon, however, relinquished not his bloody 
design, and at length, on the 20th of June, 
commenced a great massacre, doubtless intended 
to be much greater, probably universal, of all the 
prisoners, perhaps, of all the loyalists in Wexford. 
Xhe victims were conducted in successive parcels, 
of from ten to twenty with horrifcle solemnity— t 



IRISH REBELLION. ' iSl 

each parcel surrounded by its guard of butcbers, 
and preceded by a black flag marked with a 
white cross, to the place of execution, where 
they were variously put to death, one ^ter 
another, but mostly each by four men at once, 
who standing two before and two behind th^ 
victim, thrust their pikes into the body, ajid 
raising it from the ground, held it suspend^d^ 
writhing with pain, while any signs of life 
appeared. Some were slaughtered at the gaol, 
some at the market house, but the great butchery- 
was on the bridge — a magnificent wooden fabric^ 
ill adapted, from the beauty and gaiety of its 
appearance, for such hideous exhibitions^ As 
an entertaining spectacle, in fact, it seems tq 
have been regarded by a multitude of wretches, 
the greater part women, assembled to behold it, 
who rent the air with shouts of exultation on the 
arrival of each fresh parcel of victims at the 
fetal spot. — The wife of Thomas Dixon, already 
mentioned, a worthy associate of such a ma% 
requested that the prisoners, instead of being 
slaughtered at the gaol, should be conducted to 
the bridge for the purpose, that the people might 
have thepleasure of seeing them, Dixon himself 
is said to have prepared his immediate followers 
for their bloody work by Whiskey, and to have 
taken possession of the town and gaol while the 
main body of the rebel garrison waa^ on its march 
against general Moore, 



18^ HISTORY OF THg - 

. When nitiety-seven men had been deliberately 
fcutche^ed in isuccession, the. slaughter, which 
had commenced at two o'clock in the afternoon, 
Was suddenly stopped at seven, by the interference 
of Father Curran, and the annunciation of the 

' alarming intelligence that the post of Vinegar- 
Jiill was beset by the king's troops, and thkt 

^ reinforcements were required in that quarter. 
Father Curran having vainly . supplicated the 
assassins to desist, commanded them to pray 
before they should proceed farthisr in the work 
6f death; and having thus caused them to kneel, 
dictated a prayer that God wduld shew the same 
irierxy to them "which they should shew to the 
mrviving prisoners. The respite thus procured 
would have doubtless been short, if the exhorta- 
tions of the priest had npt been aided by the 
jiews of danger, which, was announced aloud by 
Some person, said to be Richard" Monaghan, or 
IMonck, arriving hastily in the town, and which 
caused the multitude of spectators immediately 
to disperse.* The surviving captives at the 
l>ridg*e were after a short pause re-conducted to 
prison by their guard, who swore tliat the next 
day neither man, woman, nor child of th^ 
t>rotestants in Wexford should be left alive. 

* Monaghan had been what 19 called matpr of John-street, 
an officer peculiar to Wiexford, elected by the lowest class of 
inhabitants, who pay him a voluntary obedience in various 
regulations. 



IRISH REBELLION. J85 

Much has been written in the accusation and 
defence of the Romanist clergy of Wexford, who 
are said to have refused to interfere, until five 
hoUrs of butchery had elapsed, and the news of 
the menacing movements of 'the king's forces 
arrived; though their influence might be supposed 
as powerful at two o'clock, when the massacre 
commenced, as at seven. I must confess myself 
incompetent to foiin an accurate judgment in this 
controversy. To attempt to stop the slaughter 
of real or supposed rebels, where the loyalists 
were victorious, would have been not only alto- 
gether fruitless m a protestant clergymati, but 
even extremely dangerous to his personal safety^ 
Certainly the influence of the Romish clergy over 
their followers (which, however, seems at present 
in a state of decline) is beyond all comparison 
greater than that of the protestant over theirs: 
yet to what extent that influence might, among 
30 infuriate a rabble,* have been safely or success- 
fully exerted ; or how far constitutional timidity, 
or well grounded fear, may be justly admitted 
as a plea, I cannot pretend to determine. Dr. 
Caulfield, the Romish bishop, succeeded, with 
apparently extreme difficulty, iji his ^ndes^vours 
to rescue from t;Iie assassins, lord Kingsborougb, 
colonel of the ^orth-Cork regiqient of militia, 
who had rendered himself particularly an object 
pf hatred, at least, to the' rebels, by actions, 
Concerning the utility of which to the loyal party 



3A4 , uutour OF Tas 

I shall not presume to give Judgment, b\it leave 
the dex:isiou to the loyal is^ts of Wexford, wlio say 
i^e ewmple which ^e set, and the^discipline 
which he maintained in the regimqit* The 
Jimitatiop of the xloctor's interference to a perso^t 
of high rank, who niight in reverse of fortune 
repay tl^ service, has with seeming justice beea 
^eemed by spnaea proof of interested conduct; 
^nd his success, in favour of so obnoxious a, 
object, an irrefragible argument of his ability tp. 
^ve m^ny others. 

The doctor, however, has written a good 
pamphtet in his own vindication, and the follow- 
ing' is part of his narrative: — " Having received a 
most pressing message from Lord Kingsborough 
and captain Keugh, early on the morning of 
Thursday the 2 1st of June, 1798, I hastened to 
them, to the house of Robert Meyler, where 
jLord Kingsborough was still a prisoner. On my 
arrival cj^ptain Keugh told me he had that 
mornix^ given up the government of the toM^i 
to Lord Kingsborough, and the mayoralty to 
J)u Jacob: they both told me that the rebeU 
were beaten and routed every where, and wer6 

* This nobleman had been in Dublin, absent from his regi- 
ment, when Wexford was taken by the rebels ; and was so full 
of Aat confidence which was observed in many officers in those 
times, that he would not believe the news of the disaster ; and 
gofiig from Arklow by pea to joia his |l^imcnt la Wexford^ 
was taken prisoner in the harbour. 



IJilSH REBELLION, 185 

pourittg intoi tlie town by thousands from all 
quarters; that if they continued any time in 
the town^ they would proceed to murder all the 
prisoners, as they had declared thfe day before; 
and that if the troops should overtake them ia 
ihe town, they would make a general slaughter 
of them, and perhaps in^liscriminately of the 
inhabitants, and reduce the town to ashes; that 
the only means of preventing these shocking 
disasters was to get the rebels out of the town; 
that a strong representation of their own danger^ 
and of LordKingsborough's negodations with the 
military commanders and government, would 
have more Aveight with the rebels than any 
exhortations or coiisideration of duty. They 
then called on and conjured me to exert mysel^i 
and to cdl the rest of the clergy to help mc to 
prevail on the rebels, as they came in, to leave 
the town for their own and the general safety* 

*' In this state of things 1 did not skulk or fly 
(as perhaps I might) ; I immediately sent to the 
plergy : they came to assist me, and not only 
(hey, but many or most of the Roman catholic 
inhabitants of Wexford, loyal men, (though 
§ome to save themselves had been obliged to 
appear as rebels) nay, even real professed rebels 
aided us. Mr. Perry, the notable captain Dixon, 
&c. helped us. We did our utmost from nine 
brten in the morning to the going down of the 
sun, and, under God, we succeeded in prevailing 



185 HISTORY OF Tl!« 

on the rebels to leave the town, ^nd thereby 
prevented all the miscfiief and misfortunes which 
might, and probably would attend and follow 
from their remaining in it. 

*^ It is obvious that Lord Kingsborough might 
Jiave been spared or saved, for reasons or circum- 
3tances that did not operate for others, or for any 
other individual. He was a nobleman of interest 
and consequence, an important hostage, a military 
plan treatingwith military commanders for famur^ 
nbk terms for the rebels. These circumstances 
and considerations did not attend or attach to 
other individuals, which must have weight with 
pven a rebel in his serious and cool senses, 
particularly in so perilous a situation. Hence I 
thin|c it fair to say that his lordship might have 
been spared, though others had suffered. But, 
I thank God, the truth is, no one suffered ou 
that day or occasion. My interference Avas not • 
Jimited to any person of any rank, but for alls 
my conduct was disinterested, and my intention 
pure." The doctor defies me to deny with effect 
what he has heT6 stated. But 1 have apparently 
no right, and therefore jio inclination to deny 
the doctor's statement. J insert in appendix, 
No. 5, a letter from him to a magistrate, whicl^ 
appears to be much in his favour. 

In fact Lord Kingsborough was considered by 
the rebel chiefs as a valuable hostage; and 
perhaps if they had full^ availe4 themselves qf 



this advantage, some terms might have been 
obtained in their favour; though of the lives of 
hostag-es in general no account seems to have 
been made by the commanders of his majesty's 
troops. The offers of surrendry transmitted by 
captain M'Manus, already mentioned, and for- 
warded by general Moore to his superior, were 
disdainfully rejected by general Lake who returned 
for answer that no terms could be granted to 
rebels in arms, bvtf that the deluded multitude 
*might have peace and protection when their arms 
and leaders should have been delivered into his 
hands. 

This deluded multitude would certainly have 
committed a tremendous massacre on the 21st 
of June, the day of general Moore's march 
tovv^ard Wexford, if they had not been persuaded 
])y their devoted leaders that conditions of sur- 
rendry would b6 obtained. For this purpose! 
lord JCingsborpugh, who on the occasion entered 
into certain engagements in favour of the rebels, 
was liberated, made governor of the town, and 
charged with proposals to be s^nt to general 
Moore. How far his lordship endeavoured to 
fulfil those engagements, which was probably 
quite beyond his power,* I am not authorized 

f Efisign Harman of the North-Cork, being sent by his 
lordship with proposals to general Lake, was intercepted and 
fhot, by Order of \he fanatic Father Murphy, who said that 
f ]^ would have no peace/ When his lordship heard of/ Har^ 



1&8 HISTORY OJF THE. 

to say; but a reliance on them was doubtkss the 
cause of preventing some leaders from attempting 
to escape. Others, indeed, some of whom are 
still aKve, had no reliance on them. How dif- 
ficult the prevention of massacre was at that 
time may in some degree be conceived from the 
following instance. 

After the evacuation of Wexford By the main 
body of the rebels, Father Philip Roche, accom- 
panied by three gentlemen of that denomination^ 
met in his way out of town four men from the 
»eighbourhood of Enniscorthy^ who said that 
they were going into Wexford to put the prisoners 
to death, sincfe others had not the courage to do 
it* While Roche with a drawn sword com- 
manded them to turn back without entering the 
town, and one of them with a blunderbuss pre- 
sented at him, swore that none should prevent 
them, the three gentlemen of Roche's company 
fled *^ from the wind of such contention,'* leav- 
ing him to contend alone with the four murderers. 
After a furious altercation the matter was com- 
pounded. The murderers took a solemn oath 
(and an oath to a priest is peculiarly binding) 
that they would merely take a little refreshment^ ^ . 
and immediately quit the town without the per- 
petration of any mischief. 

man's death he cdoUy said, ^ the devil mend him* Harmaa 
had been an amiable and brave officer, with a wife and family^ 
but he had not been subservient to the indulgence of .the yiceft 
of any superior officer. 



IRI5H REBELLION. 189 

Not therefore without^ reason were horrible 
apprehensions entertained, concerning the danger 
of their friends in Wexford, by the loyalists in 
general Moore's camp ; and captain Boyd, whose 
amiable consort, niece to the earl of Courtowti, 
together with all the rest of his family, was 
in prison, entreated the general to march with- 
out delay into the town to prevent the appre- 
hended massacre, or to permit him to take a 
party of soldiers with him for the purpose. As 
the general, probably from a fear of the excesses 
which might be committed by the soldiery, who 
perhaps niight not be easily restrained from 
licentious acts, in the execution of such a mea- 
sure, assented not to his request, the captain 
at length ventured at five o'clock in the after- 
noon, with only eight yeomen of his troop, to 
gallop into Wexford, and happily found it aban- 
doned by the rebel forces, part of whom had 
passed over the bridge to the eastern side of the 
river Slaney, and the rest in an opposite direc- 
tion into the barony of Forth.* Thus to retreat^ 
without further injury to the loyalists in their 

* That some of the rebels were stiU in town (some say, rely- 
ing on their imagined capitulation) and that shots were fired at 
captain Boyd's party, but without effect, (for what end I cannot 
clearly understand) is asserted by indubitable authority. It is 
probable that a few desperadoes had remained for some bad 
purpose, the execution of which was prevented by the appear- 
ance of this brave little band. The probability of this may be 
supported by what I have related of Roche's rencounter* 



J)6\vet-, they had been induced by the manage-' 
ment of some chiefs, particularly Mr. Keugh^ 
who awaited, the arrival of the king's troops, 
hoping doubtless that the services rendered on 
this occasion might procure him impunity* 
Detachments of the army soon following captain 
Boyd, the surviving prisoners, to the' number 
of about' one hundred and forty, who had been 
miserably fed with cows' heads and potatoes^ 
were, to their inexpressible joy, set at liberty: 
What number had been massacred during the 
whole time of the rebels possession, I cannot 
5tate with accuracy, but I believe it to have 
amounted to one hundred and one* 

While the surviving loyalists in Wexford wertf 
rejoicing at their deliverance, a very tragic scene 
was acted in Gorey. On the departure of general 

, Needham from the latter town to Vinegar-hill, 
on the 20th of June, he had sent an express to 
captain Holmes, of the Durham regiment, who 
commanded in Arklow, ordering him to dispatch 
immediately to Gorey that part of the Gorey 
cavalry Avho remained in Arklow, and informing 
him, that on their arrival at their place of desti- 
nation, they should find an officer to command 
them, and a large force with which they weretd 
unite. By the same express the Gorey infantry 
were ordered to remain in Arklow; but these, 
and the refugee inhabitants of Gorey, hearing of 

• ii large force to protect their town/were so impa* 



IRISH REBELLTOl^. ipf 

iient to revisit their homes, that they followed 
the cavalry contrary to orders. This body of 
cavalry, amountiilg only to seventeen in number, 
found on their arrival in Gorey, to their astonish- 
ment, not an officeror soldier. They, however, 
had the courage or temerity to scour the country 
in search of rebels, with the assistance of some 
others who had joined them, and killed about 
fifty men whom they found in their houses, or 
straggling homeward from the rebel army. On 
the 22d, a body of about five hundred rebels, 
under the conduct of Perry, retreating frorrt 
Wexford, and directing their march tb the Wick- 
low mountains, received information* of this 
slaughter, and the weakness of the party com-^ 
mitting it. They instantly ran full speed to the 
.town, determined on vengeance. On intelli* 
^ence of their approach, lieutenant Gordon, a 
youth of only twenty years of age, wfio had th6 
command, marched his men (consisting of four- 
teen infantry, ,beside the cavalry out of the town 
to meet the enemy, and took post in an advan- 
tageous position near a place called Charlotte- 
grove, where they fired some vollies on the rebels, 
^even of whom they killed ; but finding that they 
must be immediately surrounded and destroyed 
if they should attempt to maintain their post, 
they retreated, and each^ horseman taking a foot- 
man behind him, fled through the town toward 
>Vrklow. As by- this motion. th« refugeof, who 



JgS HISTORY OF THE 

had returned from Arklow^ and were now attempt- 
ing to escape again thither, were left exposed to 
the pursuit of the enraged enemy, the officer 
attempted to rally the yeomen on the rogid, to 
cover, if possible, the flight of these unfortunate 
people ; but the yeomen galloped away f u^ll speed 
to Arklowin spite of his remonstrances, and the 
Refugees were slaughtered along the road to the 
number of thirty -seven men, beside a few who 
were left for dead, but afterwards recovered. No 
women or children were injured^ because the 
rebels, who professed to act tm a plan of retalia- 
tion, found on inquiiy that no women or children 
of their party had heen hurt. This was owing 
to the humanity of a young gentleman of seven- 
teen years of age in the yeoman cavalry, who 
had by his remonstrances restrained his asso- 
ciates from violencie with respect to the fair sex. 
In the action of this day, which will be long 
remembered in Gorey under the title of Bloody 
Friday y only three of the yeoman infantry were 
killed, and none of the cavalry. The rebels hav- 
ing accomplished their purpose of revenge, their 
only motive for deviating from their course to 
visit Gorey, resumed, after a short repast, their 
inarch to the Wicklow mountains^ 



IRISH REB^tLlOTSl, 1^3 



CHAP. IT. 

Ulster-^Antnm -h- Saintfield^—Ballinahinch'^Ballifna;^ 

^ scarty — Scollogk gap — Gore's bridge — Castlecomerr^ 

JCilcdmny — Hacketstown-^Pefry^Ballyellis^BaUy-' 

rabeen — Bally gullin — Clonard — Incursion — JJi^* 

persion. ^ 

MoiTJJTAINSjiow, and other devious recesses^' 
since their expulsion from Enniscorthy and 
Wexford, were the only retreats of the rebels, of 
whom those who remained in arms, endeavoured 
by rapid movements from one strong position to 
another to elude the king's forces, and thus tp 
protract the war until the arrival of their foreign 
allies.* In the time of the operations already 
related, by which the rebels of the county of 
Wexford were reduced to this situation, occur-* 
fences had elsewhere taken place, some of which 
are to be noticed. The province of Ulster, where 
insurrection had been most of all dreaded, and 
where from the spirit of the inhabitants it woiild^ 

* Their expectation of foreign succour was expressed in th« 
following verse of one of the songs, which they were accustomed 
to sing at this time. 

Up the rocky mountain and down the boggy glyn> 
We'll keep them iti agitation until the French com« xiu 



id^ m STO«y 6f THE . 

if extensive, have been most of all formidable — 
remained undisturbed, excepting two districts, 
where, as the insurgents were unsupported, they 
were soon suppressed. Neither, from the prin- 
ciples of the northern people, better educated^ " 
and ^>os»6ssiog mort: of 4:Ke purity <>f true reltgion, 
were the insui-gerits of this quarter drftberately 
guilty, except in one instance, of the plunder, 
devastation, and murder of the southern. 

One of these insurrections was in the county 
of^trinj, mtbeneighbourhoo4of thetownof 
that n^me, on the 7th of June. A meeting of 
n^gistrates being aj^ointed to be held ari that 
day in Atttrimy for the prevention of rebelUoi^ 
ihe iiKurgents, with design of seizing the persons^ 
pf thcBp, attacked the town at two o'clock ia 
the^CHioon, and soon overpowering the troo^ 
wjdiin it, veiy nearly gained ppssessioiii. M^of** 
g^n^rd Nugent, \^ho commanded in th^ district, 
iKiv^ng received' intpl%ca>ce of the intended 
fishpsgjr (>9d 4he imiapediate ot^ct of it, had 
©fd?i«dift body of troops to m^rch to Antrim, 
yrfeo arrived too late to prevent the rebels from 
the easiefutiou of their design in the attack of 
the town. They then attacked the insurgents in 
^'e town, but their van-guard, consisting 'of 
cavalry, being repulsed with the loss of twenty- 
three men killed^ and, wounded, of whom three 
M^ere officers^, cojonel Durham/ whp commanded 
the troops, brought the arfiliery to batter the 



lEtSH EEBELLtOir. 19f 

town, which obliged the inisurgents to abandon 
it, together with a sik-pounder which they had 
brought with them, and two curricle guns which 
they had taken from the king*s army. They 
were pursued toward Shane's^castlc and Randab- 
town, with slaughter, and perhaps may have 
lost in all near two hundred. In this engage- 
ment colonel Lumley, of the S2d regiment of 
dragoons, and lieutenant Murphy, were wounded j 
cornet Dunn was killed ; and Lord O'Neil was 
mortally wounded.* A small body also assaulted 
the town of Lam6, but received a repulse fxonj 
the garrison in the * barrack, consisting of a 
detachment of the Tay fencibles, under a subal^ 
tern officer. Feeble attempts were also made at 
Ball}'mena and Ballycastle. — The main body 
afterward retired to Donnegar-hill, where, *dis+ 
gusted with their want of success and other 
circumstances, the greater part broke or surren-» 
dered their arms, and almost all of them dis**^ 
persed, to which they y(ere exhorted by a magis- 
trate, named M'Cleverty, who had been taken 
prisoner by them. 

On the day succeeding that of the rising in 
the county pf Antrim, a partial insurrection com- 

* Xoid ONeil had ridden into the town to attend the meet* 
iog of the magistrates, not knowing that the rebels were in 
possession of it. He shot on^ who had seizied the bridle of hi* 
li6rse, after which he was dragged from his saddle, and so 
wounded with pikes th^hi. 4i^iK^^ f<ew days. 



IQS HrSTORY OF TILt* 

menced in that of Down^^a \xydy of insurgents 
making their appeaiVance near Saintfield, under 
the command of an inhabitant of Newtownards,* 
a Dr. Jackson. In their progress through the 
country they set fire to the house of a man named 
Mackee, who had been an informer of treason- 
able meetings : eleven persons perished in the 
flames — and circumstances of cruelty were she^vTi 
6ot inferior to those of the burning at Sculla- 
bogue. Electing for their general, Henry 
Munro, a shop-keeper of Lisburn, they placed 
themselves, on the 9th, in ambuscade, in the 
neighbourhood of Saintfield, awaiting the ap- 
proach of a body of troops under colonel Staple- 
ton, consisting of York fensibles and yeomau 
fcavalry. The ambuscade so far succeeded, that 
the royal troops were for some time in danger of 
total defeat -^losing about sixty of their number, 
among whom were captain Chetwynd, lieutenant 
Unitt, and ensign Sparky and also the Rev, 
Mr. Mortimer, vicar of Portaferry, M^ho liad 
volunteered. — ^Tlie infantry, however, on whom 
the cavalry had been driven back in confusion, 
rallying with a cool intrepidity not common in 
those times, dislodged ^nd dispersed the rebels, 
and after a stay of 4: wo hours on the field of battle, 
retreated to Belfa;st. 

[ Little discouraged by thi^ defeat, in wliich 
t}ieir loss was very small, the rebels reassembled^: 
a»d took postvat..Balijnahinx;W-on the .Wind* 



ttiill-hill, arid at the house and in the demiesne 
of lord Moira. Ou the l^th, general Nugent^ 
marching from Belfast, and colonel Stewart fromt 
I>o\ynpatrick, formed with fifteen hundred men 
a junction near the Windmill-hill, of which they 
gained possessipn, together vrith the town, which 
lies in a valley between tl^is hill apd the higli 
ground in lord Moira's demes^f?. On the latter 
the rebels (fouror fiye thou^^^ in number), 
were posted or encamped. . Both armies spent 
. the night in preparatioui^' fot battle, whicl) com- 
menced early in tlie morning of the lath, while 
the town Vas in flames, tte troops:baying wan- 
tonly: set it on fire. The. action was njaintained 
about three hours with artillery, with little or no 
execution — the cannoh. of the insurgents being 
small, Rnd-tied on the backs of cars; while the 
shdls thrown from the mortars of the rpyal army 
were furnished with too short fus^es^ sp that they 
all burst ip the air. At length the Monaghan, 
regimenU of militia, posted with two field pieces 
at lord Moira's great gate^ was attacked with 
such determined fury by the pikemen of the 
insurgents, that it fell bafcck in ^reat confusion 
on the HilUhorough caivalry, av^o likewise felV 
back in equal disorder. Tl^ie want of discipline 
in the insurgents lost what their valour had 
gained. The disordered -troops foqnd means to 
laUy whik the Argyleshire fen^ible^, entering the 
^cmespe^ >S'Sr^ n:(^in§ tlj^^ii; fttta^ck 03? ^nq|ljw 



ipS HISTORY OF THE 

'side. *The insurgents, confused and distracted^ 
retreated up the hill, and making a stand at its 
tbp, at a kind of fortification, defended the post 
for some tirtie with gr^t courage, but at length 
gave way and dispersed in all directions. Their 
loss appears, from the. best account which I have 
teceived of this battle, to have amounted to about 
^ hundred and fifty ; that of the royal army to 
about forty in killed and wounded, of whom 
two were oflScers of the Monaghan regiment, 
lieutenant Ellis wounded, and captain Evatt shot 
dead through the body* The main body of the 
insurgents retired to the mountains of Slyeeve- 
troob, where they soon surrendered or separated, 
teturning to their several homfes; and thus, with 
the execution of their leaders, as elsewhere, and 
the discouraging news of thfe massacres of pro- 
testants in the south, terminated this very short 
and partial, but active and vigorous insurrection 
«— in the course of which some slighter actions 
had t4ken place, particularly the attack of Porta- 
ferry by, a strong party of men, on the 11th, 
who were repulsed by the yeomanry posted in 
the market-house, under captain Mathews, atid 
the fire of a revenue cruiser commanded by 
(Captain Hopkins, with the loss of aboUtforty metu 
On the subsiding of this local rebellion in the 
iiorth-eastern quarter of Ireland, another local 
' rfebeHion, much inferior in vigour, and very 
easily suppressed, commenced in- the oppQsite- 



south-western quarter, in fhe county of Cork* 
Accpmpanied with tlie same kind of violent actff 
as elsewhere in the south, and ex Ifibi ting nothing 
cxti'aordinary or peculiar, it requires little notice: 
The principial action, and the only one which 
government has thought- proper to communicate 
to the -public, took place near the village of 
Ballynascarty, where, on the 19th of June, two 
hundred and twenty men of the Westmeath regi-? 
ment of militia, with two six-pounders, under 
the command > of their lieutenant-colonel, ^* Siv 
Hugh O'Reilly, were attacked on their morcji 
froni 63oghnafoiity ta Bandon, by a body of 
faetweeti three and four himdred- men, ^imed 
^most^alhwith pikes. This was only a part of 
the rd>el force, .here placed in ambush ma very 
advantageous position^ ' The attack was mkde 
ftpm a height on the left of the column, w^une^ti 
^pectedly andrapfidly, that the troops hadscarcely 
time to form; but the a^ailants-were qiiidkly 
yepulsed with some loss, and . retreated ta ttie 
height** Here, if the soldiers hdd pursued thaaij. 
from Awhich they were with great difficuityJ t^ 
strahied, they would probaHy have been sUN ' 
TOtfnded and slaughtered like the -North- Cork 
detachment at Oulart. While the officers wer« 
endeavouring to form the men again,' a body *6f 
rebels were making i motion to seize the cannoA,^ 
and another body made its appearance on th« 
high ^oqnds in tlie-rfetr; but, at thecriticat 



£00 nisroKY or TftE 

moment, a hutjdred irten of the Caithniess legiott,^ 
under the command of major Innes, who, otx 
their march t6 Cloghnakiltjr, had heard the 

. rq)ort of the guns, came to their assistance, and 
by. a brisk fire put the assailants to flight on one 
«de, after whiclr those who Vere on the height$ 
behind retired On receiving a few discharges of 
the artillery. The loss of the rebels in this actioa 
inay perhaps have amounted to between fifty 
iud a hundred nien; that of the royal troops, by 
the commander's account, only to aseijeant and 
aprivate^ • r » ^ / 

When from these little iasurrections, iso local 
and of so ifcM^' days duration, we return iko view 
the. pr9ceedings of the Wc^fordianJiisur^eiits, 
we. arenstruck with the noxious consequence, 
of the^CTmissitm given thenito escape towards 
Wexfoixi from Vinegar-hill, if indeed that' escape 
<?6uld baye, without horrid slaughter, been pre* 
v|toted. vTo the aca>unt of whatever person was 
the authcKirfi. this escape, are, I think, chai^Cf 
^Weairihcjdevastations and slaughters conuniUed 
by the various parties of these insurgents, from 

' tbfe time of, their dislodgnient till tiiat of their 
final dispersioji- To trace these parties through 
all tlieir marobes 4nd countet-- marches would be 
fatiguing tcrtbe reader, and might prove nearly 
grouch so to the writer asi the actual performance 
W^ to the hardy peasants^ who bore the various 
}iardsbip§ pfjli^if cksultprjt-wiirfwe v[ith ^wn 



IRISH HEfiBLLfOir. 90t 

prising streiigth of constitutioo, aflil a vigoui' 
of mind vyrfl \raithy of a better cause. I have 
already said,, that on their evacuation of Wex- 
ford, parti of vthe^ rebels pasitd over We3tft>rd 
bridge, the rest into the barony of Forth j amd 
that a body of the Yormer, under Perry, m its 
inarch to the Wicklov mountains, .comftritted 
the slaughter of blctody Friday./ Them[am'tk)d|t 
of the latter, supposed to be fifteen tltodsaiid in 
number, ideserterff by those leaders who were med 
ofeducatioQ and property;: difected .its .marcl% 
under FathBijJohn i^tuTphy;^. iiorJthrwest\v»rd t# 
Scollogh-^p^f—au -opening inr the great f idge of 
Mount- Leinster, .whieh^separates the countiesof 
Wexford arid Carlo w — ^with intention to penetrate 
through the latter coui^ity into thatof Kilkeiihy, 
in the hope of being able to excite an insutrcc* 
tion there, paiticularly among the colfiersjabout 
Castlecomer, who had becnrin a state of disturii- 
anceinthe year 1793. Entering tiic gap, ved 
firiving before them some troops who attempted 
)to oppose their progress, they burned the littJe 
town of Killedmond, immediately within the 
pass in the county of Carlow, and continued 
their march to Gore's-bridge, called also New*- 
][)ridge, a, neat village on .the :river Barrow, in 
tte county of Kilkenny, where they arrived isi 
the morning of the 23d of June. A small body 
fif men, consisting chiafly of a troop of the 4fh, 
ilfjagQiciii guards, and a cfimpany of thcLWodfiini 



t9t .HISTOtnT <XF TRB^ 

Biffitta^took post on the bridge iof thb town to 
ptewnt tjieir passage of the river, but was 
^^akkly defeated, with the loss of a few killed, 
ted)twenty-seventikw prisoners^.of whom seven^ 
tomd^mt^ as^orangemien, werei^ot ; and in this 
ttielancholy businese theif fellow soldiers were 
fetted to be the executioners. Major-general 
ffir Chaises Asgil,. wlio had lAarched with a force 
of idboat aJthousa^d men: to seize the post of 
Kewbridg^ and stop the progress of this rebel 
»ttny,:: arrived too late — the enemy having 
•Ireiadyr/^afterf their sncbe^ssy * commenced a rapid ' 
inoi^^ement to a long mountainous rioge, termed 
byrt&em the r;dge of Leinater, five mile& firdm 
Castiecomer, where they spent the night. 
. The general waa likewise on. the following 
ixy toa late in his arrival at Castlecomer for the 
|m>tection of that town, whither the protestants 
were flying to take refuge from the country 
imposed to the depredations of the enemy* Early 
In 'the moiming of the S^th, the rebel troq>s, 
diminished by desertion to about eight thousand, 
descended from the heights, and advancing 
toward Castlecomer j defeated a body of about 
two htmdred and 'fifty men, at a place called 
Coolbawn, a mile and a half from that town, 
.whkdi they entered witl^ the slaughter of about 
fifty loyalists. The town was set on fire-^and\ 
of this conflagration each* party accuses the 
Wher^ •The general arriving at length with Jii« 



•rmy,- fired with his artillery on the Areeta 
and hK)use5, not knowing that many loyalists w«ro 
atill in the place, who were quaking a desperate 

-defence to prevent their families and foendf 
from falling into the enemy's* hands, Thia 
firing, however, determined the rebels to rfetiw 
from the town about four o'clock in the after* 
noon, which furnished an opportunity: ta tiie 
protestants there assembled to retreat with tbir 
general to Kilkenny; but they were obliged tfr 
leave their goods, a prey to the enemy, who toofc 
full possession of the place as soon is tiie royal 
army retreated. If at first a fog, and aftenrani^ 
the smoke of the conflagration, had not ^c^tt* 
cealed from the rebels the smallness and:dis(>af 
sition of the force opposed to them, they wouhT 
have, long before the arrival of the generirs 
army, snrrounded the town, and taken all the 
loyalists in it prisoners. In a report to govern- 
ment, four hundred rebek are said to have fi^llea 
in this engagement; but I have no grounds i:o 
believe that their slain amounted even to near, 
a fourth of that number. 

After plundering Castlecomer, the rebds 
again retired. to the high grounds, where they 
remained till the foUowipg day. Disappointed 
in their hopes of an insurrection in the county 
of Kilkenny, where few had joined their standard, 

, and these feV useless to them in battle, since 
pone except themselves had learned -to dispute 



fO* KISTOBT OF THE 

the field with the' royal troops; finding aiso 
theit own forces diminished by desertion, to 
between foui* and five thousand, and their 
tmmunitkm expended, they resolved to retreat 
back through the pa$s of Scoltogh-gap inta the 
county of Wexford. Accdiding to this deter- 
lUintlion they trioi'ed from the ridge, in the 
mbrnklg of the. 25th of 3^une, and directing 
their mdrch toward Newbridge, took post near 
that town at a pjace called Kilcomny, on a 
rismg- ground ma wide flat Here they were 
tssailed ^ three sides, at once, on the following 
IJKorHingj the 26th, at six :X)'dock, by the army^ 
•f-g^itewtlAsgil, of iJ^ear twelve himdred men,- 
^pd that of . major Mathews, of about five 
diiidred, from Mary borough^ consisting chiefly 
€if Etownshire militia. The alacrity of the latter- 
army to attack the insurgents, seems to have- 
beCfn the cauie why these were noit permitted to 
escape into their owu county without a battle. 
After al30ut an hour's firing of cannon, the 
jrebrfs,ofearing to i)e surrounded, fled towards the 
gap with their usual celerity, leaving all their 
pTurirfer and artillery to the loyalists. . Their 
artillery consisted of ten light pieces, and among 
the articles of plunder were seven hundred 
horses;. The loss of the royalists has been stated 
hy thf general at only seven men : that of the 
rebels niay have amounted to two or three 
hundred, as they \i^re pursued six miles |3iy some 



IftlSH KKBELLIOK. '$0^ 

of the ca^^lry.* They forceti their way bock 
through the gap, where they were oppaie(l by 
a small body of men, and directed (their cojuree 
north*east\vard, through the dwarf woods, ^uear 
Ferns, to the mountains of Witkh>w« 

Before their arrival in these mountabis, an 
army of their associates there, had been foiled ia 
an attempt on Ilacketstown. Tliose rebels, who 
had committed a islaughter at Gorey on Friday 
the 22d of June, and thence under the cgndu^t of 
Perry, had continued their march to tlie. county 
of iVicklow, were joined there by a number of 
others, and would have assaulted Arklow, if tbej; 
had not been deterred by the preparations thero. 
Disappointed on that side, ttey turned their 
attention to another, and unitiiig their forces 
^ith those of Garret Byrne, appeared at Hackf 
etstown at five o'clock oti the morning of the 
55th/ The ga;rrison, consisting of a hundrerl 
and seventy, mostly^ yeomen, under lieutenant 
Gardiner of the Antrim militia, tnarching to 
meet the enemy, were, aft^raftwvoUies, oblfged 
to retreat : the cavalry qujte from the scene of 
contest — the infantry, a hundred and twenty iu 

* I am infonn^d that great part oF the sjain were ihhabitants 
f^ the county which had unfortunately become the scene of . 
action, who had not joined the rebels nor l^t their houses ;, 
and that great part of the plunder was tak^n from people pf th« 
; same description. The behaviour of the arm^ in other placeg 
^eQders this account very probable. , 



fiO^ HISTORY OF T«E 

Dumber, into the barrack* The houses were 
fired by the rebels, except one in which a few 
determined loyalists, with Mr. Magee, a clergy- 
man, had taken post. After vainly repeated 
attempts, during nine hours, to force the barrack, 
and the garrisoned house by which it was 
flanked, the rebels retired, but retreated not 
wholly from the scene of action till seven 
o'clock in the evening. The loss of the loyalists, 
who after the repulse of the rebels retired all to 
TuUow, eight miles distant, was ten slain, and 
twenty wounded. That of the, rebels, exposed 
so long to a galling fire, may, perhaps, have been 
^ear two hundred, among whom was Michad 
Reynolds, who had led the rebels to ^aas in the 
first morning of the rebellion. Amongpthe slain 
of the loyalists was captain Hardy,' of the 
^Hacfcetstown yeoman infantry. We jAust admit 
that the garrison could i^tot possibly have main-- 
tained its post if the assailants had been furnished- 
with cannon'; but these engines bad never been 
used by the rebels of the /r^^^ity ^ Wicklowj 
and the Wexfordians iti their flight had left 
iH theirs behind. We cannot without pleasure 
observe, that in the midst of so atrocious a 
warfare, .many instances occurred of respectful 
<:reati»enf . of the fair sex, one of which had 
place in this attack. The wife and two adult 
daughters oft lieutenant Chaniney, and the wife ^ 
of captain Hardy, wKo had* early in J:he actioit 



^len into the haads of the assailants, wece, hf 
the imfluemce of Perry, and another chief, named 
M^Mabon, conveyed to a place of safety, £ind 
protected irom all insult. The wives of thz 
rebd commanders, Perry and Byrne, were at the 
same time in the hands of the loyalists, amd, "qb 
must naturally be supposed, were treated wiBi 
courtesy. Mrs, Perry had before experienced 
the like honourable behaviour, under the pco»- 
iection of the loyalists in Gorey. 

A brief account of Anthony Perry, one erf the 
rebel generals above-mentioned; may serve ta 
shew what difficulty a man may firid, wh© 
endeavours to extricate himself from the effects 
jof a conspiracy against government, when lie 
has once engaged in it This gentleman^ a 
man of amiable manners, and a well informdl 
undcErtanding, was yet weak enough to ht 
seduced into>tbe eonspiiacy ; and having actsd 
so as to cause much suspicion, was arrested and 
confined in Gorey a little before the insurroitiotu 
He repented- heartily of his misconduct^ • and 
^ave information useful^ to govemme«tj ^but 
isuch was the state of things, that he was treats 
in prison with the utmost harshness and mdlg- 
iifty. Ampng other acts of; severity, a serjean* 
of ^e iNorth-Cork mJlitia, i>ieknamed, from bis 
habitual behaviour Tom the Decily cut aws^ aft 
his halt^qirfte' elose to the head, and then bur^^ 
rf) the roctts of it witlva ©indk. - Bcifig liberated 



?08 HrsToiiT OS THi:^ 

hy the magistrates on the morning of the 28 A 
of May, he returned to his house, four miles 
firom Gorey, Avhere he hoped to be permitted to 
TCmain — unconcerned for the future hi plots and 
conspiracies. Btit he was soon followed by some 
yeomen, who destroyed his effects, and obliged 
him to abscond for the preservation of his life. — 
f indiog no altemitijre, he disguised himself in 
the habit of a beggar, and thus crossing the 
country, threw himself into the arms of the 
rebels. In the comae of the war he exerted 
himself to restrain th^ cruelty ©f his followers: 
and as he disapproved both of their cause and 
conduct, be was always meditating an elope- 
ment from them. In an attempt, some time 
after the assault at Hacketstown, to penetrate 
into.the northern parts of the kingdom, where 
lie hoped to abscond from the rebels, and 
conceal himself from the partisans of govern- 
ment, he was taken and hanged at. Edenderry, 
in the King's County,. a little before .1:he end of 
the rebellion. 

A body of those rebels who had d^ttir^ed the 
tounty of Kill?enny, and; fled th?ojjgh that of 
Wexford to the Wackhnv monnfains, jinding 
their associates repulsed at Hacketstown, and 
seeing 'Pp prospect of ist^ccess ip that quarter, 
toai?ctie5d back, joined by nlany others, under the 
condutt.of Garret Byrne^ toward thfc county of, 
Ws3^|pi!d— ifttwding to surprise; ^.|farriso9.Qf 



IRISH REBELLIOlf. 209 

Carnew in their way, on the 30th of June. 
Intelligence being brought to the army encamped 
at Gorey, where general Need ham commanded, 
of a formidable body of rebels being in motion, 
two hundred cavalry were detached, mostly 
regulars, partly yeomen, under the command of 
lieutenant-colonel Pulestone, of the Ancient 
Britons, supported by aa excellent body of 
infantry. This party of cavalry coming withia 
sight of the rebels, and observing them in full 
inarch on the road to Carnew, ought to have 
watched their movements at a moderate distance, 
and sent advice thereof to the camp ; but instead 
of this, with a most unaccountable temerity^ 
when they were unsupported by the infantry, 
who had been recalled, they galloped after the 
rebels to attack them.* The latter, finding a 
combat unavoidable, after running full speed to 
escape, rushed from the road into the fields, and 
placing themselves behind the hedges and walls 
on both sides of the way, Jioured a terrible fire on 
the cavalry ; who unable either to retreat or to 
annoy the enemy, pushed forward toward 
Carnew ; but by cars lying in the way, on which 
women belonging to the rebels had been carried, 
they were so retarded, and so long exposed to 

* Why the infantry, vrhose support might have prevented 
this disaster, had been recalled by general Needham, I cannot 
tell.— Perhaps the cavalry would not have been so rash, if thejr 
had not supposed the infantry still at hand to support tbfa* 

P 



SiO HISTORT OF THE , 

the guns of the enemy, that without killifi^ one 
©f their aBtagonists, they swflfered the loss of 
fifty-five men slain, of whom twenty-eigfct were 
Ancient Britons. The i*est eff6cted their escape 
to Camew, and alarmed the gairison, who wonkl 
otherwise have been surprised and cut to pie<ics, 
as they had taken no precautions of outpost or 
patroles, A malt-howse, which had been spared 
from destruction when the rebels had bunied the 
town, was the fortress, into which the garrison 
had barely time to retire when the rebels appeared, 
who, after an ineffectual attack, in which they 
sustained some loss, pursued tficir march to 
Kilcavan-hill . 

. .Proceeding thence with somewhat diwtnishcd 
number, with intention to plunder and burn the 
houses of the loyalists at Coolkenna an^ its 
neighbourhood, they were followed in their 
inarch on the 2nd of July, by a body of about 
a hundred and fifty yeomen, consisting chiefly 
of the Shilelah troops and the True Blues of 
Tinnehely, who pressed them so closely that 
they thought proper to change their course, and ^ 
to take post on Ballyrahn or Ballyraheen-hiH, 
between Tinnehely and Camfew. Here the 
TOostpmdent of the yeoman oflScers were of 
opinion that their troops ought to stop, and to 
content themselves witb watching, at a safe 
distance, the movements of the enemy* Contrary 
opioians pfevdiing, an attack was made up thf 



.V 



.pfi^^ 



IRISH RKBEX-LIOW. 211 

jhillj when the rebels, who had wished to avoul 
a battle, rushing dowa on them, put them to 
flight,* killing ten of the infantry; but the 
cavalry all escaped. Two officers fell in the 
beginning of this action — captain Chamney of 
tht;* Coolattin, and captain Nickson of tl^ 
Coolkenna company, both greatly lamented. 
The slaughter would have been far greater, if 
sixty of the infantry, uuder captain Morton and 
lieutenant Champey, had not takea refuge in 
captain Chamney's house at the foot of the hill, 
where they sustained, during fourteen hours, the 
attacks of thie rebels, Avho attempted repeatedly 
in vain to fire the hou$e. Some, particularly a 
very terge «aan from Gorey, called John 
Eedmond, nicknamed Shaan Plunder, advanced 
to the hall door, with the design of burning it, 
And thus opening a passage into the house, und^r 
a covering of feather-beds; but were killed in th^ 
attempt, the bullets penetrating even thie thipk 
tegument. As a' di$ch£^rge of musketry was 
maintained from the windowis on the assailants, 
whoseP associates injudiciously ftet fire to th§ 
jaeighbojiring house of Henry Morton, Esq. 
the iUumiaatiQa of which furnished an cq^par- 
tunity to the garrison of aiming at their enemies 
in the night, the loss of the rebels, must bare 
been considerable— atftounting, according to 
sofifie accounts, to n hundced and thirty men. 

After this, one body of the ^ rebels niarolied ^ 






212 UrSTORY OF Titi 

through the mbuntains of Wicklow to the County 
of Kildare, and another returned to that of 
Wexford. — The latter making their appearance 
at a place called the White Heaps, from some 
heaps of white stones at the foot of Cfoghan 
mountain, the armies of general Needham and 
Sir James Duff moved, on the night of the-4th of 
July, (the former from Gorey, the latter from 
Carnew,) to attack them. The rebels having 
advanced in the mean time, were met at Wicklow- . 
gap, a pass between the mountains of Croghan 
and Conna, in the morning of the 5th, by Sir 
James DufTs army, from whom they retreat^ 
after a few discharges of his artillery, directing 
their march toward Gorey. Thcjr must now 
have been surrounded and slaughtered, if general 
Needham, who had visited the desertedground of 
White Heaps, had not been too late in his move- 
ments, for Sir James Duff pursued them closely; 
and brought them to action at a place called 
Ballygullin, four miles from Gorey. Here, 
making a stand on some elevated grounds, they 
repulsed the advanced guard of cavalry, and 
might have taken the artillery which accompanied 
them, if they had not been apprehensive of an 
ambuscade ; but by the fire of. the infantry on 
their arrival, ajid that of the curricle guns, they 
were discomfited, and fled with their usual 
celerity, and with little los$, making their escape 
in various directions, and appointed to assemble 



IRISH REBELLION,. S^S. 

on porrigrua-hill. They had been pursued in 
the morning by the highlanders of the marquis 
of Huntley's regiment, who had mj^rched against 
them from Arklow by Croghan mountain, and 
who were prevented by a fog froni finding them ; 
and they were annoyed in their flight by a body 
of the King's County militia, posted in Ferns, 
who, on adviqe brought them by the Rev. Peter 
Browne, dean of Ferns, entered instantly on the 
pursuit, and killed some whom they overtook. 
Finding themselves hunted from place to place, 
by different bodies of the king's troops, and 
unable to maintain any post, they dispersed from 
Corrigrua, and no opposition was afterwards 
made to the royal army in the county of 
Wexford. 

The other body of Wexfordian rebels directed 
their course to the county of Kildare, to form a 
junction with a number of their allies in that * 
cbunty, who had remained in arms from the 
beginning of the rebellion, and under the conduct 
of WiIUan> 4yl"^^r h^ eluded the king's troops, 
by rapid moveinents reciprocally froin the 
Wicklow mountains to the bog of Allen. This 
junctipn was soon broken. The fierce W6x- 
fordians quarrelled with their less enterprising; 
associates ; and an act of Aylmer, who took i 
disputed gun Trom one of the former, and gav^ 
i|: to one of his own men, almost caused ^ battle 
|?etween the two parties. — Froni Prosperous tji« 



214 HISTORY OF THE 

ill associated confederates marched to Clotiard, 
a village twenty-five miles westward of Dublin, 
on the rivei* Boyne, with design to attack 
Athlone, and raise an insurrection in the western 
parts of the kingdom. Though they amounted 
perhaps in number to three thousand, they found 
so obstinate a resistance at Clonard from twenty- 
seven men, under lieutenant Tyrrel, a yeoman 
officer, in a fortified house, that they were 
delayed till the arrival of succours from Kinne-* 
gad and Mullingar, and obliged to abandon the 
attempt* From the time of this repulse, the , 
11th of July, the Wexfordians, finally separating 
from their less hardy associates, pursued unaided 
their plan of desperate adventure. Reduced to 
about fifteen hundred in number, and hunted in 
every quarter by various bodies of the king's 
troops, which were stationed every where arouqd, 
J they made a flying march from place to place, 
in the counties of Kildare, Meath, Louth, and 
Dublin, under the conduct of Fitzgerald, 
skirmishing with such parties of the royal army 
aa( overtook or intercepted them, 

* J?ortificd housei^ with gftniaons of about Wtnif well 
appointed men, appeared io be impregnable against the rebels, 
when destitute of cannon* From a reliance on this, tw(i^. 
houses in the county of Kildare, near Dunlaven, were 
Retained in defiance of the insurgents, during all the rebellion : 
that of Mr. Saundeft of Saunders* grove, and that of Mj^! 
^iopkejr ()f Qrftngebegy to^ belcmgiiig to Mrt Critchley. 



IRISH EEBXLLIDIir* 215 

. / On: the night of tbeir repulse they plundered 
r the village 'of Caarbery, in the county of Kildare^ 
and. marched the following morning by Johns- 
town to a place called Summerhill, near Cul- 
rouUin^ in the county of Meath. . Here, after 
having eluded the pursuit of some parties of 
soldiery^ particularly that of colonel Gordon, of 
the Invexnegs fensibles, who had marched to seek 
them from- Tnm, they were attacked by colonel 
Gough, with a body of troops from Edenderry, 
and obliged to fly, with' precipitation and the 
loss of t^ir plunder. Totally^ disappointed in 
theii>'iibpes of assistance to their cause in the 
county of Meath, which had been so agitated 
by defenderism and rebellion, they by a 
circuitous and rapid march made their way to 
the river Boyne, which they crossed near Duleek 
into the county of Louth. Finding themselves 
overtaken on the l4th, by the cavalry of major- 
general Wemys and brigadier-general Meyrick, 
who were pursuing them with two divisions of 
the army, they made a desper&te stand between 
the Boyne and the town of Ardee. On the 
arrival' of the infantry and artillery to the 
assistance of the cavalry, w|jo had been endea- 
vouring to keep the rebels at bay, they broke, 
and fled, with some loss^ into a bog. Some of 
these adventurers directed their flight hence to 
^rdee, and dispersed ; but the main body, 
Repassing the Boyne^ marched with great; celerity 



21 6 ' HISTORY OF THE 

towards Dublin, perhaps with design to regain ' 
the Wicklow mountains. Being hotly pursued 
by captain Gordon of the Dumfries light 
dragoons, with a body of cavalry followed by 
infantry, they were finally dispersed, with some 
^laujghter, at Ballyboghil, near Swords, in the 
county of Dublin, whence they severally endea- 
voured, by devious ways, to reach their homes, 
ot places of concealment 



IPISH REBELLIOir. ; iJ7 



CHAP. V. 

Dullin '^Executions — Wexford — Executions — Grogcm 
— Harvey — Colclough — FatherMurphy — Father John 
Redmond — Prosecution — Cornwallis — Protections--^ 
Amnesty Act — Surrender of Conspirators — O'Connor's 
Letter — Prosecutions checked — Babes of the Wood-^ 
Holt and Hacket — Devastations — Huntley's High^ 
landers — Skerrett — Robberies — Damages — Compensa^ 
tions — Retrospect — Griffith — Coercion — Violences--^ 
Religious Animosity — Ingenuity of Peasants — JBxcgv 
gerated Accounts — Population — Strength of the Irish 
Government — Espionage continued. 

While a bloody and desolating civil war 
(which I consider as terminated in the final 
dispersion of the Wexforcjian rebels) had been 
raging in the county of Wexford, and occasi- 
onally afflicting the county of Wicklow, and 
petty rebellions had been elsewhere formed, the 
capital, vigilantly guarded by a large military 
force, enjoyed a peace not otherw ise interrupted 
than by alarms of plots within and hostilities 
without. The chief part of this military force 
consisted of its own citizens, formed into yeoman 
companies, whose conduct on this occasion merits 
the highest praise. Fortunately the grand and 
royal canals, the former on the; southern, the 
latter on the northern side, surrounded the city; 



its HISTOEY OF THP 

and, being fifty feet broad and twelve deep, 
formed a fortification of the nature, of a wet 
ditch, the numerous bridges of which were 
palisaded, and guarded both night and day. 

Trials and executions, which every where 
followed the suppression or discovery of conspi- 
racies, had early commenced in the capital. 
Among nmny others, a rebel officer, a protestant 
xtamicd Bacon, a reputable taylor, an inhabitant 
cf Great Ship-street, being apprehended disguised 
in female apparel, proceeding in a chaise to the 
country to joia^his men, or, as some say (with 
great probability) to conceal himself from both 
rebels and loyalists till the storm should subside, 
was executed on the 2d of June near Carlisle- 
bridge.*— On the 14th was executed, on the sande 
scaffolding, lieutenant Esmond, found guilty of 
being leader in the attack on Proiiperous, already 
related. — On the 12th of July, Henry and John 
Sheares were brought to trial, condemned, and 
soon after put to death. The trial of John 
M'Cann, who had been secretary to the provincial 
committee of Leinster, followed on the 17th ; 
that of Michael William Byrne, delegate from 
the county committee of Wicklow; and that of 
Oliver Bond, on the 23d. The two former were 
executed; but the third was reprieved, aik H 
judicious, and indeed necessary system of mercy 
had been adopted since the arrival of the roaiqu^i^ 
Corawallis, as lord lieutenant of Ireland* . 



IRISH BEBEtLIOK. SI0 

While a few trials for treason vere held by 
jury in the metropolis, by the more summary 
mode of court-martial were great numbers tried 
in other places, particularly the town and county 
of Wexford* On the. possession of the former ' 
by his majesty's forces, on the 21st of June, 
immediate search was made for the ostensible 
chiefs of the rebels, most of whom had sought 
places of concealment. Some surrendered in 
confidence of an imaginary capitulation. Mat-^ 
thew Keugh, as I have already mentioned, made 
no attempt to escape, hoping mercy on account 
of his having been formerly in danger among 
the febels, and for the services which he had 
rendered in their evacuation of the town. But 
jio mercy on s^ch accounts was, yi those times, 
to be found. — ^On the fi5th, nine of these leaders 
were executed, among whom^ were Keugh and 
Philip Roche. The bridge was the general scene 
of execution, as it had been of massacre. Th^ 
head, after death, by hanging, separated from the 
body, which was commonly thrown into the river^ 
as had been the bodies of the massacred protes-^ 
tants, was fixed aloft on the court-house. 

Among the persons who suffered for treason 
on the bridge, were Beauchamp Bagehal Harvey, 
Cornelius Grogan, and John Henry Colclough, 
Grogan, a man of an estate in land of eight 
thousand pounds a year, and much accumulated 
wealth, but of a timid spirit, had unfortunately 



Mp HrstOKT OF THB * 

fallen into the hands of the insurgents, and^so 
far misconceived the state of affairs as to iniagin© 
bia^ property more secure under the protection of 
, the United Irishthanof the existing government; 
Unhappy misconception ! The success of the rebels 
would have involved the destruction of both his 
property and life. He, however, through fear of 
the loss at least of the former, had consented to 
take the. United oath, and to promise to act as 
commissary to the rebel army.* Yet, such is 
the ' inconsistency of human nature, this man, 
w1k>s€ only guilt, with regard to treason, had, 
been caused by his timidity, met his fate with 
courage,.'when he found death inevitable. Harvey 
betrayed more fear of death at the place of 
execution, though he was wejl known to have 
been a man of personal courage, having exposed 
his life with intrepidity in duels. This gentlemai> 
:was possessed of a landed property (>f between 
two and three thousand pounds a year, and had 
in many respects bprne an amiable, character,, 
particularly that of a most humane landlord— 4 
character unfortunately not veiy common in 
Ireland! Seduced, like $ome other men of 
benevolent hearts, by the fall^cioui^ hope that 

* See Appendix, No. 4. That Mr. Grogaa should have 
been deceived into a belief of the universal success of the rebels, 
is not to be accounted surprising when those who were about 
him, gave him confidently that inforniation> and he bad aft 
'means of knowing the truth. . _ , , . . ^ 



?5ucli a rev'blution might be efFected in Ireland 
by a popular insurreiition, as would cure the 
defects of the political system, and prodigiously 
augment the prosperity of the island, he had 
entered into the united conspiracy ; but so'ofi 
convinced, after the insurrectiori had taken place, 
of the utter impracticability of Such a revolution, 
by such instruments, and of the certain destruc- 
•tion of himself and other protestant chiefs, in case 
of success on the side of the rebels, he would 
most gladly have renounced all connexion with 
them; but, as no alternative was allowed, he was 
obliged to remain among them while tlifj were 
able to retain the post of Wexford. 

Harvey and Grogan suffered execution together 
on the 28th ; Colclough alone in the evening 
of the same day. Colclough was a man of very 
amiable character; of a naturally good under- 
standing, enlarged by culture, and of engaging 
matiners. By education and profession a llo- 
5(ianist: he was a protestant in principle.* Influ- 

* 1 mean not to say that he preferred the forms and ceremo- 
nies of the protestant to those of the Romish religion, to which 
he had be^n habituated. I believe the contrary to have been, 
the case. But he was so far a protestant as to reject all those 
persecuting doctrines of the Romish church, adverse alike to ^ 
reason and Christianity, which have caused so much bloodshed 
and calamity among mankind. 

I am assured, however, ;by a protestant gentleman of credit 
and respectability, that Colclough, who protected him in th« 
rebellion, repeatedly protested to him in the most solemn 



fi22 HISTORY OF THK 

euced in his matrimonial speculation solely by 
the personal merit of the object, he married a 
lady of a congenial soul, whose endowments of 
mind and amiable qualities fully justified the 
wisdom of/his choice So void ^vas he of religious 
bigotry, that he recommended to his w^fe not to 
conform to his mode of worship, since to follow 
the dictates of her conscience in adhering to the 
protestant religion (in which she had been 
educated) would be more pleasing to him. This 
will be attributed to a deisticitl indifference in 
religious matters, by those who allow libendity 
to deism and deny it to Christian charity, of 
which I cannot suppose any Romanist of a 
cultivated and discerning mind to be divested, 
be the adventitious rules of' his religion what 
they Inay. Seduced by the like fallacious idea 
as Harvey, he had embarked on that t^mpfestuous 
ocean, whence was so seklom permitted a rieturn ; 
and made too late die horrible discovery, that 
the instruments of political reform were an 
ungovernable mob of outrageous bigots, among 
whom none except the instigators of sanguinary 
violence, could have ejffective influence- 
After his mission to Enniscorthy, already 
n^lated, in conjunction with Fitzgerald, he went 

manner, that If he should survive Ifee tten «HStii^ trouhtei, 
he never moM agiiin mi^e <x>«u:se of his )^ enter a Eomish 
isbappel 1 so greatly was hejsboofced by the bigotry of -Ac people- 



IRISH REBELIfOIT. ^^S 

immediately to fiis hous^^ atid, accompanied by 
his wift,took the road to Wexford, with intention 
to re-enter his prison according to hisengagement. 
His detention theire not being then thought 
necessary by the jnagistrates, be returned to his 
bouse, and taking his wife with him in a carriage, 
was going back to Wexford, as a place of safety 
under the protection of the king's forces — wheu 
he was met on the road by the panic-struck 
troops of captains Cornock and Showe, hastening 
to Duncannon. He was instantly seized as a 
hostage, at the instigation of the former, and 
carried with them, in their march, by these 
terrified men, who declared with oaths that they 
would shoot him whenever they should T)C 
attacked."*' How far their fears were vain or 
well-founded, I cannot ascertain, as the peasants 
in those parts had riot as yet risen in rebellion.*!" 
After marching in this manner a considerable 
\i?^ay, he was dismissed by the troops; and the 
insurrection extending to these districts soon 
after, he was appointed to a command amo^igthe 
rcbds. 

In the flight of the chiefs from the unbridled 
host which they had vainly hoped to command, 

♦ I km auAorised by Mr. Colclough to say that Mr. Snowe 
b^ved with inunamty and politeness. 
, t Oa thcif arriral^ however, within ai few miles of Dtmcaiiaon, 
in a dark night, some rebels (who weiie o&ly then begiomng to 
rise in these parts) were induced by circumstances to attack th« 
•cattered troops, and take about fifty of them prisoners. 



22* HISTORT OF TpB 

ihe retired With his wife and child to one of ttid 
%aUee islands, of which he was landlord^ five 
miles from the coast of the county of Wexford, 
and chose for his temporary abode a cave, which 
he furnished with provisions, and where he hoped 
to remain concealed until the fervour of prosecu- 
tion should abate. But Harvey, knowing his 
place of retreat, and wishing to avail himself of 
the same opportunity of concealment, embarked 
so incautiously to follow him, as to afford a 
foundation for conjecture and discovery. He 
and Harvey surrendered without resistance j 
though from the nature of the place they might 
have made for some time a defence.^ — At his trial 
and execution he displayed a calm intrepidity of 
spirit, and a dignity of deportment attempered 
with mildness, which commanded the admiration 
and esteem of the spectators ; and died so strongly 
impress^jd with the horror of atrocities attend- 
ant on revolutionary attempts in Ireland, that 
doubtless, if lie had been pardoned, he would 
have become as loyal a subject as, with exception 
of his political conduct, he had always been an 
excellent member of society. 

Harvey, Grogan, Keugh, and Perry, were the 
only protestants put to death as leaders of the 
Wexfordian rebels. Among the many Romani^ti^ 
who suffered on this accusation, were two priest^ 
of totally different characters — Father John 
Murphy, of Boulavogu^, and Father John 



miSH RESELtioijr, 82j? 

Redmond, of ClOugb. The former, already 
noticed, had been leader since the first moment 
of the insurrection in his county, and had alpne 
been considered as' such by some thousands of 
rebels, over whom other chieftains held a nominal 
authority^ He was nominal as well as real chief 
commander of that great column which made 
an incursion through the county of Carlow, into 
that of Kilkenny, and caused such devastation 
in that quarter. In the rout of Kilcomny he 
disappeared from his followers, who generally 
imagine him to be still alive. He was, however^ 
apprehended in his flight, and conducted to 
TuUow, in the county of Carlow; where, being 
recognized, he was executed by martial law. 

Of the rebellious conduct of Redmond, coad- 
jutor to Father Francis Kavenagh, in the parish 
of Clou^, of .which I was twenty-three years 
curaie, I can find no other proof than the sen- 
tence of the court-martial which consigned him 
to death. He was accused by the earl of Mount- 
jiorris, of having appeared as chief among a party 
of rebejs who committed some depredations at 
his lordship's house; while he alleged that his 
object in appearing on the occaision was to en- 
deavour to prevent the plundering of the house, 
in which he had partly succeeded. Coming 
' into Gorey on a message from the earl, seem- 
ingly unapprehensive of danger, and unconsci- 
ous of guilt, he was treated as if manifestly 



t^$ HWTORY Of tHB 

giiilty before tri^V kpocked down in the street; 
B^x^d rudely dragged by some yeomen. — I mean 
not to arraign the justice of the noble lord, his 
pro&ecutor, nor the members of the court-' 
piartial. The former, who had rendered himself 
iu no small degree responsible for the loyalty of 
the Wexfordian RomanistS;, had doubtless good 
ye^sons for his conduct ; and the latter could 
have no personal animosity against the accused^ 
nor other unfavourable bias than what naturally 
vose from the turbid state of affairs, when accu-^ 
sation, especially against a Romish priest, waa 
considered as a strong presumption of guilt But 
his protestant neighbours, who had not been 
able to escape from the t^bds^ iassured me that 
while the latter were in possession of the country, 
he was constantly hiding in protestant housesi. 
from the rebds, and that many Rpmanists expres** 
sed great resentment against him as a traitor to 
their dause. That he expected not the rebellion 
to be successful, appears from this, that when 
the wife of Nathaniel Stedman (one of my pro- 
testant parishioners) applied to him to baptize her 
child, he told her that he acceded to her request 
merely lest thechild should die unbaptized, in the 
necessary absence of hef minister, on condition 
that she should promise to make the proper apo* 
logy for him txy me on my return? to the parish. 

^ I understand that the noble earl has not 
Qon^ideisd my relation of this affair as^ complete 



iitiSH iiE.iiiito'k. 9.&f 

tyt satislactory, I berte add a few morei circum- 
stances, father Cavendgh, ta \<^hom Redmond 
was coadjutot, had lived many years in habits 
oftiie greatest apparent intimacy with the earl, 
ttostly residifig at his lordship's house, a n 
, sometimes e'ntertafnitig him and lady Mount- 
norris and family at his own. Redmond, bein^ 
oiie of the company on these occasions, thoiight 
himself extremely honoured, and ifisome degrfe^ 
MMi^ed the earl, who w'as regarded by the catho- 
lics as their most 2eal6us friend. Transported 
with 2eal fol* his noble patron, when he heaM 
that a rhob had gone to his lordship^s house in 
^uest of liquors, he ran to prevairl on th^m* io 
spare all except th6 small beer. Father CavenigK 
told me that oh the siip^i^ession of tfie rebel?, the 
^a!rf tailed at his hous^e itf a friendly manner, 
feqtidsllin^ that l^edfmond should.g6 to him to 
(jrorejr for a protection. What protection he 
i*ecelved has been already related. No act could 
fce more popular among protestants, at that time, 
tfh^ the hanging of a priest ; yet many protest- 
ants woulrf have come to bear witness in his 
favour, if they had been allowed time, and an 
Assurance of personal safety. The popularity, 
however, of hi]ff lordship with th6 common peo- 
^e- of the Catholics' \% so indeliably impressed, 
that they cannot believe to this day, that he had 
^y con<:erri in this business; but endeavoured 
with air his power to save the priest* 1 knew 



228 HISTORY OF THE. 

Redmond many years, and always thought hitxl 
a remarkably timi4 ani^ innocent man. Mr. 
Townsen4, a lawyer, well acquainted with affairs 
of that nature, says> " Martial law would have 
no terrors, if it were not liablfe to take the worst 
mode of detecting guilt, and of protecting 
jnnocetice." - ^ ' 

Among the Romanist leaders of rebellion, exe- 
cuted at the time of its suppression, at Wexford, 
was Kel^ly, of Kill-ann, already mexitioned as con- 
ductor of that column which entered the Jtown 
of Ross. This young man was worthy of a fer 
better cause and better associates — his courage 
and htimanity being equal and conspicuous* 
But the display of humanity by a rebel, was in 
general, in the trials by court-martial, by no 
means regarded as a circumstance in favour of 
the accused : strangle as it may seem . in times 
of cool reflection, it was very frequently urged 
as a proof of guilt. Whoever could' be proved 
to have saved a loyalist from assassination, his 
house from burning, or his property from 
plunder — was considered as having influence 
among the rebels, consequently a rebel com- 
mander. *' This has been by some supposed to 

* A lEoenJjon of the notoriety of this practice drew unre- 
flectingly the following extraordinary -exclamation from a 
Komfui catholic gentleman who had been one of the rebels i 
** I thank my God that no person can prove me guilty of saving 
** the life or property of any one I»» - . * 



iktSH REBELLIOlf. * 22:9 

have arisen from a policy in government to dis- 
courage all ideas of humanity in rebels, that in 
case of anothe;r insurrection, they might be so 
completely sanguinary as to render themselves 
and their cause as odious as possible, and conse- 
quently unsupported. For my part, I carniot 
easily believe the members of administration' 
capable of so cruel a policy ; and even if private 
instructions for this mode of proceeding had 
bfeen given to the officers of the army, I should 
be a little surprised that yeoman officers should 
implicitly adopt it, if they expected rfnother 
insurrection, as in that event their families or 
friends might be the victims. In fact, it seems 
to have arisen from a rage of prosecution, by' 
which the crime of rebellion was regarded as too 
great to admit any circumstances of extenua- 
tion in favour of the person guilty orit, and by 
which every nKkle of conviction against such' a 
person was deemed justifiable. ' 

A mode of proceeding against imputed rebels, - 
more summary still than tliat of trials by court- 
martial, was practised from the commencement 
of the rebellion by soldiers, yeomen, and supple- 
mentaries, who frequently executed without any 
trials such as they judged worthy of death, even 
persons found unarmed in their own houses^ 
This practice of the soldiery and yeomen, which,, 
conducted with too little discrimination of giiilt 
and inuocence, denied safety at home ta the 



S30 H|S,TORT or THIS 

ipeace^bly inclined, augmented for a time thf 
i^ijmbers of the rebels, and would, on their dis- 
persion^ have in great measure depopplate4 th» 
coi^nt:ry, if it had not been restrained by th/e jttst 
policy of government, on the appointment of ^ho 
marquis Gornwallis, in place of lord Cayid^p, to 
the lord liev^tenancy of Ireland. 

Th^t ^ viceroy qf military talents, of political 
knowledge and activity, ha4 not ht^n sent sooner ^ 
to this kingdom, where a widely extended ins^^? 
rpction had been so long known to have been 
planned, spem& to argu^ a deffct of wisdom^ at 
least of precautfign;, in the British cabinet, Pro- 
bably t^e ni^einbifrs pf that c^^hinet were littl^ 
a\v^are of the dangerous fore? 9I the Irish pc%* 
sa^ntry^ \^^hen arme^ aijd hjfowgfet into action. 
Bi^it if Newtownbarry^ Ross, and Arkl<^v, had[ 
fallen into the hands of the Weiifordiaft insM- 
ggents ; if these insurgents^ fcad j^% committed 
massacres and devastations; if they lw>4 ]W>t 
given their warfs^r^ th^ comple3;iQii of bigotry 
anjd religious mjUifder ; if they ha4 not procrastin 
nated ^ and if tropps from, JF^a^^e vith arma 
^iid 9njmi;«iition h^ landed to theii? assiabincer-r. 
th? Britislv ministry might hay© hadl lamfintaJble 
caus^. of rqp^i|.tarice foj? th^ir negtect of Ji;^nd } 
A§ if tomal^^ aJ;on?men^ fpp past inattmtion, a 
ma,n the tnost fit of ^U the ck^. of nobility wa& 
at; Ipgt^ ^PF9^,^d %a t^s^ m^s^ impMtant 
oflSce— Tthj?.igarqj|i&, CpiSW^JJift.; vM hadi emii^^ 



IRISH mEHELClOir, 231 

nently displayed ' the taleiiti of a general ^hd 
atatesman, not less when inevitably conquered 
in America, than when victorious in* the east 
The earlier appointment of such a viceroy migtit 
have prevented rebellion, and consequently the 
loss of thousands of lives and of immense pro* 
perty to the kingdom. His activity and ivisdom, 
in the discharge of his high fun::tion, soon ex* 
hibited u new phenomenon in a country where 
the viceroyalty ♦had been generally a sinecure, 
and the twicer oy tf pageanj; of state. 

On the 20th of June, lord Cornwallis made hLl 
important and very modest entrance into the 
capital; and soon after lord Camden made hi^ 
pompous^ exit from the kingdom with trinrnfyhal 
parade. r-ln a few days a proclamation \^as issued, 
and on the 3d of July iiiserted in the Dublin 
Ga2ette, authorizing hia majesty's generals tor 
give protection to such insurgentis as, bciii^ 
simpty guilty of rebellion, should surrender theii* 
arms, abjure all unlawful engagenjents^ and take 
the oath of allegiance to the king. How neces^ 
sary wasat that time such a, step, could be tt 
question of no difficulty to those who, viewing 
dispassionately the state of affairs, considered 
what num^bers had been seduced into the conspi- 
racy by artifice, dnd forced into rebellion by 
unfortunate circumstances. To give the full 
sanction of law ^ to this necessary meas«fre, a 
flaessage was delivered fron^ hisfj^jeUeacy t^ the 



ftSZ HISTORY OF TH^ 

house of commons on the 17th of July, signi- 
fying his majesty's pleasure to that effect ; and 
an act of amnesty was accordingly passed in 
favour of all engaged in the rebellion, who had 
BOt been leaders — who had not committed man- 
slaughter, except in, the heat of battle — and who 
should comply with the conditions mentioned 
above. 

Whence originated, . or by whom was planned 
or proposed what seems a kind of treaty between 
government and the chiefs of the Unitjed Irish, 
I am not authorized explicitly to say;* but an 
agreement was made, that the latter, without 
being obliged to implicate any person, should 
give all the information in their power concern- 
ing the internal transactions and foreign nego- 
ciations of thi society; and that they in, return 
(including Oliver Bond, then under sentence of 
death, and others who might choose to take the 
benefit of the treaty) should be pardoned as to 
life, but be obliged to depart out of Ireland- 
The following, dated the 29th of July, 1798, 
and signed by seventy-three persons, have been 
given as the terms of the contract: — " That the 
** undersigned state prisonei-s in the three prisons 
** of Newgate, Kilmainhain, and Bridewell, 
*^ engage to give every information in their 

• The applicatioi^ is said to have been made through couor 
sellor Dobbs, a member of the house of cx)mmoi]i3, by som^ 
^«& of the conspiracy* 



1[Rr$H REBELLION, 23S 

'^* power of the whole of the internal transac- 
*^ tions of the United Irishmen ; and that each 
** of the prisoners shall give detailed information 
'* of every transaction that h^ passed between: 
^^ the United Irishmen and foreign states; but 
.** that the prisoners are not, by naming or 
-* describing) to implicate any person whatever; 
*^ and that they are ready to emigrate to such 
" country as shall be agreed on between them 
. V and government, and give security not to 
'^ return to this country without the permission 
*V of government, and not pass into an enemy's 
*^ country ;-^if, on so doing; they are to be freed 
*^ from prosecution: and also Mr. Oliver Bond 
*^ be permitted to ta]ce the benefit of this pro- 
** posal. The state prisoners also hope that the 
** benefit oS this proposal may be extended to 
** such persons in custody, or not in custody,| 
^* as may«choose to benefit by it." In conse- 
quence of this agreement, some rebel chiefsj^ 
who hitherto had remained in arms, among whom 
was Aylmer, surrendered their persons. Six 
principals of the union, particularly Arthur 
O'Connor, Thomas Addis Emmett, Dr. M'Nevin, 
and Samuel Neilson, gave details on oath, in 
their examinations before the secret committees 
of the two houses of parliament, in whose reports, 
piiJWished by authority of government, is Con- 
tained a mass of information concerning the 
conspiracy, ' 



f34 JIISTORY OF THE 

^ Whatever were the original terms of the eon* 
tract, and by whatever subsequent events the 
contractors were influenced or affected, the prin-^ 
cipal prisoners (£fteen in number) were not 
liberated, and a power was reserved by ministers 
to detain them iu custody, at least during the 
continuance of the war with France. Doubtless 
for this the members of administration had sub- 
stantial reasons, of which they might thipt the 
publication in>proper. In all probability Oliver 
Bon4 would have been one of the number thus 
reserved for long confinement, if be had not 
been liberated by death — an apoplexy putting aa 
end to his life suddenly in prison. 

In a pamphlet styled a Letter Irom Arthur 
. O'Connor to lord Castlereagh, dated from prison^ 
January the 4th, 1799> that mmister is directly 
charged with a violation of the contract, and a 
laisrepresentation to parliament of the traiKtac* 
tions between him and the [Hi'isoners of state^ 
Other charges are made, one of which j» that the 
iajfermation given by these prisoners to govenv* 
ment, was garbled to serve the purposes of the 
ministry, and particularly^ that of a hundred 
pages, delivered by O'Connor himself, only one 
has been published in the reports of the secret 
CiHnmittees. Since to this pamphlet, in w&tdi 
his lordship is peremptorily challciigcd to dis- 
prove any of the charges thcrcui made, na reply 
has appeared, we have only the honour $mA itste^ 



IHIBH HEWLWOir. '235 

grity of his lor<iship ♦nd others for a disprooif of 
these ^qcu^fitions, which may be a yindicatioa 
to persipn^ ^cqi^atnted with bia lordship's cha- 
racter. The pqm|)hkt wts said to have been 
suppre?^ by goveroment, at least was not 
otherwise thw\<^tindestinely sold and circulated, 
Xh> authpir c:5ipre3aly clears the lord lieutenamt 
of all blame ift th^^ tmnsactiofes,- The honour 
of the marquis Comwallis remains unimpeached 
even hy th^ hgld^ftt of 4II the ohiefe of the con- 
spiracy. 

Whether the negociatiou between government 
and the principal conspii^toi^s ha4 any coiinexiom 
with, Qf infli^wce Oft the bill of amnesty, mini^ 
Uters ^lonf ^aii an&wer, and the secrets of'admi* 
nistyatioi^ ar« not lightly to be divulged. The 
j^flfirmative sei^ma to he insinuated in the above- 
inentiQi?,ed p4l0.phkt, and an opinion of that 
^atuire to have bieen,^ at the time of the bargain, 
jj^Qpagated ai9ong people connected with the 
iasvyrgents, who. spoke of some agreement as of 
a, treaty of p^ce. But the expediency of pattiifig 
^. stop tQ» a (^ai^r of slaughter, a continuation 
x^ whicih tnu^t bore depopulated: the country; 
oi^ght to be auffiicient in itself ta account for a 
limited pardaa to prostrate rebels* By the neces^ 
Sjjry exception, of certain crimes, a field widq 
enough. Uy open still for the punishment of in^ 
^ifSi^ctioii, Grea4) luimhers^ in the course of 
pipiie^ution^ si^i^ied, many deservedly, and ^omc 



SSS HISTORY 07 THE 

on such evidence as would not be admitted in 
times of calm investigation. To prevent the 
-evil consequences of any precipitancy of judg^ 
ment, which might too easily happen in trials 
by court-martial, orders were after some time 
issued, that execution should, not follow the 
trial till after the transmission of the minutes to 
the seat of government, and their inspection . 
by the viceroy. 

Assassinations, from religious or political mo- 
tives, would probably have ceased, soon after 
the granting of protections, if some desperate 
lebe^ reinforced by deserters from some regi- 
ments of Irish militia^ had not remained in arms 
in the mountains of Wicklow, and the dwarf 
.woods of Killaughrim, near Entiiscorthy. Dc- 
isertions from these regiments, composed mostly 
of Romanists, were much apprehended by some 
in the time of the rebellion ; but providentially 
here, as in other instances, the event was too 
late for the service of the rebel cause. A very 
few had deserted to the insurgents while they 
were in force, and these few seemed not well to 
relish the change from a regular army to a disor- 
dedy multitude. Yet, from some strange move- 
ment of the mind, after the rebellion was com- 
pletely quelled, and only a few desperadoes, 
probably not above three hundred in all, re* 
inained m arms, in .the two devious retreats 
above-mentioned, many ^oldier^ parJticularly of 



IRISH! EEBELLIOir. 237 

the Antrim and King's County rfegimerits, fled 
from their poste to these desperadoes, with whom 
they cduld rationally expect no better fortune 
than a wry short life of hardship and rapine^ 
ended by the exefcution of' the gun or the halter; 
So greatj however, "was the terror of this banditti^ 
in the vicinity of their lurking places, .that those 
protestants who had renjained in the country ia 
the time of the rebellion, now found themselves 
under the necessity of taking refuge'' in towns. 
But, after a little time, the woods of Killai^hriiQ^ 
scoured by the army, were cleared of their pre- 
datory inhabitants, who had ludicrously styled 
themselves Babes of the fVoodj and tranquillity 
was in that quarter restored to the country; 

The party in the Wicklow mountains, whose 
range was much inore extensive, and haunts 
much more difficult, bf access, continued imder 
two chiefs of the names of Holt and Hacket, to 
annoy the country. for a. longer time, and in a 
more formidable degree ; issuing suddenly from 
their fastness to perpetrate burnings and mas- 
sacres, and retiring before troops could arrivie to 
intercept them. 

As the massacres were found to be committed 
entirely from a spirit of religious hatred, and as 
the real perpetrators could not be brought to 
justice, a mode was adopted, which necessity 
aloncv could justify ; but it proved effectuaL 
Where any protestants >yere murdered^ by these 



23* WiTORT OF THB 

banditti or their confederatesy a greater titttnb^f 
«rf Rontanisti \i^cre put to cklith in the satntf 
ucigbbourhood by the yeomtn. Thus at Caistle* 
ttKwn four miles ftom Qorey, v/h^t^ f<mt protest* 
«it$ irere massacred -in tha mgbt by Ha<$ke^ 
$ev6n Jftdnianists were^lain in r^vctigfe; attd ai 
Aoghr^n i» the coutity 5f Wicklc^j jtefl ^ile* 
from the «am6 t^wn, tw^flty^s»*e« <Sf tb€ fettef 
tr^e fc;lted iit coosequeiice of itourdfefi 6oitt- 
nftittecl omi the fdnnei?. Hftfass^ iiK<5«^a6tly by 
the pnrsoits of yeomen liftd sddier^, vrbite J^hA 
dreary moutitat&s in the wmter season atfforded 
IK) shelter^ the flumb^r^ of ^ bancfttti daily 
diminished : Hatcket wasf kilted 1^ ^a^f . Atkiiil 
near, ArkJow^ 2& braved y^fmg tmt^ iMbo^ liad b€«« 
syeoEiaft oUceVy in deftnce of his^ hdnfi#ef;-^Solt 
furFefideted fbr t^lfife$j)ort»«iott to ^hd eart 6f 
Pmrersicrowft; tod these bacttdd <^ #6l4)^r3 aV 
fengtb totally disap^ared. 

The burnings and pluaderiifg^, 66ftiffii<trfd 1^ 
tiiese despcrad<)es, a»gineifl5gdl hi sbrfte- ddgre*' 
^edesoktion cspused in the' ^o^teitf^ of We*-* 
ferdi Wicklow, md the ne%febo*i*i]&gf parts, by 
th? ravages of rebellion. Such wt^ the' d^Wfti- 
tSoin that, togiethei^ tritli a; multitude of dabihs, 
fent^housci^ and gentlemeh-s seats te the opeit 
country, tlte towhs of Camclr, Tiiinehely, Hie-' 
feet»town, Dofiard, Bie$ington, and Killedmond,- 
were destroyed by fire; beside partial destruc-' 
tions in other town^, as Ros^, wherfc above t^retf 



lEISH EEBELLIOK. S3d 

hundred houses, mostly cabins, were consumed ; 
and Enniscorthy, much the greater part of 
which was ruined. Where a town remained any 
time in possession of the rebels, wliat houses 
escaped the flames were in general so damaged 
a$ to be reduced barely to the walls and roof; 
the door-cases, windows-cases, bases^ and sur- 
bases of the chambers and chimney pieces being 
destroyed, and the furniture broken, burned, oe 
carried away. Most of the devastations by fire, 
perpetrated in die county of Wicklow, and the 
adjoiniDg districts, had place after the cause of 
the rebels was become desperate, after they 
1^ been dislodged from all their posts in the 
county of Wexford, and obliged to take re- 
fuge m the desert mountains: whence we may 
iafer that the object of these rebels, when their 
hopes' of revolution were frustrated^, was to, 
render the country of si3 little value as possible 
to their opponents. 

The devastation and plundering sustained 1>y 
the loyalists was not the work of the rebels, 
aloi'ie. Great part of the damage was committed 
by the soldiery, who commonly completed the 
ruin of deserted houses, in which they had their 
quarters, and often plundered without distinction 
of loyalist and croppy. '^ The Hessians exceeded 

*' I mettii not to tBrovr blame on any who unpremeditately, 
and^^jottt neglect of their duty, shared the plunder of houset 
of reputed rebels consigned to military depredsrtipa. Thus, 



540 HISTORY OF tH£ 

the other troops in the business of de]predati6n J ^ 
and many loyalists' who had escaped from the 
rebels, were put to death ty these foreigners. — • 
To send such troops into the country in such S 
state of affairs, was, in my humble opinion, a 
wrong step in government, who cannot be 
supposed indifferent to the lives of loyal subjects. . 
By what influence the plundering was permitted 
so long to the soldiery, in some parts of- the 
country, after the rebelhoh was quelled, I shall 
iiot at present pretend to state. The publication 
of some facts, of which I have acquired infor- 
ination, may not perhaps be as yet safe.~On the 
arrival of the marquis of Huntley, however, with 
his regiment of Scottish Highlanders, in Gorey, 
the scene was totally altered. To the itniftortat 
honour of this regiment, its behaviour was such 
as, if it were universal amdng soldiers, would 
render a military government amiable. To the 
astonishment of the (until then miserably 
harassed) peasantry, hot the smallest trifle, even 
a drink of butter-milk, would any of these 
Highlanders accept, without the payment of at 

doubtless, lord l^gsborough thought his C5onduct blameless, 
when he. wen^'^ihe day after his liberation from Wexford, to 
Mr. Cornelius Grogan's house, and took out of the stable two 
coach -horses to sell. But if we should find the attention of 
any general officer so absor^fed in a system of plunder, as to 
leave him no leisure for fighting, perhaps wq might \iusk hSm 
not eotirely blameless, • , 



IRI^^H REBELLION. - 241 

least the full value. GeneraLSkerrett, colonel of 
the Durham fensible infantry, who succeeded 
the generous marquis in the con^mand of that 
post, observed so strict a discipline, that nothing 
more was heard of military depredation. 

But, though by the conduct, naturally 
expected in general officers, the royal troopy 
assumed their proper place, in becoming. the 
protectors, instead of pillagers, of the people,^ 
the country was miserably afflicted all the 
ensuing winter by gangs of noctiirnal marauders^ 
as is generally the case after the commotipns W 
civil warfare. These appear to have consisted 
solely at first of the lower classes of loyalists, 
some of whom might think, or pretend to think, 
that they were making reprisals from those who 
had plundered them or their friends in the 
rebellion. But a system of unlawful violence, 
if not speedily coerced, will be carried to excesses 
which admit no excuse or palliation. ^Should wc 
suppose that none except persons gujlty of 
rebellion and pilUge were the subjects of plunder 
to these marauders, yet the loyalist landlords and 
creditors of these ruined people must, also he 
sufferers. But by whatever pretences, they 
might endeavour to impose even on their owft 
consciences, lucre was their object, without 
regard to the guilt or innocence of the persQjnyi 
whQ were the subjects ©f their depredatioxw 



244 MXSTORT OF THE 

With these erroneously termed loyalist robbers, 
in a little time some croppies were admitted to 
associate, and the latter sometimes formed 
separate partieis ; but the Romanists alone were 
the subjects of pillage, because these, being 
disarmed at the quelling of the insurrection, 
were incapable of defending their houses ; while 
to attack protestants, who were every where 
furnished with arms, appeared too dangerous to 
these adventurers. The wretched sufferers were 
not only destitute of the means of resistance, 
but even of the sad consolation of complaint ; 
threat^ed with death and the burning of their 
houses, if they $houId dare to give information 
of the robbery. Many houses, in fact, were 
feed in the course of this^ melancholy winter, 
the inhabitants hardly escaping from the flames, 
and the cattle sometimes consumed aliVe m the 
conflagration* How some survived the hawi- 
ships of this dreary season, who were deprived 
of their provisions, beds, bed-clothes, and iieariy 
of their wearing apparel, in the midst of deep 
MOW and severe frost, seems not easily account* 
tble. The magnitude of the evil, which tended 
to desolate the country, and which is suspected 
to have been most unwisely encouraged by the 
connivance of some yeoman officers, roused ^at 
kst the attention of some public-spiiited gentle- 
Ji?eu, by whose e^^ertion^the^e violences were by 



IRISH REBELLIOIT. S43 

degrees restrained, but not completely sup- 
pressed,* One species of mischief, was, the 
burning of Romish chapels in the night, of 
which hardly one escaped in the extent of 
several miles around Gorey, This, though it 
-evinced a puerile spirit of religious antipathy, 
little honourable to any description of people, 
was of a nature far less cruel. I have hear4 
Roman catholic gentlemen say, that the burning 
pf one poor cabin must cau$e more actual misery 
than that of hundreds of chapels. 

To form a probable estimate of the detnmeni 
sustained by the country, in consequence of the 
united conspiracy, would be doubtless a matter 
of coTisiderable difficulty. Some idea of it may 
be conceived from the claims of compensation 
for their losses made on government by suffering 
loyalists, according to an act of parliament, 
which marks very strongly the amiable nature, 
- of the .political constitution which the British 
islands enjoy. Soon after the commencement 
of the insurrection, and the flight of many 
Joyalists to the metropolis, and other places, for 
safety, the sum of a hundred thpusand pounds 
was voted by the house of commons,, for the 

* Jhc most successful exertions for the peace of the country 
trere made by Hawtry White, Esq. captain of the Ballaghkcen 
f^avalry. This gentleman had acquired the earliest intelligehc* 
of an intended rebellion in the county of Wexford, and was 
Extremely active in attempts to prevent and suppress it, without 
any act of unnecessary violence qr <?r4elty^ 



244 HISTORY OF THE 

immediiate relief of ^uch among them as should^ 
appear destitute of the means of subsistence ; and 
for the distribution of this money, a most respect-; 
able body of commissioners was appointed, who 
^ave to the claimants, according as tlie circum- 
stances of their several cases appeared to require, 
sums not exceeding fifty pounds. The claipiants 
were so numerous that the sum of ten thousand 
pounds, which was at first delivered;, soon fell 
short of the purpose; but the deficiency was from 
the same fountain supplied, and relief was refused 
to none who appeared proper objects. 

Government confined npt its views to the 
immediate or temporary relief of the suffering 
loyalists. In a message delivered by Lord Castle^ 
jeagh, to the house of commons, from the lord 
lieutenant on the ITtl^of July, the compensation 
of their losses w^s recommended by his majesty. 
The sufferers were directed tq send authenticated 
/ estimates of their losses to the commissioners, and 
provision w^s afterwards m^tde by ?ict of parlia* 
niept for the conipensation of these losses, altoge- 
ther, or in^part, according to circumstances. 
The authentication required w^s the a^flSdavit 
pf the claimant^ together with stffida^yits of 
the minister of the parish and the claimant's 
landlord, or the landlord's agent, declaring their 
sincere belief of the claimant's loyalty an^ 
of the truth of his estimate. As these aiithen*^ 
ticat^d affidavits of the clergy were iudispcSRSi^b^ 



Itquired to be all in their own hand-writing/ 
while those of the landlords or agents might be 
written by atiy person, the gratuitous labour 
consigned to the parish ministelrs was great, ia 
some cases enormous. Sometimeis a clergymajti, 
in the absence of others, was obliged to act fot 
mor6 parishes than one, while business was 
multiplied by various causes. Frequently diffe- 
rent sons and daughters of the satfie man, though 
unmarried, and constituting part of his houshold, 
made separate claims, beside that of the father. 
Frequently four affidavits Were demanded for 
one claimant, for subsisteilcfc, his house, his 
instruments of agriculture; and his general losses- 

If any informality was found in the estimateiJ,^ 
(which from the hurry of the persons paid to 
draw them, often happened) the three lattet 
affidavits must be piade again a second, br per- 
haps a third time; so that ten affidavits were 
son^etimes made by a clergyman for oiie person* 

The number of claimants whose affidavits were 
sent to the commissioners before the 10th of 
April, 1799> from the counties of Kildare, - 
Wicklow, Wexford, and Kilkenny^ was three 
thousand, seven hundred and ninety-^seven; and 
the estimates which they made of their losses 
amounted in all to the sum of five hundred and 
sixty one thousand two hundred and thirteen 
pounds. Of these claimants the county of 
Wosford furnished two thousand one hundred 



StA6 niiroB^t of kus. 

and thirty-seven ; the estimates of whose losses 
amounted to almost three huhdred and seveii 
thousand pounds. The claims of some, I believe, 
greatly exceeded their losses; and, squne who 
acquired by plunder perhaps more than they had 
lost, made large demands of compensation. To 
the latter circumstance the commissioners seem 
not to have sufficiently attended at fii^t, though 
tbey have afterwards considered it* On the 
other hand, a few were so modest as not to claim 
half the compensation which they might have 
claimed with truth ; and iix general the estimates 
were so moderate, that the sum total of them, in my 
opinion, bore to that of the losses no greater pro- 
portion, than that of two to three. Many claims 
were sent from other counties; and, since tibd 
loth of Ap41, 1799, a number also from 
the four coimtids above mentionedL The sum 
total amounted to a million and twenty-three 
thousand pounds ; of which more than the h^l4 
or five hundred and fifteen thousand poundsi 
was claimed by the county of Wexford : bi^ 
who will pretend to compute the damages of th^ 

* Jn my opinion also a great distinction ought to havci bee0 
hiade between those who had fought and bled in the defence of 
government, and those wh© (declining tb give any other kind of 
assistance than to denominate all persons jocobins, except th#* 
Unqualified flatterers of administration) fled to England befoM. 
the rebellion, and left those jacoMns the task of fighting '^> 
their properties^ and the support of govemnient. 



MlISH EEBEti.l05f. S47 

<;r<^pies, whc^e houses were burned, or effects 
pillaged or destroyed, and wlio^ barred from 
compensatioii, sent no estimates to the commis* 
sioners? Perhaps if the whole amount of th^ 
detriment sustained by this unfortunate island, 
in consequence of the united conspiracy, wei^ 
conjectured at two millions, asum of such magni^ 
tude might not exceed, or even equal the reality. 

But the destruction of property was iK)t the 
only species erf damage resulting to the commu-^ 
aity .fh)m this, .ill-fated combination. To this 
may he adided the loss of lives, the neglect of 
industry hy an idletiurn acquired by the mind$ 
of nawen firom warfare or the preparations for it,j 
the obstruction of commerce, the interruption 
of credit in pecuniary transactions, and the 
depravation of morals in those places which were 
the seats of civil violence.^— Perhaps to take m 
sSnovt retrospective glance of the political trans^^ 
actions of Ireland in the period concemingp 
iirbich I have written, with a few observation 
and reflections, may not beimpropcr in this place* \ 

From the forgoing part of this work it may be 
widerstood, that of those who formed plans iti 
opposition to ministry, for what they cither acta* 
ally believed or pretended to believe, a melioration, 
of the body politic of Ireland, some were merely, 
reformists, others revolutipnists. To reform the 
5^ode of election, and consequently the consti- 



248 firsTORr OF the 

tution, of the house of commo;is was the aim of 
the former ;— to annihilate the existing govern- 
ment, and erect an entirely new one in its 
place, unconnected with the istate of Britain, 
that of the latter; who generally endeavoured 
to conceal theii; designs from others. In my 
opinion the sort of reform which they should 
have recommended would be, to allow none to 
vote in elections except men possessed of 
about a hundred pounds a-year at Icast^ of clear 
income from land, or some equivalent; for the 
votes of the multitudes of poor freeholders are 
virtually the vojtes of only a few individuals — 
two or three persons pf great estates commonly 
disposing of the places in parliament for a county ; 
while the suflferages of gentlemen of small 
property are lost in the ocean of nominal voters, 
whose attendance on elections is commonly a 
disagreeable piece of service, from which they 
would be very glad to be excused/ The mode 
proposed by the society of United Irish, mentioned 
in the bieginiiing of this book, to admit all adult 
males, without regard to property, to vote in the 
electionsfor membersof parliament, was evidently 
a revolutionary plan, which, if adopted, would in 
all probability have involved, as an immediato* 
consequence, comm6tion;s more bloody than those 
of France; or if it could have been established, 
must have thrown the government of the nation 



IRISH REBELLIOBT* , 1245 

virtually into the hands, of a few ambitious meii^ 
some perhaps of its worst members. 

Catholic emancipation was an immediate object 
with both reformers and revolutionists, as a 
necessary step; since without the united.suppori 
of the people collectively, they could have no 
reasonable hopes of success in theif schemes: in 
opposition to the ministry., As to unite with the 
Bomanists, and thereby to bring a vast accession 
to the weight of the people in the political scale, 
was a primary part in the plan of oppositidnists, 
who hoped to havethe managementof thepopular 
influence; so, on the other hand, to create disu- 
nion in the national system, and thereby to break 
its force, is believed to have been an object with 
ministry; and some steps of that tendency 
appear to have been taken. These I believe to 
have been superfluous. The discordance of the 
parties was too great ever to admit any solid or 
permanent coalition. Whatever specious junction 
might be formed of the religious » sects, deep 
distrust would lie beneath, and explode on the 
first grand cpmmotion. Nor was the conduct 
of the Romanists, by their separate and secret 
consultations, the publications of some of their 
clergy, and the spirit of religious hostility 
betrayed by many of the lower classes, adapted 
to gain the confidence of the Protestants, or 
induce them to expect a cordial or sincere coali- 
tion. Of this inveterate discordance the chie& 



r , 



iS9 HISTORT or TUB 

of the conspiracy seemed to be sensible, wben, 
after the failure of the plan of insurrection in 
Ulster m the year 1797, they appear to have 
jdaeed their dependance on the Romanists almost 
aloneas the instruments of revolution, sinceamong 
^m means adopted to seduce them into the con- 
spiimcy, some, though probably the most cogent; 
were certainly the mo^t adverse to the union of 
sects, and tended to exclude the protestants 
from the association— I mqan the infiaming of 
religious hatred, and the terrors, industriously 
propaga^ted of the intended masiacres of Romanics' 
by Orangemen. If the protcstant chiefs of the 
conspiracy hoped that, after the excitement of the 
Romailiste to insurrection by such means, they 
should beaWe to coritrout and direct their opera- 
tkms^ they were, I telieve, nfjost egregiously 
Mistaken, and would have founds tbemselvet 
inextricably enti'apped in their own snares. 

Rieviously to this, division had taken place 
among the reformists. Some, irritated at what 
ihcy regarded as the obstinacy of administration, 
who rejected all projects of reform, coalesced 
with the United Irish ; while others^ justly 
ahmned at the menacing prospects of afikirs^ 
relinquished ^orf he present all schemes of r^arjm, 
and joixrcd their efforts with those of government 
for the preservation of the state. The secession of 
these members caused the dissolution of the Whig 
Ql\jb^ which had subsisted tUl near the close of 



IRISH REBELLIOST. S5t 

the year 179^. In a letter, Hated the S9th of 
Nov. jhat year, directed to the right l^on. Henry 
Grattan, as temporary chairman of the club, and 
afterwaids published in the newspapers, Richard 
Griffith, Esq, of Mellicent, in the county of 
Kildare, who had been one of its most respectaUa 
members~*a man of great fortune, and^ of a 
highly estimable charact^, for int^ritty and 
abilities both in writing and speaking — ^requested 
his name ta be expunged from the list, since^ 
when the constitution was attacked by revolutij 
<)nists at home> and enemies abroad, he thought 
^he nation, in too feverish a state for the agitatioii 
6f the (Qpiestion of refcwrm^ 

A sense of the public danger, which caused tbi 
desertion of the popular party by this gentleman 
and some others, caused also the adoption of a 
coercive system by the ministry* Th^ some 
scheme of coercion was indispensably necessaiy^ 
<br tlae preservation of the existing government^ 
cannot I think, be doubted by any person. Bui 
whet^r the plan or coercion digested by tho 
ministry was in all respects judicious ; and 
whether, if it were judiciously framed, it wa« 
executed according to the ideas of the jGramers ; 
are questions whose discussicHi I defer to another 
time. To charge to the account of administra- 
tion the outrages committed on loyal or peace* 
?,bk subjects by men who, under the mask of 
Zi^lSoi the royal service^ took tlie opportunity 



252 BISTORT OT. THE 

afforded by the temporary suspension of legal 
government, to indulge with impunity the malig* 
nant diposition pf their hearts, would be highly 
unjust For when, by the formidable machina-* 
tions of the conspirators, government was once 
driven to the lamentable necessity of such a plan 
of counteraction as involved in it aninterruption 
of the ordinary course of justice, and the arming 
of those who pretended to be friends of Govern- 
ment with a kind of discretionary pow'er, (what 
sort of friends some were, I have already hinted) 
to regulate the conduct of these, or to determine 
how far the outrages committed by some of them 
were the effects of private malice, general male^ 
volence, or unaffected zeal in a weak and ignorant 
mind, was utterly impossible for ministers, remote 
as they were from the scenes of action. 

Instancesbf useless outrages were innumerable^ 
yet son>e for elucidation ought to be given. A 
protestant clergyman passing through a place 
near Newtownbarry, on the twenty-fifth of May, 
saw a multitude of '^omen and children suppli- 
cating on their knees an officer of the North- 
Cork, for permission to save some of their effects 
out of their cabins which were set on fire. 
This \fSLS brutally refused, and the clergyman 
who wished to intercede, found a hasty retreat 
necessary for the safety of his person from the 
officer and his men. In the battle of Enniscorthy, 
three days after, this gallant ofl^cer could no- 



IRISH REBELLION. 253 

where be found, while the clergyman performed 
the parts of both a steady officer and an intrepid 
ioldier. This officer, like ihany others, committed 
this act without authority from a superior, or 
information received by himself. Such were 
matters of amusement to too many.* 
, Why a military chief governor of well knoMrn 
abilities and judgment, when a militaiy govern- 
ment was an inevitable expedient, was not 
appointed by the British ministry, I cannot 
pretend to know. Such a man would have 
arranged the army to the best advantage for the 
protection of the innocent, the coercion of the 

♦ The following is an extract of a letter i^YAch I received 
from a brave officer, who acted a worthy part throughout the 
rebellion.—" It is a painful recollection that the records of past 
ages will not influence the transactions of the present generation* 
The ultimatums of all rebellions have enabled us to ascertain 
^e violent methods by which the conduct of the actors has 
h^n influenced. Private piques have been revenged, party 
distinctions have raged with uncontrolled fury, and yet more 
dreadful than all, the devil gets his opportunity of swaying the 
minds of his friends ^ and gives them permission to perform acts 
worthy of his hellish inachinations." I believe that this brave 
man's mind was impressed, while he wrote, beside other horrors, 
with that of a flogging, gjven by order of Lord Kingsborough, to 
two men on suspicion of their being rebels, on what grounds, 
jione except his lordship knew. While the drummers were 
cutting the backs of theset&iserable .men, his lordship was em- 
ployed in throwing salt into the cuts 5 bop were their wounds 
l^llowed to be dressed /or twenty-four hours, notwithstanding 
t)ie pre^mg 1:emo^stra^ces of tl^e surgeo^^ 



itS^ HISTORY Of Tir£. 

guilty, and consequently the prevention of armed 
jtebellkMi, with its horrible concatenation of evils. 
Of th^ erroneous equipment of the yeoman force 
I have already spoken ; also of the smallness of 
the body of soldiery seijt for the protection of 
the county of Wexford. Concerning the expe- 
ifience and discipline of the commander of this 
body, 'I choose ta.l^e silent. If by the assurances 
of the earl of Mountnonis, contrary to the 
rq>brt of its magistrates, government had such 
reliMice on the loyalty of this county, as to 
think any considerable force unnecessary for the 
conservation of its peace, why was the system 
of terror extended to it, when that, in such a 
case, would be also unnecessary? Coercion pro- 
perly attempered and supported may prevent 
rebellion, where every arrangement is made for 
its eruption ; otherwise it may cause rebellion 
where none is intended. Some counties mote 
organised than that of Wexford remained in 
quiet, while civil commotion was raging else- 
where with its^ woful concomitants. 

That, when once insurrection took place, it 
was attended with devastation and massacre, was 
, naturally to be expected from the previous 
exasperation of men's mmdsy and the deep-^ 
sBftothered sense of severities^ inflicted on somo 
by authority, and in that case often justly ; but 
on many others wantonly, by individuals vested 
with no other authority than what the affectation 



IRISH REBELLION.- QSS 

of a viaknt zeal confers on the most worthless 
in such a stJtte of affairs. If I were asked, 
whether T thought that the rebellion wbuld have 
been less bloody, if no unnecessary or wantpn 
cruelties had been previously practised, I should 
answer, that if it had taken place under such 
circumstances, I should suppose it would have 
been attended with much less cruelty in its com- 
mencement ; but that in case of continued success 
on the side of the insurgents, and confidence of 
being finally victorious, it would in its progress 
have become completely sanguinary and cruel, 
from causes operating in all successful insur-* 
rections of the populace, combined with nefarioui 
prejudices of religion, diametrically opposite to 
the genuine spirit of Christianity. Desujging 
villians, by the aflfectation of a flaming zeal for 
iheir cause and religion, woiild raise themselvesr 
into the notice and estimation of the ignorant 
multitude ; and having no other means of self- 
promotion, would indulge at once their ambition 
and malignity, by instigating the rabble to acts 
of atrocity against all whom they should think 
j5t to denounce as concealed enemies, or obstacles, 
to the grand scheme of revolution. Thus would 
the protcstaixt leaders, and protestants in general, 
have been first put to death; next after these, 
^ny Roman catholic fhiefs of moderation and 
ppirit who might vainly endeavour to promote ^ 
^iberal plan pf revolution ; and afterwards all 



556 HISTORY OF THE 

othere who should prove obnoxious to the reign- 
ing demagogues. In the local and short-lived 
insurrection in the county of Wexford, this ten- 
dency of affairs was so evident to Bagenal 
Harvey, and other protestant leaders, that they 
considered their doom as inevitable, and even 
some Romish commanders expressed apprehen- 
sions. Thus Esniond Kyan, one of the most 
brave and generous among them, declared to 
Richard Dowse, a protestant gentleman of the 
county of Wicklow, whom he had rescued from 
assassins, that his own life was irredeemably 
forfeited ; for if the rebellion should succeed, his 
own party would murder him, and if it should not 
succeed, his fate must be death by martial law ; 
whichhappened according to his prediction. Even 
Philip Roche, whose character, as a priest, might 
be supposed to insure his safety with his own 
followers, made a similar declaration to Walter 
Greene, a protestant gentleman of the county of 
Wexford, whose life he had protected, 

Tosuppose that the insurgents were all alike 
sanguinary or prone to cruel deeds, would be ai^ 
little conformable to truth as to probability. 
Many of even the lowest were men of humanity j 
but amid so wild an agitation, so furious a com-' 
motion, the modest and feeble voice of compassion 
was drowned by the loud and arrogant clamour 
of destruction to enemies! revenge on the blvpdy 
orange dogs! Among the loyalists, whoevey 



IRISH REBELLION. 257 

Utteinpted to moderate the fury of his associates, 
or prevent the commission of wanton cruelties 
pn defenceless prisoners, or other helpless objects, 
was generally broAvbeaten and silenced by the cry 
of crimpy — a term very liberally bestowed by 
zealots, on men who manifested a wish that 
loyalists should act in a manner most honourable 
to themselves, and most promising of ultimate 
luccess to their cauaew Even some officers of 
the army, who reprobated in their hearts unne- 
cessary insults on defenceless objects, were shy 
to restrain the Serjeants, and others under their 
command, from the commission of such, lest 
they should be charged with croppyi^m. When 
this was the case under a regular government 
and established military discipline, what was to 
be expected from tumultuary bands of ignorant 
peasantry, suddenly starting into action without 
order or subordination ? Among these the charge 
of orangeism was much more formidable than 
that of croppyism among the loyalists, since in 
the former case it might be much more easily 
followed by tumultuary assassination, where np 
controlling power existed to repress acts of vio* 
lence, particularly such as would seem to result 
from zeal for the cause.* 

* The author of a Narrative of transactions at Killala, while 
the French were in that part of the country, writes very justly, 
that << in popular commQtions it has generally been observed, 
^^ that natural talents go but a little way to procure influence ; 

S 



258 HISTORY OF TH«' 

I sincerely believe the Irish to be naturally ad 
compassionate as any otlier people; but ignorance 
and bigotry debase as yet the minds of the great 
majority in the south and west. Many instances 
might be given of men, who at the hazard of 
their own lives, concealed and maintained loyalists 
until the storm passed away. On the other hand, 
many might be given of cruelties committed by 
persons not natives of Ireland. I, shall mention 
only one act, not of what I ^liall call cruelty, 
since no pain was inflicted, but ferocity, not 
calculated to soften the rancour of the insur- 
gents: Some soldiers of the Ancient British 
regiment cut open the dead body of Father 
Michael Murphy, after the battle of Af-klow, 
took out his heart, roasted the body, and oiled 
their boots with the grease which dripped 
from it I * From the facts related^ in foregoing 

" the leader of a mob is almost invariably the man that outgoes 
** all the rest in wickedness and audacity.'* Page ^^. 

* Mr. George Taylor, in his Historical Account of tho 
Wexfordian Rebellion (page 136) says, " lord Mountnorris^ 
'** and some of his troop, in viewing the scene of action, found 
** the body of the perfidious priest Murphy, who so much 
y deceived him and the country. Being exasperated, hk 
*^ lordship ordered the head to be, struck off, and his body to 
** be thrown into a house that was burning, exclaiming, let 
*' his hody go where his soul is /'* This, I believe, happened, 
as his lordship was eager to demonstrated his loyalty ; but 
others also were concerned. Some Ancient Britons boasted 
of the abovp mentioned act, and many witnesses were preset 



] 



miSII REBELLIOIft 259. 

jKirts of this volume, I can hardly be charged 
with the futile design of an exculpation of the 
riebels with respect to cruelty; nor am I afraid 
of an accusation of partiality to my countiy- 
meh. Though by birth an Irishman, 1 am 
wholly Britiish by descent ; and, my opinion is, 
that an historian ought not to suffer hrmself to be 
biassed in his writings, however he qiay in his 
feelings, by any kind of partialit}^ My natural 
bias would be to the side of protestantism and 
loyalty ; but I should be unworthy of the office 
of aa historical writer, if 1 shpukl thus be drawi)L 
from the line of truth. 

In one point, I think we must allow some 

praise to the rebels. Amid all their atrocities, 

the chastity of the fair sex was respected. I have 

,not been able to ascertain one instance to the 

contrary in the county of Wexford, though 

while the body lay burning on a beam of timber. Sir Watkia 
Wynn, colonel of the Anciont Britons, has asserted, that not a 
man of his regiment ever touched the remains of Father 
Murphy. This he could not possibly know unless he had per- 
sonally watched the body during sixteen hours. Sir Richard 
Musgrave says, that five officers of the Cavan militia will makQ 
oath that not an officer, or soldier of the Ancient Britons, was 
within a mile of the body while it was burned. Yet the body 
lay within a quarter of a mile of Arklow, where at least a part 
of the Ancient Britons were certainly in garrison with other 
troops. Captain Holmes, of the Durham regiment, told me in ^ 
the presence of several persons, that he himself had assisted in 
cutting open the breast with an axe, and pulling out the heart. 
Full proof of the whole ^11 be given in my Supplement. 



1260 MWTORY OF TH» 

tndny tjeautiful young women were absolutely 
in their power. One consideration may diminkh 
the wonder, but not annihilate the merit of |his 
conduct in the rebels : they were every whore 
accompanied by great numbers of women of their 
own party, who, in the general dissolution of 
regular government, and the joy of imagined 
victory, were perhaps less scrupulous than at 
other times of their favours. The want of such 
an accompaniment to the royal troops may in 
some degree accouiit for an opposite behaviour 
In them to the female peasantry, on their enter- 
ing into possession of the country, at the retreat 
of the rebels, many of who^ female relatives, 
promiscuously with others, suffered in respect of 
chastity, some also vith respect to health, by 
their constrained acquaintance with the soldiery. 
Whoever denies that the rebellion, fix)m its 
first eruption, was m^de a religious war by the 
lower classes in the south of Ireland, may as well 
deny the existence of any rebellion at all — the 
evidence of facts being as clear in the one as in 
the other case. But since many persons, evert 
citizens of Dublin, who were so near the scene 
of action, could not believe that a rebellion 
originating from a conspiracy of diflferent sects, 
iinder a most solemn renunciation of all religious 
discord, could, in times when sentiments of a 
liberal nature prevail in general throughout 
Europe, become at its rise a war of religion, 1 



lySH REBELLION. 26l 

have added a short appendix in proof of this' 
point, and as an illustration of the atrocious 
practices of that calamitous period. — Of ten , 
protestant clergymen who fell into the hands of 
the insurgents in the county of Wexford, five 
were put to death without mercy or hesitation—^ 
Robert Burrowes, Francis Turner, Samtiel Hey- 
don,* John Pcntland, and Thomas Trocke — all 
men of regular conduct, and quite inoffensive. 
Joshua Nunn, rector of Enniscorthy, was pre- 
served under the protection of Father Sutton of 
Enniscorthy. "Roger Owen, rector of Camolin, 
escaped by feigning to be deranged in his u^der^ 
standing. This clergyman has given, since the 
rebellion, full proof of a genuine spirit of Christian 
charity, of which I had before believed him pos- 
sessed. Though treated with such cruelty by 
the rebels, that he could hardly be expected to 
survive his hardships, he has endeavoured since, 
as far as in his power, to mitigate the tage of the 
lower classes of protestants, who have been too 
apt to regard all Romanists in the same light, 
John Elgee, rector of Wexford, was with diffi- 
,culty saved from death by the gratitude of some 
of the lowest peasants, for his humanity to 
prisoners in the goal of that town. Henry 
Wilson, incumbent of Mulranken, was with 

* The body of Mr. Hey don, who had been greatly beIov^4 
fpr his humane and amiable conduct, was left in the street of 
w Enniscorthy till it was in great part <Jevoure4 by svriiiQ^ 



fi52 HISTORY OF THE^ 

peculiar^ gdod fortune preserved by the timely 
interposition of Bagenal Harvey^ I have already 
iTientioned the fate of Mr. Francis, of Killegiiy- 
^ — ^The rest of the Wexfordian clergy escaped to 
different places, particularly nine of them, \nth 
many other fugitives, to Wales, where, at Haver- 
fordwest, they were generously relieved by the 
inhabitants, and by money remitted to them by 
the humane attention of Dr. Cleaver, bishop of 
F^rns. 

That protestants also acted with religious 
bigotry, may be urgefl in opposition to what is 
asserted concerning that of the Romanists. 
Many of the lower classes of protestants,, previ- 
ously to the ^-ebellion, possessed of an opinion 
that they were destined to destruction by the 
Komanists, whenever the latter should rise in 
force, acted on that presumption, grievously 
insulted many Romanists who had not shewn any 
sign of hostility, accused the whole sect indis- 
cximinately of a murderous conspiracy, and thus 
made it on their part a religious quarrel. Very 
sorry am I to have to say, that in the rebellion, ^ 
and after its suppression, many acts of cruelty 
were committed by protestants on their Romanist 
countrymen, with little attention to personal, 
guil^ or innocence. After aU^ however, their 
animosity was rather of a political than religious 
nature, directed against a description of men, ' 
whom they regarded as their irreclaimable enenii^s^, 



IRISH REBELLION. 2(>S 

'watchlngfor means to extirpate themiion^soeiety. 
No such opinion is entertained even by the lowest 
protestants, that all beyond the pale of their own 
church are. so accursed, such objects of divine 
wrath, that to kill them is meritorious. They 
forced not Romanists, wliose lives were in their 
power, to conform to the established church ; 
while, on the other hand, baptism by a Roman 
catholic priest, and conformity to the Romish 
worship, were in general indispensably necessary 
steps for the preservation of the lives of protest- 
ants in the hands of the Wexfordiau insur- 
gents. 

Women and children were not put to <leath by 
the insurgents, except in the tunndtuary and 
hasty massacre at Scullab^gue ; but how far they 
would have been spared, in case of ultimate suc- 
cess, notwithstanding their baptism, is a matter 
of some doubt. That in this case the protestant 
men, baptized by the priests, would have suffered 
as insincere converts, is too probable. This hor- 
rible spirit of bigotry I conceive to have been 
possessed only by tlie vulgar, and a very few 
persons in the rank of gentry. Much has been 
said against the Rotoanist clergy ; I beheve the 
same sort of difference to subsist among priests 
as among other men, with respect to clearness of 
judgment, natural humanity, and religious bene- 
volence, or Christian liberahty. If same wer€ 
actuated by vulgar bigotry, and the ^fctsurd 



^efi* HISTORt OF THB 

notion (adnwisible only by an irrational mind) of 
the exclusive appropriation of the divine favour 
to their own mode of worship, others appear to 
have been possessed of superior ideas. Some of 
the latter, as well as the former, were employed 
in the baptising of protestants; but their motive 
was compassion, to save the lives of the objects 
from the rage of a fanatic mob, not their souls 
from eternal vengeance. Instances might be 
adduced, if necessary. I shall mention only 
that of Father Corish, of Mulranken, who, being 
requested by a protestant lady to baptL^e herself 
and family, replied, that except for protection 
from the fanaticism of the ignorant multitude, 
the ceremory was useless ; that he would be on 
the watch for her safety, and give her timely 
notice if he should find the performance of that 
rite necessary. 

Th^t among' the insurgents, the men who were 
the most scrupulously observant of the ceremonial 
of religion, were the most addicted to cruelty and 
murder, has been observed by those who had the 
best opportunity of observing. For this alliance 
of cruelty with superstition, since both are 
congenial with littleness of soul, we may perjiaps 
be more able to account, than for the grounds 
of another observation, qf the justness of which 
I have no sort of doubt :— those who had been 
heroes of the cudgel, or Shilela^ the bullies of 
the country at fairs, and other public assemblies 



IRISH REBELlTOir. 96S 

of the peasantry, and who consequently tvere 
expected to be the most forward and active in 
the rebellion, were, on the contrary, when the 
insurrection took place, in general the most 
placid and reserved, the most shy of the fire- 
arms, ^nd the most backward in battle. 

The men who had been quiet and industrious in 
times of peace, were found the most resolute for 
combat, and most steady under arms, in times 
of warfare.' A lesson to legislators ! Those habits 
of order and industry, on which the civil 
prosperity of a state so much depends, are the 
best preparatives to form an efficient soldiery. The 
hands best employed for the maintenance of the 
nation by the products of the soil, may, with pro- 
per direction, be most efficacious for its defence. 

' Chiefly by those who were boldest in fight was 
displayed some kind of ingenuity in their tumul- 
tuary warfare, in which they may be said to have 
had no regularity, subordination, or leaders; 
They converted books into saddles, when the 
latter could not be procured — placing the book, 
opened in the middle, on the horse's back, with 
jopes over it for stirrups. Large volumes, found 
in the libraries of the bishop of Ferns, and Mr. 
Stephen Ram, were considered by these revolu- 
tionists as fit for their purpose* Being very 
scantily stored with ammunition, they frequently 
used small round stones, and hardened balls of 
clay, instead of leaden bullets j and, by the 



fi66 , HISTORY OF THE 

mixing and pounding of the materials in small 
mortars, they fabricated a species of gunpowder, 
which Was said to explode with sufficient force 
while fresh, but not to remain many days fit for 
service;. They found means to manage imme- 
diately, doubtless in an awkward manner, the 
cannon taken from the army, sometimes apply- 
ing wisps of straw in place of matches- In their 
engagements with the military, they mostly 
availed themselves of hedges, and other such 
kind of shelter, to screen them from the shot pf 
their opponents ; and they generally arranged 
themselves in such order as to suffer little from 
the. fire of the artillery, which they sometimes 
also seized by a furious and rapid onset. The 
Wexfordian insurgents never made an attack ou 
any post in the night. As they were not, like 
regular' troops, under any real command of 
officers, but acted spontaneously, each according 
to the impulse of his own mind, they were 
watched in battle one of another, each fes^ring 
to be left behind in case of a retreat, which was 
generally very swift and sudden. 'But in the 
night, when a man could not see the, position of 
his associates, who might make their flight, or 
what they called the run^ before he could perceive 
it, and thus leave him in the hands of thosa 
who never gave quarter, they would not trust 
one another in an attack ; a circumstance ytvy 
favourable to the loyal party^^ since to withst^J!x4 



IKISH REBELLION. 26/ 

a w^U-conducted nocturnal assault with pikes 
would bb much mqre difficult than one in day. 

Whatever courage » or ingenuity may have 
been possessed by numbers of individuals in 
thefee disorderly and unoffi'cered bands, the rapid 
success of the Wexfordian insurgents, in the 
commencemeiit of their ill-designed and ill- 
conducted warfare, and the delay of their suppres- 
sion afterguards, are in great measure attributable 
to mistakes committed on the side of the royal 
forces. I reserve some particulars relative to 
3ome officers for another opportunity. The 
conduct and fate of Walpole .are well known to 
the public, -This gentleman, an extraordinary 
favourite of Lord Camden, is said to have beea 
3ent to the county of Wexford, with the desiga 
that he should reap the glory of conquest by the 
complete suppression of the rebels. — A panic 
(whiph certainly surprised me, doubtless from rtiy 
ignorance of military affairs) appeared to have 
seized our officers in general, after the slaughter 
of Oulart, ^nd the taking of Enniscorthy. This 
panic had such effect after the defeat of Walpole, 
that if major Hardy had not forced the garrison 
of Arklow to return to it^ post, all in that line to 
the south of Dublin would,, I believe, have been 
abandoned to the rebels; and how Dnblin itself in 
that case could have stpod against Internal and ex- 
ternal assailants, I leavef to ptbers to judge. In the 
assault pf ArkloWj where general 3k§rrett ^cte^ 



^€i^ nisrotiY of the 

so impdrtant a part, the best defence of a post 
in the whole rebellion was displayed. Here, 
among other good arrangements, the remnant 
of those loyalists who had been most injudiciously 
disarmed and dispersed in the first retreat from 
Gorey, were furnished with arms, and so posted 
as to gall the enemy with great effect. On men 
of this kind, who in the Latii^ phrase were fighting 
pro arts et focisy much more dependance might 
be placed, in the defence of towns, than on the 
hired soldiers. In the defence of Ross, where 
the truly brave general Johnson commanded, a 
contrary conduct was observed. The loyal volun- 
teers who might have been so posted as to avoid 
the danger of such a misconception, were dis- 
armed, lest, not being clothed in military uniforn^ 
they should be mistaken for rebels bythesoldi?ry% 
If the commanders of his majesty's forces^ 
acting against the rebels, committed any small 
errors in their proper province, ample compensa- 
tion was commonly made by the pen, in the 
dispatches to government published in their 
nam^, and other pieces of writing of a lik6 
nature. The numbers killed, if otherwise than 
on paper, might have alarmingly thinned the 
population 6f a county* I have taken much 
pains to make enquiry from various persons who 
had been on the sceiies of action, and cotild 
never find ground to think otherwise, than that 
the numbers of men slain among the ttbth^ iq 



IRISH REBELLlON^. 2^5 

their several engagements with the military, were 
vastly less than they were stated to be in the 
bulletins and other public prints. I have reason 
to think that more men than fell in battle were 
slain in cold blood. No quarter was given to 
persons taken prisoners as rebels, with or without 
arms. For one instance— fifty-four were shot in 
the little town of Camew in the space of three, 
days, and thirty-nine in one day in the town of 
Dunlavin ! How many fell in this manner, or 
were put to death unresisting, in houses, fields, 
and elsewhere, would be as difficult to state with 
Accuracy, as the number slain in battle. 

Though by slaughter in battle, executions 
with and without trial, and transportation from 
the kingdom, the population was perceptibly 
thinned in some districts of the county of 
Wexford, and still more in several parts of the 
county of Wicklow, the former county on the 
whole amount seemed scarcely to have sustained 
a sensible diminution of its peasantry ; but the 
marks of devastation, and the absence of the 
gentry, cast a melancholy gloom, where a cheer- 
ful aspect had so lately prevailed. By an inquiry 
jof immensely more labour to the inquirer, than 
importance to the public, the numbers of those 
who have disappeared from each county, by death 
and transportation, might be calculated to a 
degree nearer to accuracy than of all those who 
were congregated to the standards of rebellion. 



870 HISTORY OF THE 

The armies of insurgents stationed at tl)^ sante 
time within the county of Wexford, at the posts 
of Three-rocks, Lacken, Vinegar-hill, and Gorey, 
cannot be sijipposed, at the lowest estimatiouj to 
havei^onsisted of less than forty thousand nien ; 
indeed in th^ opinion of many who had an oppor-- 
tQnity of seeing them, fifty thousand. From 
the stilctest inquiries which I have been able to 
make, I atn convinced that almost all of these 
were^Wexfordians, or inhabitants of the county 
of Wexford. The numbers mixed with them 
from other parts, doubtless not e^vceeding a few 
hundreds, were hardly discernible in the general 
jnass : except tliat perhaps a thousand or more 
cf those inhabitants of the county of WickloM*; 
who co-aperated in the attajck of ArkloAv, retired 
with the Wexfordians, - after their defeat to the 
station at Gorey. - 

Since the county of Wexford furnished at 
least, in this rebellion, forty thousand insurgents, 
and at the same time a considerable number of 
loyalists fit to bear arms, of whom not all were 
embodied or employed as they might, we cannot 
on probable grounds, estimate the number of 
males in this county, of the military age, at 
much less than fity thousand ; whence we must 
infer a population of little less than two hundred 
and fifty thousand of both sexes, and all ages. 
Doubtless this county, naturally of so poor a soil 
as to "be unfit for gracing, and cousequently 



IRISH REBELLION^ 271 

mliabited mostly by. a people M^ho draw their 
subsistence from agriculture, is one of the most 
populous, but fat* from one of the most extensive 
in the south of Ireland- Dr. Duigcnan, in his 
ex:cellent pamphlet, stiled The present political 
State > of Ireland, combats the calculation of 
Chalitters concerning the population of this 
kingdom, and declares his opinion " that the? 
*' whole inhabitants of Ireland do not amount 
** to more than three millions, if to so many;''* 
which allows not a hundred thousand souls to 
each of the thirty- two counties on an average. 
But, while Chalmers' estimate is founded oa 
substantial grounds, the Doctor's arguments 
appear to be little better than airy conceptions. 
From the same grounds as Mr. Chalmers, 
(documents furnished by Mr. Bushe) I some 
years ago, availing myself of some observations 
of my own, calculated the inhabitants of this 
island at four millions, and have stated it so in 
another work, f 1 have since made further 
observations, and ha,ve found the number of 
persons in what towns and districts I have been 
enabled to examine, much greater than they 
should be on the principles of the above calcula- 
tion. I am therefore of opinion that the number 
of people in this kingdom Would be found, if 

* See his Appendix, No. I . 
t Sfee Gordon'^ Te^^i^aiuea, vol. iii. p. 269. 



gf2 HISTORT OF THE 

Completely ascer4:aiaed, much nearer to five thafl 
to four millions. * 

In the relative magnitudes of the two great 
British Islands, either the Doctor is widely mis^ 
taken, or I have made an erroneous representation 
of them from a careful mensuration of tjie best 
maps of these islands, the larger of which I have 
Supposed to bear to the other a proportion not so 
great as that of three to one.f That the latter 
contains less waste land in proportion to its area,!}; 
is a well known truth, observed particularly by 

* Sir R. Musgmve's reasoning (Memoirs of the different 
Rebelliona ia Ireland, p. 523, 524) would tend to prove the 
population of Ireland to be prodigious. He calculates that 
forty-nine thousand men, inhabitants of the County of Wexford, 
were at once in arms against government ; that these fall short 
by twenty thousand of the whole number of men in the county 
<for he coiild, not have reckoned women and childreun as ^btinr 
jmen) ai^ that the county of Wexford contains about a thirty- 
fourth part of the whole population of Ireland. By this calcula- 
tion there should be considerably above two millions of men in 
Ireland, of the military age, and consequently above ten millions 
of people of both sexes and all ages. A most absurd calculation*!^ 
t See Gordon's Terraquea, vol. iii'. p. 74, 268*, 
:{ The ingenious and learned narrater of tnu^actions at Kil- 
lala, hereafter to be quoted, says in one place, (p. 12.) that the 
wild district of Erris, a frightful tract of bog and mountain, is 
tolerably well peopled. And in another, (p. 106) " the popu- 
** lation in the mountainous parts of the coimty of Mayo.much 
•* exceeds what the country, from its haggard af^arance, would 
c' be thought capable of sustaining/' This is the case in all 
t]i# wild tracts throHghout Irrfand, 



IRISH REBELLION. 273 

Airthtir Young ; and the counties in the north of 
Irelanti are in general much mcwe populous than 
that of Wexford. As I have had ample oppor- 
tunity of observing the manners and habits of 
the Irish peasantry, I should not think the matter 
altogether miraculous; nor even be much sur- 
prised^ if this^ island should be found to have 
more than quadrupled its population since the 
yeat' 1677, supposing; Sir William Petty, (who 
then s4;ated the number of its inhabitants at eleven 
huiidr^d thousand); to have committed no error 
in his -computation.* — Poverty prevents not 
marriage among the peasants of this kingdom^ 
Th6y almost all eftter young into the ties of 
matrimbny, apparently with an uncommon trust 
in Providence for the tnaintenancc/of their chil- 
dren; contenting themselves with such houses, 
accommodations, and food, as would be c^uite 
inadequate to the support of life in English , 
people of the same class. In such circumstances 
of existence, apparently inimical to the increase 
of the- human species^ they seldom fail of a 
numerous offspring, who grow to maturity with 
a hardiness of constitution seldom elsewhere 
surpassed. 

' * The population of the Russian Empire is found to be- 
doubled levery forty nine years (W. Tooke'* view of the 
Russian Empire, book 3. sect. I .) and I can hardly conceive the 
Russians to be more prolific than the Irish peasantry, 

T 



J74 .piSTQRY oy TfiE, 

With the learned Doctor I fully agisee ift 
TOotb^r position, that, whatever Hiay be? the 
population of this kingdom^ or the proportion q^ 
protestant and Romanist inhabitant^, with respect 
to nuipber,^the protestant govemoient of Ireland 
is completely adequate to the support of ita 
authority against all internal enemies, without 
any assistance from the great sister island, Britain* 
But this must be on supposition that the Irish 
government was a stable administration, not 
fluctuating by the erroi^eous policy or caprice of 
British ministers, nor shackled or counteracted 
in its operations, by their influence. On this 
proviso I should not doubt of the efficiency of 
the Irish administration for the above purpose, 
with even a mere pageant of state at its head; 
but agaimt a powerful army of invading enemies, 
aided by the disaffected at home, it could no^ 
without British assistance, be supposed able ta 
maintain its ground, more than the British 
government ' against a proportionally powerful 
invading force, if Britain were in like manner 
(locked with a starving peasantry, ^oppressed 
with enormous rents, unable by the nature of 
their tenures to acquire a secure property for 
their families by any labour, and unfortunately 
habituated to regard foreign powers as their 
friends, and the protectors of their religion, in 
prejudice to their own government. The sam$ 
learned writer seems to insinuate that the rebel* 



IRISH BEBELLIOK. gl75 

lion might, or would have been prevented, if the 
Irish administration had not been shackled or 
influenced by British interference.* I also think 
his assertion Well founded, that the rebellion wis 
suppressed by the sole strength of the Irish ^ 
government without t«ing under any obligation 
for assistance in troops or money fk)m Britain; 
but I deny that the whole Romanists of the 
counties of Carlow, Kildare, and Wicklow, were 
.united in host with the Wexfordian re}>els. f In 
the conn tyof Carlow the inhabitants arewell known 
to have remained quiet except in one extremely 
ill concerted and unsuccessful attack, that of the 
chief town. The insurgents of Kildare acted 
altogether separately from those 9f Wexford, 
with wjiom they had no communication, except 
an intercourse of messages. The same was the 
case with those of Wicklow, except that a great 
body of them joined in the attack of Arklow, 
and that afterwards, in the decline of the rebel- 
lion, a number of theih retired by Tinnehely and 
Kilcavan to Vinegai-hill. So thc(t whatever was 
performed by rebels within the bounds of the 
county of Wexford, previously to their dislodg- 
ment from Vinegar-hill, was performed by 
Wexfordians alone, as the taking of Enniscorthy 
jMid Wexford, the attack of Ncwtownbarry, the 

• 9 Sfe Dr» Di»geQaa'3 pamphlet, p. 8Qt Dublin eijitign. 
t Dr. DvttjeftanV pamphlet, p. 95—^4. 



•^75 , fltSTORT OF THE 

defeat of Walpole, and the formidable assault 
of Ross. 

If, however, these Wexfordians had improved 
without delay the advantages for which they 
were in a considerably degree indebted, at firat 
to the smallness and mismanagement, and after- 
wards to the mismanagement alone, of the troops 
or force opposed to them, they would doubtless 
havebeen joined by most at leastof the Romanists 
;cyf the ijeighbouring counties, and the coqse- 
quences would, in all probability have been cala- 
mitous in the extreme to the south of Ireland at 
least. Of this we niight be able to form some 
conception from the miseries occasioned by the 
short-lived rebellion, jof which J, have been treat- 
ing, in the territories immediately affected by it. 
Of these miseries I have already treated, so far as, 
my plan allowed, and have observed that those, 
which loyalists underwent, arose not always from 
rebels alonCi I shall only add at present, th^t 
the system of espionage, or the encourage- 
ment and reception of private information, with 
the utter concealment of the names of the 
informers; from the, persons accused, which 
system had from a most lamentable necessity, 
been adopted by government before the Vebellion, 
was, without any necessity that I can perceive, 
continued by some after its suppression. How 
far the supposition or imputation of disloyalty 
against persons possessed of any valuable effects, 



^(IISH REBELLION. 277 

might h^ve been profitable to needy or greedy 
I dependants of any general officer, I mean not at 
present t6 examine. The disclosure of certain 
facts I defer to another opportunity. I shall here 
give only one instance of the consequences of 
tliis late espionage — an instance which Could, I 
believe, have had no connexion with profit to 
the receivers of information, but which may 
serve to shew that even active loyalty could not 
si^cure a man against private malice, in the 
district of Gorey for a certain time : — Captain 
Atkins, of Emma- vale, near Arklow, who, at no 
small trouble and expence, had embodied and 
disciplined a troop of yeoman cavalry, and had 
exerted himself greatly in support of government,, 
was, without any known cause, ipost disgracefully 
deprived of his command by a general officer^ 
ahd dismissed from the service of his king and 
and country ! This worthy gentleman str tined 
every nerve to procure a court-martial to examine 
his conduct; and, after a length of time, suc- 
ceeded, by the powerful interest of a' nobleman, 
in spite of the most artful evasions. On his trial, 
captain Atkins (to whom, for the killing of the 
ravager Hacket, the public is more indebted than 
• to some general officers) was most honourably 
acquitted, as no charge could be produced 
^ jigainst hinn, i 



tl78 HI8TOAT OF Tli% 



CHAP. VI. 

Premk Invd^iofi'^Killala — Ballina-^Castlehar — Battle 
^■^Oorfvwidlis'-^March of the tVench — Battle of 
Cohony — Of Ballir^amuck — Of Granard — Of Wll-^ 
son's tiospitid -^ Attack of Castlehar — Battle rf 
Killala-^Narrative of transactions therC'^Character 
6fthe Invaders — Of their officers — Imaginary lank*^ 
TCefnporary police — Embassy — Conduct of the Con- 
ncLught rebels-^ Military disorder — Treatment of 
French officers — TritLls — Tone ' — Tandy — Naval 
Pietfiry-^S&cond fleet at Kiltala — Death of Tone^^ 

, BefleAioiis — Priests-^Effects of relelltons-^Unton'^^ 
(^kmHusion^ 

Such usage might seem calculated to convert 
Irish loyalists into rebels ; but not even the 
extremity of maltreatment could produce this 
eftect on protestants, who were convinced that 
their existence must terminate with that of the 
government, and who might rather choose, if 
dire necessity should so require, to die by the 
hands of the royal soldiery, which was the case 
with too many, than by those of their unfor- 
tunately bigotted countrymen. This attach- 
ment of the Irish protestants to the British 
government was little known in france, where 



lEISH REBELLIOK. 279 

this directory, and the nation in general, had 
been persuaded, by the commissioners of the 
united conspiracy, into a belief of so universal 
a disaffection in Ireland, that, on the appearance 
of a powerful armament from France on its 
coasts, the whole country would rise in arms to 
aid its efforts for the subversion of the British 
government in this island. The neglect of 
attempting, in this prepossession of mindj^ to 
iend succours to the Irish insurgents, while the 
Wexfordian rebels were in force, is a proof that 
(most fortunately for the British empire) the 
government of France was then very feebly 
administered. If, according to the advice of 
lord Edward Fitzgerald^ the French directory 
had sent a number of swift vessels to different 
parts of the coast, with officers, troops, arms, 
and ammunition, some of them very probably 
might have eluded the vigilance of thjB British 
cruisers, and landed the succours ; which must, 
by inspiriting the rebels, have greatly augmented 
their force, independently of the actual accession 
of strength by the council of accomplished 
leaders, and the prowess of trained soldiers. 
What effects might thus have been produced, vro 
may in some degree conjecture from the impres- 
sion made oh the kingdom by a contemptibly 
small bddy of French troops, landed after the 
complete suppression of the rebels, in a part of 
the island quite remote from the $cej;x(? of reb^l- 



Q80 HlfiiliaRY OF THE 

lion, and until then. exhU>iting no signs of dis- 
affection,, ! 

This was the ill-timed expedition of general 
Humbert, who, on the 22nd of August, two 
months after the dislodgment of the rebels from 
the county of Wexfpnl, landed at the bay of 
Killala, in the county of Mayo, with a thousand 
and thirty private soldiers, and seventy officerSy 
from three frigates, two of forty -four^ and one 
of thirty-eight guns— whicl^ had sailed from 
Jlochelle on the 4th of the same months with 
design to invade the county of Donegal, in 
which they were frustrated by contrary winds. 
The garrison of Killala, consisting of only fifty 
men, of whom thirty were yeomen, the rest 
fensible soldiers of the prince of Wales's regi- 
ment, after a vain atteiiipt to oppose the entrance 
of the French van^u^rd, between seven ind 
eight o'clock in the evening, fled with pi-eqipi- 
tatioa, leaving two of their number dead, and 
their two officer^ prisoners (lieutenant Sills^^ of 
the fensibles, and captain Kirkvyood, of the yeo- 
xncn) together with nineteen privates. To cpmr, 
pensate, as far as possible, by the- yigpur of his 
operations, for the smallness of his iiumber, 
seems to have been an object with the FfeneU 
general. He sent on the next mo^nin^ tpwai^ 
Ballina,'^ a stnall town situate §even miles tq the 

* In this name the accent is laid on the last syllable* 



IRISH REBELLIOW. 281 

«outh of Killala, a detachment, which, retreat- 
ing from some picquet guards, or reconnoitering 
parties, of loyalists, detached from the garrison 
of the former on the following day, led them to 
a bridge, under which lay concealed a Serjeant's 
guard of French soldiers. By a volley from 
these, a clergyman, who had volunteered on the 
occasion, and two carabineers, were wound^i 
the first mortally. This clergyman was the Rev. 
George Fortescue, nephew to lord Clermont, 
and rector of Ballina. The French advancing 
to this town, took possession of it in the night 
of the 24th; the garrison, under colonel Sir 
Thomas Chapman, and major Keir of the 
carobineers, retreating to Foxford, ten mile*^ 
to the south, leaving one prisoner, a yeoman, in. 
the hands of the enemy. 

The marquis Cornwallis had completely plan« 
ned, and after unavoidable delays from the situa- 
tion in which he had found affairs, was on the 
point of putting into execution, such an arrange- 
ment of his majesty's forces in Ireland as to 
enable him to assemble, with great expedition, a 
respectable body of troops in any part of tjie 
kingdom where expediency should require. 
Tlabugh this disposition, could not as yet be 
effected, a force, which was very reasonably 
tbpught to be.fflore than sufficient for the pur- 
pose^ wa3 in. a few, days collected in the quarter 
^^^apjied by the invaders. Major-general Hutchin- 



ffSf H'ISXORT OF THE 

«m arrived from Gal way, on the 25th, at Ca&tfe*^ 
bar, whei-e he was jcwned, in the night of the 
fi6tb, by lieutenant-general Lake, who, on inteU 
ligence of the French invasion, had been ordered . 
by the lord lieutenant to take the comniand of 
the forces which were assembling in Connaught 
to oppose the enemy. The army now collected 
at this post must, J think, have amounted, at 
least, to between threie and four thousand roen^ 
though some have stated them at only two 
thousand three hundred, and others at only 
eleven hundred. The intention of the generate 
is supposed to have been to await, a few days at 
Castlebar, the arrival of more forces, and then 
to march to attack tte enemy- But this enemy 
wisely chose the offensive rather than the defen- 
sive part in the attack ; and while our officers 
were> in full security, enjoying the bottle^ the 
French were marching with the utmost diligence 
to assail their quarters, and wbuld, if I am rightly 
informed, have surprised our army before day* 
light, if they had not been delayed, by the 
extreme ruggedness of the roads. 

Humbert, who, according to the military insti* 
tutions of the French republicans, had risen from 
the ranks to the dignity of a general officer, had 
rendered himself conspicuouis in fighting against 
the insurgents of La Vended; and had been 
second in command to general Hoche in tht 
abortive expedition to the Bay of Bantryy seem* 



iftlSh EEBELtlO^. ^^ 

fidt to have been ignorant of the expedietocy of 
active and vigorous ejiterprise in the circum* 
stances in which he found himself placed. 
Hardly any considerable number of tlie Irish had 
risen in rebellion about Killala, to assist the 
invaders, till the latter had added the conquest 
of Ballina to that of Killala, when many hun- 
dreds of peasants repaired to their statidard, and 
with eagern$jss received the arms and uniforms 
whiqh had been sent from France for their 
accommodation. To make as deep an impression 
as possible for the excitement of rebellion, before 
an army too powerful could be collected to over- 
whelm him, the French commander determined 
to attack the forces at Castlebar, and began 
his march on the morning of the 26th with 
dght hundred of his own men, and a number of 
rebels, estimated by isome at fifteen hundred, 
and probaWy not less than'^a thousand in nuniben - 
Instead of the conimon road through Foxford, 
where a body of troops had been stationed, under 
brigadier-general Taylor, to observe his motions^ 
he advanced through mountains by ways gene- 
rally deemed impassable to an army, where, at a 
pass called the gap of Barnageehy, six miles 
fi'om Castlebar, his further progress, if I am not 
fliistaken, tnight have been totally prevented, if, 
in6^^ of a captain's guard, a sx:)mewhat stronger 
body had been posted with two or three pieces of 
artillery. That of the French consisted of only 



284 HISTORY OF THE , 

two small curi;icle guns, the repairing of the 
carriage of one of which, brokei> by the extreme 
ruggedness of the roads, caused, fortunately 
for bur army, a considerable delay in their march. 
The French general, is reported to have been 
furnished with such information concerning the 
state of affairs at Castlebar, as to 'be rendered 
confident of his meeting with no opposition in 
the rugged ways, which he had chosen for his 
line of march to the point of attack. 

The town of Castlebar very narrowly escaped 
at least a partial devastation from our own army, 
before the approach of the enemy was expected. 
^ A shot unaccountably fired from a' window in 
the night, and said to be levelled at the Long- 
ford militia, excited a tumult among the 
soldiery, which, if it had not been speedily 
.quieted by the exertions of the officers, might 
have caused the firing' of houses, and a melan- 
choly destruction of lives and property. Three 
or four hours after, or at two o'clock in the 
morning of the 27th, intelligence arrived of the 
advance of the enemy through the mountains. 
This, which is said to have been discredited at 
first, and pronounced impossible by our officers,, 
was soon confirmed. The French were fpund 
to be, at seven o'clock, within two miles of the 
towi), between which and the assailants our 
array was soon arranged in an advantageous^ 
position. The great superiority o{ the yoyj^l 



IRISH REBELLION. figj 

forces in the weight ofartillery, and thfe numbers 
and freshness of the men, who were free from 
fatigue — while the French had been laboriously 
scrambling their way through mountains, near 
twenty-four hours, without repose, might seeni 
to promise an easy victory to our army. At th6 
commencement 6f the battle appearances were 
favourable to this presumption. The royal, artil- 
lery, which is universally allowed to have been 
excellently managed under the directions of cap* 
tain Shortall, made such execution among. the 
French, that they were checked in their prc^fess^ 
and recoiled a few minutes. These veterans 
however meant not to retreat, though th^ir Irish 
auxiliaries were as yet of little use to them m 
combat. They filed away in small parties to the 
right and left, as if they mdant to assail oiir 
troops in flank, and some of them are said to 
have advanced on the Frazer fensibles in the left, 
so as almost to reach the points of tl>eir bayonets. 
As yet, however, the French, who had lost many 
of their number, principally by the /fire of.miT 
artillery, had fired only a few shots, when the 
royal army, seized with an unaccountable panic, 
broke on all sides, notwithstanding the utmost 
exertions of their officers, and fled in extreme 
confusion through the town on the road to 
Tifam. J am informed by good authority, that 
the French officers, at the first view of the num- 
ber, and excelleut arrangement of our troops 



28^ / HXSTOtir OF THP 

expected no other fortune than to be obliged f0 
awrr^nder ttemselves parisoners of war, till observ- 
ing the in^gular fire of our musketeers, many of 
whom fired without orders, they conceived-some 
kope^ and advanced under cover of the smoke ; 
but that they must have probably laid down 
their arms, if general Lake had not commanded a 
retreat, which was the real cause of the rout; 
and that if general Hutchinson had been chief 
f^oromander on this occasion, the Career of the 
invaders would have ended at Castlebar: Some 
individuals fired back on their pursuers in their 
flight through the street, but so unguarded was 
the rear, that a few Frenchmen, actuated by 
some stmnge frolic, some say seven, some seven* 
tccfltt, p^ursued to a considerable distance along 
the road, till lord Roden's cavalry wheeled and 
cut them down. 

A panic seemed still to operate on our troops, 
who made so quick a rQtreat as to reach the town 
qf Tuam, thirty miles from the scene of action, 
on the night of the same day, and to renew their 
marchj after a short refreshment, retiring still 
farther towards Athlone, where an officer of 
carabineers, with sixty of his men, arrived at 
one o'clock on Tuesday the Q9th, having per-, 
formed a march of sixty-three miles (the distance 
of Athlone from Castlebar) in twenty-seven 
hours. Tlie artillery, lost by our army in this 
itjnexpected defeat, consisted of fourteen pieces. 



IRISH BEBELXIOTff. fi8l? 

«jf which four. were curricle gun$. Beside that 
qf the carabineers, of which no return has been 
published, the loss of men has , been stated at 
fifty-three killed, thirty-four woufided, and two 
hundred Stud vseventy-nine prisoners or missing. 
Among the w6unded were twa lieutenant;^ and 
three Serjeants. Among the prisoners and missing 
were two majors, three captains^ six lieutenants, 
three ensigns, two officei-s of the staff, ten Ser- 
jeants, and two drummers. Of the privates 
missing, the greater part (soldiers of the Long- 
f<M:d and Kilkenny militia) were afterwards 
found to have deserted to the enemy, which, 
with other circumstances, gave same gi:ounds 
for suspicion that treachery had some share ia 
the defeat at Cas^tlebar. That not one of thesa 
deserters escaped the death which their defectioa 
merited, is perhaps not unworthy of remark,. 
The loss of the French in killed and wounded 
is, with probability, said to have been greater 
than that of our troops, though not satisfac- 
torily stated. 

The marquis Cornwallis, who from the first 
intelligence of the invasion, had, notwithstand- 
ing the smallness of the invading army, been so 
sensible of the danger which might thence arise, 
as to have determined to march in person against 
the enemy, arrived at Philipstown on the 26th 
of August; whence he proceeded next day to 
Kiibeggan, having by the way of th^ grand 



288 HISTCRT OF THE 

canal made a progress of forty-four Irish, or 
fifty six English miles in two days. Receiving* 
here, on the 28th, very early in the morning, 
the disagreeable news of the defeat at Castlebar, 
be advanced to Athlone, where he was positively* 
informed by many who: had fled through TuamJ^ 
particularly a Keutenant: of the carabineers, and' 
captain O'Donnel of the Newport- Pratt yedmen^ 
that the French had pursued the army of general 
Lake to Tuam, driven it from that post, and 
taken possession of the town. If such ja pursuit 
bad been possible to the French, after their iex-: 
bausting march to Castlebar, even this extraor- 
diiiary report might have been true, siface 
general Lake, having lost his artillery and 
ammunition, thought the post of Tuam unsafe 
vith panic-struck * troops, many of them also 
disorderly, and judged a retreat expedient nearer 
to Athlone. Even on this town, sixty -three 
miles from the French army^ which never moved 
' ferther in that line than Castlebar, an attack 
was apprehended, and pickets and patroles 
were advanced far on the roads to Tuam and 
Ballinasloe. 

From these facts a judicious reader, acquainted 
with the state in which Ireland then was, where, 
multitudes were prepared to rise in rebelliou ask 
soon as they should see any force in a prabable 
coiidition to support them, may very probably^ 
be of opinion^ that, if such a man as Cornwallis, 



) 



iniilH REBELLION. 28$ 

Md tiot been at the head of the Irish administra- 
tion, with full pfower to act according to his own 
judgment, the consequences of this petty inva- 
sion might have speedily become very ruinous to 
this kingdom^ His excellency saw that tne utmost 
caution was expedient, as well as vigour m the 
movements of his forces. The ' motions of the 
main army immediately under his own com- 
mand, were calculated to cover the country, tp 
intimidate the abettors of rebellion, and to 
•aftbrd an opportunity of rallying to any sipaller 
bodies of troops which might be defeiated ; while 
these' bodies were ordered to harass the enemy 
as much as possible without ruiining risks, or 
engaging in battle without almost a certainty of 
success. The marquis proceeded on the SOth of 
August in the road to' Castlebar, and arrived on 
the 4th of September.at Hollymount, whehce h^ 
intended to advance to the attack of the French 
army posted at Castlebar, fourteen miles distant, 
till in the evening of the same day he received 
intelligence that, the enemy had abandoned th^t 
post in the morhing, and had marched in the 
direction of Foxford. . . 

-After their victory at Castlebar, the French 
lecfeived great additional accessions of Irish pea-^^ 
santry to their standard, chiefly, as before, fror^i 
the western aaid mountainous parts of the county 
of Majicp. To furnish these multitudes with 
fire-arins, the stores broughjt from France wet^ 

u 



S90 HISTORY OF THE 

quite Insufficient, though, according to the 
account of coU^nel Charost to the bishop of 
Killala, five thousand five hundred muskets were 
flistributed in the last mentioned place to the 
insurgents. These new levies of mountaineei^ 
were generally very awkward in the use of gun^ 
and prove4 to be of no very effectual aid tq the 
French, who had expected far more powerful 
assistance from the Irish. They bad also ex- 
pected to be immediately followed by additional 
troops and stores from France, Totally disap? 
pointed in the former eifpectatioa, attd d^^ing 
little proi^ect of being gratified in the latter, 
they began to em^pept that they had been sent on 
a desperate crfand, as a fprlorti hope, to annyy, 
not to conquer, the enemiei^ of their country* 
Like brave and faithful soldiers^ they resolved to 
perform their duty, evea in this cas^ and to 
make every effort in theic power against the 
British government, until irresistible necessity 
riiould compel them to surrender: / 

General Hunlbert, having ordered, on the 1st 
of September, the troops left at Killala to repair 
to the main body, commenced a rapid march, 
.very early in the morning of the 4th, from 
Castlebar, through F(»fprd, toward the town of 
Sligo, perh^ with a design of attempting to 
approach, the county of Don^al, ^vhere the 
additional fwces from France werb eiq>ficted tp 
. make a landing. JUeutenant^colonei C^rawferd^ 



IRISH REBEtllON* 29^1 

t^ith a body of troops, supported by another 
under general Lake, hung upon his rear, another 
under major-general Moore watched his motions 
at a greater distance ; while the marquis Cora- 
wallis, with the main army, moved in a nearly 
paralld direction from HoUymouHt, through 
Clare and Ballyhaunis, toward Carrick-on-Shan- 
non, intending to regulate his subsequent mtt- 
tionsby^ those of the enemy. 

The advanced-guard of the French having 
passed Tubbercurry, after a skirmish with some 
yeomen guards, and arrived at Coloony, was 
opposed on the 5th by colonel Verreker of th^ 
the city of Limerick militia, who had mwohed 
from Sligo for the purpose, with three hundred 
infantry, thirty of the S4tb regiment <rf light 
dragoons, and two curricle gunsw The colpud. 
found the enemy arranged for his receptioti 
between him and the town of Colooay. After a, 
smart action of about an hour's continuance, he 
was obliged to retreat, with the loss of his artil- 
lery, to Sligo, whence he withdrew his little, 
army to Ballyshannon. He has stated his loss 
of private soldiers at only six killed ai>d t^venty- 
two wounded. Himself and four other officers 
were slightly wounded, and on^, ensign Rumley, 
slain. He was informed that the los^ of the 
French exceeded fifty, *af whom thirty wei^ 
wounded. As colonel Verreker certainly proved 



292 aiSTOEY OF THE 

himself a man of great spirit, and steady courage^ 
in this afikir, I am ,not inclined to doubt his* 
veracity ; and I should think that his little army 
acquitted itself with sufficient honour without 
the supposition of its having been actually 
engaged with the whole French force, as the 
colonel states, instead of the vanguard only."^ 

This opposition, though attended with defeat 
to the opposers, i§5 supposed to have caused the 
French general to relinquish his design on Sligo. 
He directed his march by Drummahair toward 
Manorhatnilton in the county of JLeitrim, leav- 
ing on the road, for the sake of expedition, three 
six pounders dismounted, and throwing five 
pieces more of artillery over the bridge at Drum- 
niahair into the water. In approaching Manor- 
hamilton he suddenly wheeled to the right, - 
taking his way by Drumkerin, perhaps with 
design of attempting, if possible, to reach 
Granard in the county of Longford, where an 
alarming insurrection had taken place, Craw- 
ford's troops hung so close on the rear-guard of 
the French as to come to. action with it on the 
7th, between Drumshambo and Ballynamore, in 
which action they were repulsed with some loss, 
and admonished to observe more caution in the 
pursuit. 

' ♦ The French are said to hate mistaken the colonel's army 
for the vanguard of a much greater,, and to hfive been thereby 
prevented from attempting to surround it. 



^IRISH KEBELLI0N> * 293 

Tlie French army, passing the Shannon at 
Ballintra, and halting some hour, in the night at^ 
Cloone, arrived at Ballinamuck on. the 8th of 
September, so closely followed by the troops of 
colonel Crawford and general Lake, that its 
rear-guard Vas unarble to break the bridge at 
Ballintra to impede the pursuit; while Lord 
Cornwallis, with the grand army crossing the 
same river at Carrick-on-Shannon, marched by 
Mohill to Saint-Johnstdwn in the county of 
Longford, to intercept it in front, in its way to 
Granard ; by whiclj movement it was reduced to 
such a situation that, if it should proceed, it 
must inevitably be surrounded by British forces 
in number, I believe, between twenty and thirty 
thousand, and commanded by one of the mqst 
iaccomplished generals, of the age. In this despe- 
rate situation, Humbert arranged his forces, with 
no other object, that I fcan conceive, than to 
maintain the honour of the French arms. The 
rear-guard being attacked by Colonel Crawford, 
about two hundred infantry surrendered. The 
rest continued to defend themselves for above 
half an hour, >vhen on the appearance of the 
main body of general: Lake's arrpy, they also 
surrendered, after they had made Lord Roden> 
"with a body of dragoons, a prisoner, who had 
§idvanced into the French lines to obtain their 
purrendry, and who now, by ordering the trapps 
flf his party to halt, fortunately prevented some 



294 BlStORT OF tm 

cffudoft of blood. The rebel auxiliaries who hacj 
accompanied the French to this fatal field, being 
excluded from quarter, fled in all directions, and 
were pursued with slaughter. The number of 
their slain is reported to have been five hundred, 
which seems much less to'exceedthe truth than re- 
turns of slain in the south-eastern parts of Ireland. 
Notwithstanding its diminution by desertions in 
its march, the force of the rebels, accompanying 
the French army, is said to have consisted of 
fifteen hundred men at the time of this surrendry. 
Tlie loss of the king's troops ia stated at three 
privates killed, twelve wounded, three missing, 
and one ofiicer wounded, lieutenant Stephens of 
the carabineers. The troops of general Humbert 
were found, when prisoners, to consist of seven 
hundred and Ibrty-eight privates, and ninety-six 
officers ; having sustained a loss of two hundred 
and eighty-eight since their first landing at 
Killala. 

The prudence of lord Cornwallis in the plan of 
his movements, in a line between the invading 
force and the interior country, is evinced, beside 
other circumstances, from an insurrection in the 
neighbourhood of Granard, which had place 
.while the French were marching from Castlebar, 
and had been designed to make a powerful divcr- 
6ion in their favour, arid even to afford them a 
commodious post, whence they might more 
convenieritly direct their operations against the 



lEISH R£B£LLI01ir. 295 

metropolis. The united conspiracy had been 
embraced by multitudes in the neighboyring 
counties, particularly in that of Longford, where 
men of property had espoused the cause. Their 
plan is said to have been to rise at the summons 
of their chiefs in the neighbourhood of Granard, 
to seize that post, and then with augmented hosts, 
to attack the town of Cavah, where considerable 
stores of arms and ammunition were deposited. 
They nefarly surprised the former town ; a body 
said to consist of six thousand, but probably two 
or three thousand, inhabitants of the counties 
of Westmeath and Longford, very^ few of them 
armed with guns, advancing against it in the 
morning of the 5th of September, before any 
considerable force could be procured for its pro- i 
tection« Most critically, captain Cottingham ' 
of the Cavan and Ballyhaise yeoman infantry, 
arrived with eighty-five men for its defence, after 
an extremely expeditious march from Cavan, 
between seven and eight a'clock in the morning, 
when the rebels had come within sight of the 
town, under the conduct of Alexander Dennistqn, 
a yeoman lieutenant of the Mkstrim cavalry, who O f 
had deserted his troop to join the insurgents. * 

Cottingham 's force, composed wholly of yeo- 
men, consisted of only a hundred and fifty -seven 
infantry and forty-nine cavalry. He chose a 
strong position between the assailants ^nd the 
town, on the hill on which Cranard is- built; but ^ 



296 HISTORY OF iPHE 

observing that the rebels, who had at first 
advanced in oue column, divided into three 
to surround his little army^ he retreated to 
another position still nearer to the town. .Here, 
protected by a bank and other fences, the yeomen 
awaited the onset of the enemy, who driving 
before them a multitude of ^cattle, which, the 
defensive party turned aside without falling into 
confusion, advanced very close to their line, 
and received a destructive discharge of musketry. 
They persevered however in their attempt, with 
long intervals of pause, during five hours, from 
between nine and ten in the morning till between 
two and three in the afternoon, when they fled, 
and were pursued with slaughter. The number 
of their slain is, in the captain's official account, 
said to have exceeded four hundred, and in an 
ano|iynK)us account nearly twice as many are 
asserted to have fallen; while of the royal party 
not one was killed, and only two slightly wounded. 
The gallant officer, whose conduct on that day, 
with that of the pien under hig command, gave 
a conspicuous proof of the effectual service of 
yeomen infantry, was, in proportion to his actual 
merit, less inclined to exaggeration; I cannot 
suppose that so many as two hundred could have 
fallen. Beside tjie officers,' three gentlemen arc 
tn^oh praised for their behaviour on this occasion, 
Andrew Bell, of Drumkeel, and Moutray Erskine, 
who volunteered, and Ralph Dopping who dci 



IRISH REBELLIO:^. 297 

fended the entrance into the town by the 
barracks. This victory was of great import- 
ance, since it prevented the spreading of the 
insurrection, and those murders and devastations 
which must have been its consequences. 

The strongest column of the rebels, composed 
of inhabitants of Westmeath, directed their 
maTch, after their di^feat, to Wilson's Hospital, an 
edifice erected for charitable purposes, the main- 
tenance of twenty aged men and a hundred boys, 
in the last mentioned county, six miles from 
Mullingar, from a legacy bequeathed by Andrew 
Wilson of Piersfield. This building had already 
been seized and plundered in the morning of the 
same day, by another body of rebels, who, on 
the arrival of the defeated column, were talcing 
measures, (we are told) to butcher qn the succeed- 
ing day, the 6th of September, twenty-eight 
protestants, who had been brought thither pri- 
soners from the neighbouring country, when 
they were prevented by the approach of a small 
body of troops, about four o'clock in the after- 
noon. This was a force collected with great 
diligence by Lord Longford, composed of yeomen 
and Argyle fencibles, the whole stated by some 
at between two and three hundred, by others 
at twice as many. The fensibles were, com- 
manded by major Porter, who brought one field 
piece for the attack. A large body of the rebels/ 
of whom about five hundred are said to have 



298 HISTORY OT THB 

been armed with firelocks, marqhed from the 
hospital to meet these troops near the village of 
BunbrusBa. After an abortive attempt of some 
of their party to seize the field piece by an impetu- 
ous onset, in which, by a discharge of grape-shot, 
many of them suffered, the insurgents maintained 
not the combat long. In their flight a party 
took shelter in a farm-house and offices which 
were in consequence burned ; and probably many 
wretches perished in the flames. The troops, as 
daylight failed, lay on their arms all night, with 
intention to attack the hospital in the morning; 
but they found it then evacuated by the insur- 
gents, whose loss of men is reported by very 
doubtfiil authority to have been near two hundred 
in killed and wounded ; while that of the royal 
troops was only two men of the artillery, shot by 
one rebel from behind a hedge. 

So ^)eedy a suppression of the rebels in the 
neighbourhood of Granard, who no more, after 
these defeats by so small a force, assembled in 
arms, might, with the surrendry of the French 
army two days after at Ballynamuck, be supposed 
sufficient to intimidate the rest of the rebels in 
the western parts into a reUnquishment of all 
thoughts of a continuation of resistance. - Yet 
in those territories of the county of Mayo, where 
they bacl first risen to assist the invaders, they 
still persevered in a state of insurrection. Intel- 
Kgence, indeed^ of Humbert's surrendry arrived 



IRISH REBELLION^. 299 

ijot in these parts for some days after; and before 
its arrival, Castlebar, which on its evacuation by 
the French, had been occupied by the king's 
troops, was attacked in the morning of the 12th 
of September, by a body of rebels, reported to be 
two thousand in number. The garrison, con- 
sisting of fifty-seven Fraser fensibies, thirty-four 
volunteers "(including boys), and one troop of 
yeoman cavalry, was so judiciously posted by 
captain Urquart of the Frasers, as to completely 
rout the assailants, whose object was at least to 
plunder the town, perhaps also, as has been 
asserted, to murder all the protestant inhabitants, 
and even the loyal Romanists. The honour of 
the town^s preservation is ascribed to captain 
Urquart, who resolved on its defence, contrary, 
as' is said, to the opinion of a gentleman there, 
who advised its evacuation and the dereliction of 
all to the plunderers. , 

Most of the towns which had fallen into the 
hands of the rebels were about this time recovered, 
as Newport and Westport, by the fensibies and 
yeomen, under the Hon. Dennis Browne, brother 
to the earl of Altamont, and captain Urquart ; 
but Ballina and Killala remained some time longer 
in their possession. On his march from Castlebar^ 
on the 4th of Septeml>er, Humbert'had left no part 
of his army at Killala or Ballina, except three 
officers at the former, and one at the latter, 
to command the rebels who formed the garrisons 



300 HISTORY OP THE 

of these towns. Intelligence was received by. 
these officers, on the 12th, of the fate of their 
army at Ballinamuk; which intelligence was, 
for good reasons, concealed from the rebels, 
until they were informed by some df their own 
party, who had escaped from the sJaughtel*. To 
account satisfactorily for the tardiness of tKe 
king's troops in their march to these posts, where 
the loyalists were in perpetual danger of assassi- 
nation, I am not furnished with materials; but 
they arrived not at Ballina till the 22d of Septem- 
ber, aljout three o'clock in tlie afternoon, ' when 
after a few discharges of cannon and musketry, 
the rebel garrison, with its commander, a French 
' officer, named True, fled toward Killala^ 

On the 23_d of September, thirty-two days 
after the landing of the French army, and fifteen 
after its, capture at Ballinamuck, a.large body of 
troops arrived at Killala, under tl^e command of 
major-general Trench, who would have been a 
day or two later in his arrival, if he had not 
been hastened by a message from . the bishop 
of Killala, concerning the extreme danger of 
his family, and the rest of the loyalists in that 
town. *' The peaceful inhabitants of Killala 
** were now to be spectators of a scene which 
** they had never expected to behold— a battle ! 
"a fight which ijo person who has seen it 
*^ once, and possesses the feelings of a human 
^** creature, MTould choose to witness a ^ecoi^d 



IRISH REBELLlO:sr. SOl 

V time. A troop of fugitives in full race from 
^* Ballina— women ^atid children tumbling over 
*' one another to get into the castle, or into any 
*^ house in the town where they might hope for a 
** momentary shelter-^continued for a painful 
*' length of time to give notice of the approach 
** of an army. ^ 

*' The rebels quitted their camp to occupy the 
*^ rising ground close by the town, on the road to 
" BaHinaj posting themselves under the low stone 
^' walls on each side in such a manner as. enabled 
"them with, great advantage to take aim at the 
"; king's troops. They had a strong guard also 
/^ on the other^ide of the town toward Foxford, 
^' having probably received intelligence, which 
"was true, that general Trench had divided his 
" forces at Crosmalina, and sent one part of them^ 
** by a detour of three miles to intercept the' 

V fugitives that might take that course in their 
*' -flight. This last detachment consisted chiefly 
" of the Kerry militia, under the orders of lieu- 
'^ tenant-colonel Orosbie, and Maurice Fitzgerald, 
"the knight of Kerry; their colonel, the earl 
V* of Glandore, attending the general. It is a 
" circumstance which pught never to be forgotten 
"by the loyalists of Killak) that the Keriy. 
'Vmilitia were so wrought upon by the exhorta- 
*^ tions of those two spirited officers, to loose ho 
** time to come to the relief of their perishing 
"Triends, that they appeared on the south side. 



tx 



1503 HISTORY OF THE 

^* of the town at the same instant with theitf 
** fellows on the opposite side, though they had 
*^ a league more of road to perform. 

" The two divisions of the royal army were 
** supposed to make up about twelve hundred 
" men, and they had five pieces of cannon* The 
*' number of the rebels could not be ascertained. 
*^ Many nra away before the engagement, while 
"a very considerable imniber flocked iistto the 
** town in the very heat of it, passing- under the 
** castle windows in view of the French officers 
** on horseback, running upon, death with as 
" little appearance of reflection or concern, as if 
*' they were hastening to, a show. About four 
" hundred of these misguided men fell in the 
** battle and immediately after it. Whence it 
^* may be conjectured that their entire niunber 
"scarcely exceeded e^ht or liine hundred.*'* 
To account for so great a slaughter, we are to 
observe from the same excellent nm-rative from 
which I have already transcril^d, that they met 
with death on every side where they attempted 
to escape; for, when driven from their post out- 
ride the town by a flanking fire of the soldiery, 
.they fled in all ditections^ they^ were furiously 
pursued by the Roxbur^ cavalry, who slaugh* 
tercd many in the streets, and were citiier inter- 
cepted at the other end of the town by the Kerry 



* A narrative of what passed at Killala, by aa ey« witnes«| 
|||iposed to be the bishop of Killala. Dublin, 1800. 



IRISH HEBEtLIOjr. S03 

militia, or directed their flight to the shore, 
where also ** the fugitives were swept away by 
"scores, a cannon being placed on the opposite 
*[ side of the bay which did great execution."* 

The pursuit of the cavalry into the town ** was 
*' not agreeable to military practice, according to 
*' which it is usual to commit the assault of a 
^* town to the infantry; but here the general 
*' wisely reversed the mod^ in order, to prevent 
V the rebels, by a rapid pursuit, from taking 
*^ shelter in the houses of the townsrfolk, a cir- 
'* cumstance which was likely to provoke indis- 
*' crimin?ite slaughter and pillage. Themeas^ure 
*^ was attended with the desired success. A con- 
*^ siderable number was cut down in. the sti-eets, 
^^ and of the remainder but a few were able to 
** escape into the houses* Some of the defeated 
** rebels, howevejr, did force their way into 
" houses, and by consequence brought mischief 
** upon the innocent inhabitants, without benefit 
^* to themselves. The first house, after passing 
** the bishop's, is that of Mr. William Kirkwood; 
J* its situation exposed it on this occasion ta 
*^ peculiar danger, as' it fronts the main street, 
*^ which was raked entirely by a line of firfe. A 
** flying rebel had burst through the door, fbl- 
** lowed by six or seven isoldiers: they poured a 
y volley of musketry after him, which proved 

f Narrative of yrhni pasaed at KUlala^ &c« 



304 . HISTOUr OF THE 

*^ fatal to Mr. Andrew Kirk wood, a most loyal 
** and respectable citizen, while he was rejoicing 
^^ at the victory, and in the very act of shouting 
^* out * God save the King' ! *' In spite of the ex- 
*^ ertions of the general and his officers, the town 
'* exhibited all. the marks of a place taken by 
** storm. Some houses were perforated like a 
"riddle: most of* them had their doors and 
*^ windows destroyed; the trembling inhabitants 
" scarcely escaping with life, by lying prostrate 
*^ on the floor. Nor was it till the close of next 
" day that their ears were relieved from the horrid 
" sound of muskets discharged every minute at 
'* flying and .powerless i^ebels. The plague of 
" war so often visits the world that we are apt to - 
" listen to any description of it with the indiffe- 
*' rence of satiety: it is the actual inspection 
*^only, that shews the monster in its proper and 

"full deformity;"! 

The to\v*n of Killala thus recovered by his 
majesty ^s forces,' had been thirty^ two days in the 
possession of the French and rebels. Of thfe 
transaction which occurred there during that 

* The killing of loyalists by the king's troops hs^d place, it 
Sfieips, in the west as. well as the east of ItdaDdf The protestants 
of a viHage caUed . Carrowearden, near Killala, having been 
brought away prisoners by a body of rebels, were, oh the rout 
of that body, by an army from Sligo, marching to Killala, under 
lord Portarlington, put to death by the soldiery. 

t Narrative of •vthat'.passed at Killala, &c. 



l^eiipd, the public? is favoured with 4n interesting 
fjarratiye, uniyersally supposed to be the produc- . 
tion of the learned Df- Stocjc^ }prd bishop of 
KiJHla, who, with his faipily, was all that time 
iu the hand§ cdf the inv9.ders and their p^uxili^ries. 
This p^rrative is valuable, sinjce it is ca|cuj^#4 
for th<e prevention of those errors whiph, froBj 
the w^ut of such authentic ^^4 ^mpaf U?l docur 
nient3, ^te apt to creep into history, and t(^ 
becpme so established by tiijie as if thpy Wier« 
ixnqueistioiiable fa^ts. It is extremely hopQurable 
to the writer, since it evinces a genuine goodBes^ , 
of hpart^ aud a mind, so cultivated, so candid, 
so elevated above vulgar prejudice^, aild the servile 
fear of party, as to di^c^rp and publiply acknow* 
ledge the virUies of an epemy. 

The vidit«*ion of his clergy had bieep appointei 
by tiie bishop to be held on the 23d of August ; 
but the unfavourable winds which caused th« 
debarkation of the French troops in the bay of 
3Killala,'o» the gSd, furnished km with cooipany 
of a very different kind. In his s^isfortune^ 
hioWiev^, hjeb^ the great con3olatiop jpf finding 
th^, exjcept his refeel countrypien, the enemies 
iflito whoj5e hiipds fee h?id fallen were polite ^nd 
gieperous. ^* Huipbert desired him to be upder 
** po apprehension — hipiself and all his people 
" should be treated with respectful atteptipn^ and 
'' pothing should be taken by the French tfoops 
^' but ^'hat was iabsolutely necessary for their ' 



S06 fiistORir 6f theJ 

^* support; a promise which, as long ^ (h^S 
*' troops continued in Killala, was most 7^eligiously 
*^ observedy excepting only a small sally of ill 
" humour or roughness on the patrt of the com- 
** mander toward the bishop.^* The cause of this 
piece of roughness was, that boats for the trans- 
portation of the artillery and stores from the 
ships, arid cars and horses for:the forwarding of 
them by land, could not be procured by the 
general, by the offer of high prices or other 
means, till addressing the bishop as the principal 
personage, and telling him that he must procure 
these nesessaries for him, he pretended, on the 
failure of a commission which the bishop could 
not execute, to burst into a violent Tage, and to 
send his lordship a prisoner to France. This 
produced the effect intended. The owners of 
the requisite vehicles immediately made their 
appearance to save the bishop, who received the 
apology of the general for the severity with 
which the situation of his affairs had constrained 
him to act. 

The candid writer thus describes the little army 
of invaders. ** Intelligence, activity, temperance, 
** patience, to a.surprising degree^ appeared to 
^' be combined in the soldiery that came over 
*^M'ith Humbert, together with the exact^st 
*^ obedience to discipline. Yet, if you except 
" the grenadiers, they had nothing to catch the 
*' eye. Their stature for the most part wa» l^w. 



mtSH R^BELLlOK. S07 

** tlieir complexion pale iand sallow,, their clothes 
*^ much the worse for the wear: to a super- 
** ficial observer they would have appeared 
*' incapable of endiiriilg almost any hardship. 

. *' These were the men, however, of whom it 

^' was presently observed^ that they could be well 
** content to live on bread or potatoes^ to drink 
" water, to make the stones of the street their bed, 
** and to sleep in their clothes, with no covering 
** but the canopy of heaven. One half of their 
*^ number had served in Italy under Bonaparte; 
** the rest were of the army of the Rhine, whete, 
\^ they had suffered distresses that well accounted 
" for' thin persons and wan looks. Several of 

.*' them declared, with all the marks of sincerity, 
** that at the siege of Mentz, during the preced- 
^ ing winter, they had for a long time slept oil 
*^ the ground in holes made four feet deep under 

^^ the snow. And an officer, pointing to his 
** leather small-clothes, assured the bishop that 
** he had not taken them off for a twelvemonth* 
** Humbert, the leader of this singular body 
** of men, was himself as extraordinary a personage 
" as any in his army. Of a good height and 
*^ shape, in the full vigour' of life, prompt to 
^' decide, *^quick in execution, apparently master 
** of his art, you could not refuse hin(i the praise 
** of a goad officer, while his physiognomy forbade 
** you to like him as a man. His eye, which was 
*' small and sleepy, (the effect, probably, of much 



508 HXSTORY OJF TH£ 

'^ watching) cast a side-loog glance of insidotw- 
*^ ness and even of cruelty : it was the eye of a 
^^ cat preparing to spring upon her prey; Hid 
*' education and manners were indicative 6f a 
*' person sprung from the lower orders of society, 
** though he knew how (as most of his country- 
^[ men can do) to assume, where it was convenient, 
*' the deportment of a gentleman. For learning, 
'^ be had scarcely, enough to enable him to write 
*^ his name. His passions were, furious, and all 
^^ his behaviour seemed marked with the charac- 
'^ ters of roughness and violence. A narrower 
'^ ipbservation of him, however; served todiscover, 
** that much of this roughness was the result of 
*^ art, being assumed with the view of extorting 
**by terror a ready compliance with his com- 
^^ nmnds. Of this truth the bishop himself waa 
** one of the first who had occasion to be made 
•^sensible,•^' — as has been already related. 

The officer left by Humbert at Killala, itt 
command, ^* lieutenant-colonel Charost, had 
*^ attained to the age of five-and-forty. He was 
*' born in Paris, the son (as the v/riter was told) 
*^ of a watch-maker in that city, who sent him 
" over early to some connexions /n St. Domingo, 
*' where he was fortunate to marry a wife with a 
" plantation for her dowry, which yielded him, 
'* before the troubles, an income of two thousand 
*^ pounds sterling per annum. By the unhappy 
*^ war, which still desolates tlmt island, he lost 



imiSH REBELLIOir. 509' 

** every thing, even to his wife, and his only child, 
** a daughter: they were taken on their passageT;o 
^* Francfe, and sent away to Jamaica. His eyes - 
*^ would fill when he told the family that he had 
^* not seen these dear relatives for six years past, 
'* nor even had tidings of them for the last three 
** yd^Ts. On his return to France he had em* 
*' braced the n)ilitary life, and had risen by due 
" degrees to the rank which he now filled. He 
^* had a plain^ good understanding. He seemed 
^' careless or doubtful of revealed religion,' but 
** said that he believed in God, was inclined to 
** think that there must be a future state, and 
** was very sure that, while he lived in this world,- 
^Mt was his duty to do all the good to his fellow- 
•* creatures that he could. Tet what he did not 
** exhibit in his own conduct, he appeared to 
*' respect in others; for he took care that no 
♦* noise nor disturbance should be made in the 
** castle on Sundays, while the famify and many 
** pfotestants from the town were assembled in 
** the library at their devotions," 

*^ Boudet, the neict in rank to the commandant, 
^* was a captain of foot, a native of Normandy, 
^^ twenty-eight years of age. His father, he said, 
<* was still living, though sixty-seven years old 
^^ when he was born. His height was six feet 
*< two inches. In person, complexion, and gra- 
*< vity, he was no inadequate representation of 
M ^ knight of La M^ncha, whose example he 



91x0 HISTORY OF THB 

*^ fQllowed in a recital of his own prowess and 
*^ wonderful exploits, delivered in measured 
** language, and an imposing seriousness of 
"aspect." The writer ascribes to him vanity, 
pride, and an irascible temper i but believed 
him to have more than an ordinary share of feel- 
ing; and that his integrity and courage appeared 
unquestionable ; and says,^ *' on the whole, wheti^ 
** we became familiarised to his failings, we saw^ 
** feason every day to respect his virtues." 

Another French officer described by this writer, 
was Ponson, only five feet and a half in stature, 
but actuated by an unremitted flow of animal 
spirits, and incessantly noisy. ** He was hardy, 
*^ and patient to admiration of labour and want 
*^ of rest A continued watching of five days 
*^ani nights together, when the rebels were 
^* growing desperate for prey and mischief, did 
^* not appear to sink his spirits in the smallest 
** degree. He was strictly honest and could not 
" bear the want of this quality in others; so that 
/* his patience was pretty well tried by his Irish 
'^ allies :" but he expressed a contempt of the 
forms of religion, to, an excess which is justly 
ascribed to " vanity, the miserable affectation of 
'* appearing to be more wicked than he really 
** was." A fifth officer, named True, is described 
as a man of brutal behaviour, and of an appear- 
jtpce corresponding to his character — " a front 
•• of b^ass, ap incessant fraudf^l sn\ile, mani^ers 



IRISH REBELLieK^, Sll 

*' altogether vulgar, and in his dress and person 
^^a neglect of cleanliness even beyond th6 
*' affected negligence of republicans." 

The characters of these officers may be little 
interesting to some readers, but they were far 
from being matters of no coxicern to the inhabi- 
tants of Killala and its neigbourhood. If they 
had all been of the same disposition as True, or 
even if they had not been men of active humanity, 
the county of Mayomight h^veexhibited scenes of 
massacre similar to those of the county of Wex- 
ford ; since Mnthout their exertions the protest- 
ants would have been imprisoned by the rebels, 
as hostages, on whom the deaths of their asso- 
ciates, taken prisoners and hanged by the king's 
army, should be retaliated. Highly indeed to 
the honour of the French forces in general, the 
ingenuous narrator of the transactions at Killala, 
gives the folloM'^ing testimony with respect to the 
behaviour of Humbert's army. *^ And here it 
^^ would be an act of great injustice to the excel- 
^* lent discipline, constantly maintained by these 
^* invaders while they remained in our town, not 
** to remark, that with every temptation to 
*' plunxler, which the time, and the v number of 
** valuable articles within their reach, presented 
^^ to them in the. bishop's palace^ from a side^- 
^* board of plate arid glasses, a hall filled with 
^^ hats, whips; and great coats, as well of the 
y gUestsuas of the family, not a single partlcu* 



312 mSTORY OF tut 

^^ hr of |)rivate property was foui;id to have been 
" carried away, when the owners^ aft^r the iirsf 
** fright was over, catae to look for their effects, 
** which was not for'a day or two after the land- 
*' ing. Jmniediately upon entering the dining* 
" room, a French officer had called ibt th* 
*' bishop's butler, and gathering, up the spooni 
*^ and glasses, had desired him to take thenl to 
^* his pantry. Beside the entire ilse of other 
** apartiilents, during the stay o^ the French ih 
*^ Killala,^ the attick story, containing a library 
. ^* and three bed-chambers, continued sacked to 
*' the bishop and his family. And so scrupulous 
*' was the delicacy of the French not to disturb 
** the feriiale part of the house, that not oije of 
•^ them was ever seen to go higher than the 
*' middle floor, except on the evening of their 
*^ success at Castlebar, when two officers begged 
^^ leave just to carry to the family the news of 
** the battle, and seemed a little mortified that 
^* the intellTgcRCe was received with jah air of 
<^ dissatisfaction." 

This army, however, so respectful of persons 
and private property, had cotne into the king- 
dom destitute of money for the advancement or 
their enterprise^ Its leaders promised thit '* tcady 
" money was to come over in the ships expected 
''cveiry day from France: in thfe meati tiihe, 
*< whateS^r was broiight in vblun^tarily, or takeft 
^* by necessity^ to answer f he Occ^io^ of ^U^ 



iH!.4h rebellion. ' 31^ 

** atttiy, should be pfunctually paid for in drafts 
*^ on the future directory of Ireland, of which 
^^ the owners of the goods demanded were cour^ 
*^* teously invited to accept For the first two 
** or three days many people did ^pply for such 
** drafts to the Ffench coj^missary of stbvesi 
^' whose whole time appeared to be taken up with 
'^ Writing them. Indeed the bishop himself Wai 
** of opinion that the losers would act wisely to 
*' accept of them, not, as he told the people^ 
*' that they would ever produce payment where 
*^ it w^s promised, but because they might serv6 
^' as documents to our own government, When, 
^^ at a future period it should come to inquire- 
^^ into the losses sustained by its lojml subjects. 
•* The trouble, however, ^of the commissary^ in 
** issuing drafts on a bank in prospect, Ifas not 
^^ of long duration. Tlie people smiled fii-st 
*^ and he joined himsdf in the smile at last, when 
'* he offered the airy security. '* — THua though 
private plunder for the emolument of individuals 
T^as neither allowed nor practised, yet the neces- 
sitous condition in which thi?i army ^anded, 
obliged its leaders to adopt this mode of public 
regulated plunder, for its subsistence. If cash 
httd not been wanting to the rulers of France, 
they might be supposed to have acted from 
policy in sending nonfe into a country which 
;nu$t cenwa fa^^tik^ if the inymoa should 



31* HISTORY OF THE 

prove abortive; afld which otherwise, theytnight 
think, ought to be obliged to sustain the expences 
of its own revolution. 

If necessity obliged the French, for the sup- 
port of their enterprise, to adopt a plap of public 
plunder,, one of the chief incitements to the un- 
fortunate peasantry, in the Qountry about Killala, 
to jepair to the^ standard of these invaders, was 
the thirst of private pillage, the indulgence of 
which ho efforts of their more civilised associates 
could prevent. Of this tbe despoiled loyalists of 
Mayo felt the sad effect^ through a large extent 
of co^ntry. Here, as in the south-eastern parts> 
vhich h^ already suffered by rebellion, protest^ 
ant and loyalist were terms almost synonimous* 
*' The only persons of the established church who ' 
' ** tooferarms against thpir sovereign, in favour pf 
*• the invaders, were two drunken sots pf Killajla^ 
^* who thinking apostacy the fittest prelude tq 
" treason, before, they embraced the French 
*^ party, did first publicly declare themselves 
*' converts to the church of Rome.'* That enmity 
*' to the protestant religion entered intp th^ 
•' motives of the devastation in G(Minaught„ 
" cannot with any shew of reason be denied,r 
** since it is notorious that, except during thq 
" indispriminate plunder which took place at th^a 
<* Capture of Castlebar, very few instances ocn 

♦ Narrative of transactions at Kittala, page If^ ^ 



JRISH REBELLION. SIS' 

** curred, throughout the province, of the house or 
'* property of a Roman catholic being injured by 
*^therehds-^ 

The miserable bigotry of the lower classes of 
IriA Romanists was very inconsistent with the 
notions of their Trench allies.. *' The wonder 
*^ was," says the narrator of Killala, ** how the 
^^ zealous papist should come to any tern>s of 
*^ agreement withaset of men, who boasted openly 
*^ in our hearing, ^ that they had just driven Mr,. 
" Pope out of Italy, and did not expect to find 
** him so suddenly in Ireland." It astonished 
the French officers to hear the recruits, when 
they offered their service, declare, *1 that they 
/* were come to take arms for France and the 
^yBlessed Vtrgin.'' The conduct of theseverai 
priests, who engaged in the same treasonable 
enterprise, was yet more surprising than that of 
their people. No set of men could be treated 
with more apparent marks of dislike, and even 
contempt, than these were by the French, though 
against the plainest suggestionis of policy, which 
recommended attention to them, both as having 
an influence over their flocks, and as useful 
interpreters, most of them, from their foreign 
education, being able to speak a little French, Xet 
the commandant would not trust to their inter- 
pri&tation : if he wanted to know the truth, he 

♦ Narrative pf trapsaGtiojis at KiHalft, page 118. 



31^ HISTORY OF THE , 

iraitcd till he could see the bishop"* to interpret 
for him. , The protestants of Killala enjoyed, 
under the protection oif the French officers, the 
privilege of attending divine servicfe every Sun- 
day in the bishop's palace, commonly called' the 
cattle. The cathedral remained shut, and the 
Romanists often threatened to seize it for their 
€rwn n&e; but they y^cre always restrained by 
the presence of these officers. 

While a body of French forces remained m 
Killala, their commanders were enabled to afford 
effectual protection ^ t6 the protestants. But? 
nrhen these troops were summoned elsewhere, and 
no Frenchman was left, except three officers^ 
Charost, Boudet, and Ponson, the prospect wasF 
trtily horrible* YetProvidence was kind beyond 
expectation, " Whatever could be effected by 
•'vigilance, resolution, and conduct, for the 
*' safety of a place committed to them, was to a 
"surprising degree effected fpr the district of 
** Killala by these three French officers, with- 
'* 4>nt the «upport of a single soldier of their own 
** country 5 and that for the long space of twenty- 
•' three day^, from the first of September to the 
^* day of the battle," or recovery of Killala by 
the King's army. As the Romanists, notwith* 
standing the orders of the French officers for that 
purpose, wouldnot consent that protestants sho^l4 

♦ Namthr©, Arc page 1^. 



IEI5H «IEB«:1W0N. tlV 

have arm^ for the protection of their housesf 

against pillagers, another expedieat was adopted, 

'* Tlie French, it wds said, had divided^ the 

** town and neighbourhood of Castlebar into 

** districts, appointing over each a municipal 

** officer with a guard at his commaiid, properly 

" armed for the public defence ; and the scheme 

^* had there the desired success. A proclamation 

** was therefore issued for establishing a similar 

** form through the canton over which Charost 

*' presided. ' The Country was thrdwn int6 

'* departments : A magistrate, to be elected by 

^* his neighbours, was to take charge of each 

** with the help of a guard of sixteen or twenty 

^* men: arms and ammunition were to be distri* 

*^ buted to these, under an express stipniatton; 

^* that neither officers nor men should be marched 

*' out of their respective departments, nor an- 

^* ployed against their sovereign, nor in amy 

** service except that of keeping the peace.' 

^ The town of Killala was committed to th6 

** protection of one hundred and fifty men, iil 

*' three bodies, all to be observant of tl^ <^deri 

** of Mr. James Devitt, the civil magistrate 

^^ unaninjously chosen by the people, because h:6 

" was a substantial tradesman, a Roman catfioUcJ,' 

** and a man of sense and moderation. He bad 

•* under him t^o assistants of his own religion. 

"The benefits of this regulation were feltimme- 

^' diately in the establishment of tolerable order 



318 UlStdRr M TH« 

•* and quiet, at least in and about the town ; and 
** without doubt they would have been felt to a 
** greater extent, if the French power had been 
** firmer* 

*? The example of Killala \vas presently copied 
^* in the other departments. Magistrates were 
" elected, always Roman catholics, but commonly 
*^ of the better sort among them, persons who 
" had no desire to take arms against the British 
*'^ goverament. Some of these applied to the 
*^ bishop for his opinion, whether they should 
*[ incur the penalties of treason by acting under 
^* a foreign power, merely for the common safety, 
" and under the conditions stated above. His 
-" answer was, that he was no lawyer ; but having 
** always found tlie law of England to be conso^ 
** nant to reason, he would take upon him to say, 
** there could be no law forbidding to do, under 
** these circumstances, what was absolutely en- 
** joined by the great law of self-preservation. 
** It is repotted that, when the rebellion was over, 
** several persons muttered against this doctrine. 
" It liaight be conceded, they said, to the existing 
" terror, but it was not sound, because it might 
^* be employed as ^n excuse for a tame and 
** prompt submission to any invaders. To ^uch 
** tranquil declaimers on the merit of casting 
** away life and property, in preference to bowing 
" the head to a storm, it is obvious to reply, that 
•• had they changed situations with those who 



*^ actually felt the distress, it is more than pro- 
*' bable they would have seen good reason to 

^*^ adopt the very conduct, which in the fulness 

^ *,* of security they take upon them to condemn.* 

*^ To submit to a king defactOj and even to act 

i ** by a commission from such a one to preserve 
" the peace of the community^ provided by so 
** doing you do not preclude yourself from re- 
*f turning under the government of a king de 
**jure^ is a practice sanctioned by the authority 
** of our most equitable English lavv."t 

This temporary system of police, imperiously 
demanded by the situation of affairs, though it 
proved in general of very great utility, was not 
always effectual for the prevention of plunder* 
The rebel guards " had the power at any instant 
** to throw open the houses to their companions 
*' abroad, and let in depredation at least, if 
*^ nothing worse. And this was a nlischief tod 
*^ that happened not unfrequently. At Castle- 
*' Lacken, Castlereagh, and other houses belotig- 
" ing to protestants, where guards had "beeti 

, *' stationed, the soldiers proved traitors, and 

^* admitted rogues from without to plunder the 
** families they were sent to defend.^ The vil- 
** lage of Mulhfarragh, a colony of industrious 

r * That the narrator is right I have no doubt, as I have fotind 
men practically cautious of danger in proportion to the boldness 
'of their prafessioTis, 

+ Narrative, &g, p.' 54, 57. J idem, p. 58. 



^^ BjerpHY OF Tti: 

*' presby terian weavers from Ulster, 6fi pretence 
*^ of seardiing for arms, w»s ransackecl ipi tliree 
** noctur»al invasions of the reljek, till there w^s 
*^ nothing left 10 it worth carrying away ; ftnd 
*^ this in defianae of a protection under the 
'^ hand of the commandant, obtained for them 
*' and their pastor by th? bishop. The poor 
^* suffereiij came in tears to M, Cbarost, to return 
^^him a protection which h^d done them no 
^^ good. It shocked him very much. Often 
" did he whisper the bishop, that no considera- 
" tion shouldprevaiion him again to trust himself 
*' to such a horde of savages as the Irish.* The 
*^ ravages of tlie rebels were encouraged by some 
"of their chiefs; and spoil was not the sole, or 
** even principal object of their leadersi, for they 
" destroyed in every decent habitation much 
** more than they carried away. Depression of 
** the industrious and better sort, the universal 
*^ levelling of conditions, in order to bring on 
^^ the glorious reign ef equality, such appeared 
*^ to be tiie wish of tliose who aspired at all to 
** the praise of thinking, and called themwJve^ 
^^r^milicam: the mob had no prompters but 
^ lust of pillage and superstition. " 

The leaders, whom the Cohnaught r-ebels 
found among themselves, were, as may be sup- 
pbsed from what has been said of their giving 
countenance to depredation, almost without 

* Narrative, i&c. p. 103. 



^ccption ft most ighoble set of men, *^ Bdlew, 
>* their earliest officer, was a drunken ^brute to 
** whoiti nobody paid obedience, even before he 
^^ was turijed dufe of office by the cdtnmandant* 
?* Lijlte better^either for talent or sobriety, wa« 
*^ O'Dowd, a man of some estate in the cotmty^ 
^ and almost the only gentleman that took arms 
** with the rebels, for which he paid tlie forfeit 
** of his life at Ballinamuck. Mr. Richani 
^* Bourke of Ballina had some military know- 
** ledge, Was a good drill Serjeant, firm in com* 
^* bat, and popular; so that he might have done 
^^ the harm he wished, if the habitual stupefac* 
" tkm of drink had not been an overmatch fot 
^ his malice, O'Donnel knew nothing of arms,' 
^^rioi^ was he Hfc^ly to learn the^ 'prirffessioii 
'* quietly, his^ petulance making him unfit for 
*Vdisc{pliffe. Yet the vulgar, who can diseeru 
^' In others what they have not in themselve»i 
* followed this young man more rtadily thaft 
** any other who pretended to lead them, becaQsd 
♦' they iSaw he had more sense, more command of 
^ himself, and more moderation in the exercise 
^ of Authority. Even the loyalfsts at Killala 
^^ ackjtiowledged obligation to him for the in- 
*^ dustry with which they saw him exert hini- 
' ** self to prevent pillage, patroling the streetis on 
*^ horseback for several nights together, and 
^[ withholding. , both by threats and persuasioa 



S22 JRISTOUT OF 

" those whom he found bent upon mischirf/** 
This testimony whatever were his failings, is 
extremely honourable to the memory of O'Dott* 
jiel, who had come from the country of Erris, 
and was killed in battle by the king's troops in 
the retaking of Killala. 

The exertions of the three Frenchmen an* 
O'Donnel for the protection of loyalists Iverc 
continually required more every day, especidflj^ 
after the news arrived of the capture of Hum- 
bert's army at Ballinamuck. ^^ The intelligent T 
*^ did not seem by any means to produce on the 
" minds of the rebels the effect that might na-"'^ 
^' turally have been expected, their gradual ifsr 
*^ pecsion, Qlid return to their own homes. ' On * 
*' the contrary, the resort to the camp in the 
*' bishop's meadoXvs grew greater every day; the ; 
** talk of vengeance on the protestants Was louder 
•* and more frequent, the rebels were drilled re- 
"g^larly, ammunition was demanded, andeverj' ' 
*^ preparation made for an obstinate defence 
" against the arms of their sovereign. Careless 
*' of tl|e future or trusting to the. delay wjiich 
/* must be occasioned by the distance of the 
y king's army, they thought of nothing But 
." living merrily as long as they migh^ upon the 
** property that lay at their rnercyi and they did 
^/* use their povjer of doing mischief most tevn 

' ' ' m 
• Narrative, &c. p. 127, laje* 



IRISH REBELLIoir. S2^ 

'* ribly."* On the 19th of September, tha cla- 
mour for imprisohTnent of the protestants as hos- 
tages became so violent,' that probably the fatal 
measure would have been adopted, in spite of 
the utmost efforts 6f thfe hrumanc and spiritetf 
officers, if it had not been prevented by a stra- 
tagem t)f the bishop. 

He proposed that two embassadors, the one a 
rebel chieftain, named Roger M'Guire, the other 
*. i(yj'alifyt, Dean Thompson, should go to the 
eommaBder of the King's forces at Castlebar, 
with* a flag of trtice ; and a fetter from himselfij 
setting forth to the comn>and^r the situation of the 
protestants at Killala, aiid expressing their hope 
that nothing wotlld be done ta.the prisoners at 
Castlebar which nn'ght provbke reprisals on the 
protestants at Killala. These ambassadors re- 
turned from their perilous jbutney in the eveniiig 
Qf the 2 1 St. * ' Dean Thompson, though closely 
** watched by his fellow messenger, as long as 
** the latter was able ta keep himself awake, had 
** found ^means to have a private conference 
*^with general •Tr^ilch.*' Doubtlces the result 
of this conversation was a very polite letter 
from the general to the bishop, ^'rassuring 
^Mnm that his prisoners were, and should be, 
** treated with all possible tenderness and hu^* 
<^-^nanity. The fetter was publicly read tathe 



9M BJStOKY or THE^ 

1* njultitude, and left m th^jr hands^,*' This 
caji^ed ^t }ea$t'an irresolution among the insur^ 
jents, numbers of whom had that day menaced 
the protestants^ and thqr ahettors^ as> they called 
|he French i and had declared a deterroinfttion 
of choosing new leader^^ a^d qf plundering th^ 
town that very evening, in spite of the Fieacb 
and pf O'Donnel. This if resolution most for- 
tupately contipued,. notwit^liisli^^Bdiug that early 
the next morning ^^ the loyalists were desired by 
*f the reb^is^ tp come up witji them to the hill oa 
*^wl^ich the aieedle- tower is l>uilt, in order to be 

V ©ye-witnessps of tte. havoc a party of the king's 
y^mj^ was n^lj^^pg, . as it a,dvaiK:ed toward? 
y th^ fifom.Siigo. ' . A^twn q| fire top defurly 

V fii§tingui?b^4 ^heir li8eH>f- ng^arch, flspiing up 

V fr^m the fec^usie$ :<rf unfortijn^te peasants. 
''/ '?'h^y:aj3e,^nJy:;ftj.ftWt;;$gbiiis/ rciparHed the 
y bishop ; anfthjs Jiadri^ltJ^y utteredthe wOfdi^ 
^^when h^ felt t\^ ipypitufknce of th^tfi^ * A 
^ ppor iii*n>;€abitj/' ^nSwered one of the reWs, 
'*^ i^ to him,^ V^^ble as a palace- "t > : 

; These insttrgeWSi thus ifres^jute tp l?iU feijCoid 
Ijlpod, shewed no want f>f i?e^^ut}OB i* defence 
of theiir- ipost whea a^iaiiled by the army^ fls i3 
already: n)0n|iesied iu the-aeeoufitof thertet/ikitig 
of Killalai -The narrator often quoted »ys ejje- 
iwhere, " to do them jusitiee, the peasantiy wyet 

♦ Narrative, &<h|»? 133, iUp *iteAtive, &c. 1354 



IBI8H ftEBELLIOir; 52^ 

"appeared to want tttimal couragfe, for thfey 
" flocked blether to meet danger whenever it 
'' was expected. Hid it pleated Heaven to he 
"^ as liberal to them of brains'as of handi^, it isf 
"^ot easy to say to what length of mischief 
'* they niight have prdfceeded ; but they were all 
*' dong unprovided with leaders of any ability.'** 
What most surprises me is^ that these peasants/ 
after having been so long drilled under the in- 
spection of French officers, should yet not know 
how to take aim at an enemy. In his account 
of the retaking of Killala, the narrator says^ 
^ we kept our eyes on the rebels, who seemed 
*^ to be posted with so much advantage behind 
^ the stone walls that lined the road. They 
** levelled their pieces, fired very deliberately 

* ^ from each side on the advancing enemy ; ye^ 
^* strange to tell ! were able only to kill one 
*^'man, a corporal, and wound one commod 
" soldier. Their shot in general went oyer the 
*** heads of their opponents, ''f Tlie Wcxftndiaii 

, insurgents, without any superintcndance o^ 
French officers, learned, by experience of com- 
bat, in a shorter time, to level their guns with 
more fatal effect. 

Beside religious bigotry and the expectation of 
spoil, the narrator of Killala assigns' other mo- 
tives as inciting the rustics of his neighbour- 



^ . HISTORY 01P tUi 

^od 4d assume those an»»> of which they made 
so ineiFectual a use. Among these was their 
eagerness for the gaudy ti^ppihg^ of the French 
military dress, and for what waa to them luxu- 
rious. Uving ; objects doubtless of ho small in- 
ducement to men unused to thecomfortof even 
shoes and stockings, and to the relish of animal 
food ; ;iuch being the wretched condition of the 
peasantry in the west of Ireland ! '* It is a debt 
*^ due to justice, however," says the narrator, 

V tp observe, that if the first who joined tl\e 
*/ enemy were enticed by hope to a - foreign 
*^ stapdard,. very many took the same road after- 
*/ wards merely through fear. Great pains were 
** employed by the early iniHirgents to frightea 
?' their Aeighboyrs into the same inclosure of 
*/ peril with themselves, partly by the most liorrid 
[[ npienaces in case of refusal to join the common 

V cause, and partly by spreading lies of tbepxo- 

V testant^ whom they represented as orange- 
^1 nien, universally bent on the excision of the ' 
*^ catholics. 

^ "When the united weight of so many tempta- 
JftipBis is duly , estimated, operating besitjes on a 
** body of peasantry already estranged from theiif • 
'V protestant neighbours by difference of leJigion, 
*' langwfgfi^ and education, it will rather be" 
/.' matter of surprise that so. little misphief waa 
** the result of th6 insurregtion in Connaught„ 
^* and that we hi^ not thf saqse horcid j^^tnes of 



IRISH REBELLIOH. ' Sfi7 

** cruelty and religious iatolferance to mourn 
" over, as.had lately stamped indelible disgrace 
*^ m. the eastern province. It is a circumstance 
*' worthy /of particular notice, that during the 
*' whole time of this civil commotion, not a drop 
*' of blood was shed by the Connaitght rebels^ 
^^ except in the field of war. It is true, the 
** example and influence of the French went a 
*' great way to prevent sanguinary excesses. 
" But it will not be deemed fair to ascribe to 
*' this cause alone the forbearance of which we 
** were witnesses, 'when it is considered what a 
** range of country lay at the mercy of the rebels 
•* for several [days after the French power was 
*' known to be at an end. 

" These reflections are offered to the public as 
** au apology for the opinion of certain persons 
** who t)ecame advocates for lenity, when, ou 
*^ the suppression of the rebellion, the treatment 
'* due to the insurgents was the subject of dis- 
<< cussion. Fire and sword was the language of 
** gentlemen, whose loss: by- tiie^ war, though 
'* grievous and highly provoking, ^as(toly the loss 
** of property. Milder sentiments may reason- 
^' ably be allowed to have pkce in bosoms which 
^* had throbbed with the apprehension of a greater; 
**mi|p:hief than spmlation. Experience had 
^' taught tliem that life is the first of worldly 
*^ possessions ; and having saved that blessing 
/* themi^elves; they could not be in baste to 



3^8- JiB$TOBY OF WH^Bt 

'^ravish 4t from otherp. Indeed wjiere thew had 
•' appeared all aloiig so few traces of rancour in 
V these poor country folk, it was impossibl^-ibr 
*/ a spectator of their actions not to pity them 
*/ for their very simplicity."* 

To account in some degree for the small 
portion of rancour in the western coippaiativ^ly 
with the south-6astern insurgents, we are to 
observe, that in the territories of the former 
those rigorous measure^ had nQt been practised} 
which government had been forced elsewhere to 
authorise for the disorganization of the united 
conspiracy ; for surely , the freje-quartef ing of 
[^ldier% the burning of hoitees, and tbe intflictioii 
of torture to extort conftst&ion, together with,th<5 
unauthorised ipsbJjts committed by rairtaken-or 
pretended zeaXojL^fov loy^y^ as croppijags, pitch-* 
q^pin^, ^pd half-hangiAga, must, whether 
necessary or «iQt) whether. deserved lox not, be 
expected to kiiidle a/spirit of revenge Ju. the 
s^ji^rers and thf^ir party. .. The. bitter sjaffaan%$y' 
I^owever, ot^ewi^n Von rxdiieUion^ofidb^h: these 
Yesterq pj^nggiBts .i^ad.:befoirc been ignorant, thpy 
were i*ow:«:by:tfeeii! folly dx^omed to eifcperieiKrtf 
ip a cpMttl^bJe degree* More they, mighfr 
have expdrienced, if the .father had permitted 
tj^e 'troopft:!tQ, keep, thr field; but the, i||nter 
apprqached^ ^' Gdneiial Trench therbfone made 

^ Narjative, &g. g. 2^—30. 



IRISH- REB£LLION<T 32^ 

^* h^te to cfear the wild districts of the Laggan 
*' and Erris, by pushing detachments iuto each,* 
** who were able to do little more than to burn 
** anumber of cabins ; for the people had to© many 
** hiding places to be easily overtaken. Enough 
*^ however was effected to impress upon th(J minds 
*^ of the sufferers a conviction, that joitxing with 
*' the enemies of their country against their 
^^ latvful sovereign was not a matter of so little 
"moment, as they had ignorantly imagined; 
^* and probably the memory of what they have 
'* now endured will not be effaced for years. 
** There are, I know," adds the candid narrator; 
** who think differently, who say these moun** 
** taipeers will be always ripe for insurrection,- 
*' and who urge in proof the mischief they have 
^^ done very lately by robbing, and houghing of 
" cattle; Yet surely our cbmxnon nature will 
*' incline us to make some concession to the 
** feelings of men driven, though by their 
'* own^Eiult, from their farms and their. dwellings; 
** wretched dwellings to be sure, but to them— • 
** (that poor fellow's lesson to the bishop*. is 
* worth remembering !) to them as valuable as 
•^ tx> the grandee : his palace. . Let a ma;n look 
" round fcom the summit of one of tho^e moun- 
" tains that guard our island againjst the incur-* 
^ sicms of 4hc Atlantic, and say what ho should 

♦ -S^jjj^ ^ of this work. - 



S30 HiSTORY OF .THE 

^' think of passing a winter among them Without 
^* the covering of a hut."* - 

The evils of civil warfere belong not exclu 

' sively to the vanquished: the victorious party 
also must feeL some portion of the general mis- 
fortune. In his relation of affairs subsequent to 
the arrival of the king's troops, the narrator says, 
** If the people of Killala were distressed to find 
" accommodation for the multitude of officers 
" that now poured in upon them, they experi- 
*' enced yet greater inconvenience from the 
<* predatory habits 6f the soldiery. The regr- 

^r ments that came to their assistance, being all 
*^ militia, seemed to; think they had a right to • 
** take the property they had been the means of 
*^ preserving, and to use it as their own, when- 
** ever they stood in need of it Their rapacity 
** differed in no respect from that of the rebels, 
*^ except that they seized upon things with less of 
*^ ceremony and excuse, and that his majesty'^ 
"soldiers were incomparably superior to the Irish 
" traitors in dexterity at stealing. • In conse- 
" quence, the town very soon grew weary of theit^ 
*' guests, and were glad, to see them match iolf , 
*-^ to other quarters. It is but Justice to the^ i«- . 
" gim^nt that has remained at Kiliaia ever siaoe^ ' ^ 
. ** the prince of Wales's fensibles, to acknowledge 
" that they always behaved theniselvfs with the 

f Narrative, &c. p. 166— 168. 



IRISH REBELLION. 331 

^^^ greatest propriety, under the orders of those 
^* two excellent officers, lieutenant colonel Ma- 
*^ cartney and major Winstanley. Let it he re- 
^* membered also, to the honour of our excellent 
** chief governor, that as soon as the country 
^* was reduced to quiet, marquis Cornwallis sent 
" two commissioners to Killala and its vicinity, 
** for the express purpose of asceitaining the 
*' damages done by the king's troops, and that, 
*^ in March following, all authenticated claims 
** on that account were discharged in full by an 
^* order on the national bank."* Doubtless the 
truly noble marquis would; if in his power, have 

* prevented the occasion of those claims, well 
knowing that predatory troops, while they are 
noxious to those whom tlicy are designed to 
protect^ are, at the same time, from that mean- 
ness of spirit arid want of substantial discipline, 
vhich indulgence of plunder always' implies, 
unfit to cope with a well-disciplined enemy.f 

•^^ An inteliigent officer, engaged in the attack of 
Killala, assured me that, in his opinion, our 
troops would have been repulsed, if the rebels^ 
had l^en supported by even fifty French sol- 
diers ; so 'extremely irregular was the onset of 
our army. After the battle, a loyalist, in what 

^ • Narrative, &c. p. 1^3, 1^. 

t Pr(idator tx sociis^ et ipsepreda hostiumy says the concise 
and elegant Sallust concenMag a despicable arpy. 



832 HISTORY OF THE ^ 

are called coloured clothes, who had served as^ 
a guide to the Kerry militia, was observed amcmg 
a number of these by a mixed body of Armagh 
and Downshire militia. These immediately, re- 
garding him as a rebel because he wanted uni-'" 
jfbrm, levelled their guns at him, swearing that 
they would fire at him among the Kerrymen, 
if ^ the latter would not dispatch him ; and this 
they were obliged to do to ^ave themselves. 

How far the following fact may be regarded 
as marking a defect of discipline, I leave to the 
reader's judgment. The narrator of Killala, * 
after the mention of the return of Arthur Stock, 
a son of the bishop, to his father's diircHing with • 
general Trench's army, says: " Charost expressed 
^^ as much joy at seeing Arthur safe, as if he had 
** himself been one of the family. Yet the poor - 
" commandant had no reason to be pleased with 
" the treatment he had received immediately after 
" the action. He had return^ to the castle for 
" his sabre, and advanc^ with it te the gate in • 
^^ order to deliver it up to some English Qffifcer,^ 
** when it was^ seized a.iid forced from bis hand 
''by a common soldier of Frazer's. He camd 
^/ in, got another swoni, which he s&rrfendered 
" to an officer, and turned to re-enter the hall. 
*' At this moment, a second Highlander burst 
*' through the gate, in spite of the scnticfel 
** placed there by the general, tod fired*^t the 
** commandant with an aim thai was near prov- 



*' ing fatal, for the ball passed under his arm, 
*^ |)icrcing a very thick door entirely through, 
*' and lodging in the janih. Had we lost the 
*^ worthy man by such an ?icddcnt, his death 
*' would have spoiled the whole relish of our pre- 
5^ sent enjoyment He complained, and received 
** an apology for ;the soMier's behaviour from hh 
5^ officer. 'Leave was immediately granted to 
** the three French officers to keep their swords, 
** their effects, and even their bed-chamber in 
^^ the house."* 

The latter part of the story is honourable to 
our officers, and the sequel is honourable to the 
Irish administration and the British government. 
Thellrish administration was pleased t6 forward 
the French officers immediately ** to London, 
f^ giviiig them what money th^y wanted for their 
** draft on the comtnissary of prisoner.1, NioiL 
*^ From London the bishop had a letter from the 
*^ committee for taking cafe of French pfisonci^^ 
^^ desiring to be informed in what manner. he 
f^ and his family had been treated by the French- 
^^ officers ; arid on the bishop's i-epbrt, an order 
^^ was obtained that citizens Charost, Boudet, 
^^ and Ponson, should be set at liberty, and sent 
** home without exchange. Niou, the French 
*^ commissary, refused on the part of his govern- 
_** ment to accept of this -mark of respect fronl 

♦ Niariative, &Ci p. 157, 158. 



334 ' HIWORT of TH5 

*^ our ministry, saying, that the directory GOiild ' 
** not avail themselves of so polite an offer, 
*' because their officer* at Killalahad only don^ 
" their duty, and no more than what any French- ' 
** man would have don6 in the same situation. ' 
" It will depend," says the judicious narrator; 
*^ on the particular temper of the critic, whcthef 
" he shall call this answer magnanimous, or a 
** childish gasconade."* Whether gasconade or 
not, it was a recommendation of humanity and 
politeness to his countrymen; and to emulat* 
the French in this respect would be honourable 
to any soldiery oi any people. 

Very different in character, as has been hinted* " 
already, from the French officers, were the chiefs 
of the rebels, whose trials by couxt*martial com* 
menced at Killak on the 24th of September. 
The first persons tried were Bellew and Richaiid 
Bourke, formerly mentioned, who were found 
guilty that evening, " Contemptible fordrunk- 
^* enness and vulgar manners, they fell without . 
'* exciting a sentiment of ^ompassion^ Roger 
'* IVrGuire," says the narrator, ^* our late am* • 
" bassador to Castlebar, occasioned some delay^ 
** It was urged in his favour, particularly by dean 
" Thompson, .that in their late journey he had 
*' often heard him speak to the people in favour 
^* of pacific measures and of lenity to the pro-s^ 



*^ festetits. On the other hand, general Trench 
*^ and his officers coild not readily forget the 
^'* insolent behaviour of tliis young felfow at 
** Castlebar, under which assumed carriage he 
** strove to conceal his apprehension of danger^ 
^* when he was so grievously, and indeed so in- 
k* considerately threatened.by Mr, Dennis Browna 
** and others, on his entering the town." Incon- 
siderate indeed must have been this threatening, 
adapted plainly, though doubtless not intended, 
to cause the massacre of the protestants of Killala, 
Including the bishop and his family. This man, 
however, whose embassy hjld contributed to save 
the lives of so many protestants, was not put to 
death. He was, after a long imprisonment, 
*^ transmitted to Castlebar, where at last he re- 
5* received sentence to be transported to Botany^ 
*'bay.''* 

Numbers of other chiefs and inferior, insur-- 
gents were, tried and executed here, and eke- 
where. ^ — ^Among these, particular notice and par- 
ticular (jompassion are due to two men, who,? 
Irishmen by birth, h^d been in the military 
9ervi(?e of France before the invasion, had come 
into Ireland in the French fleet, and had, as well 
^s thevbest 6f the French officers, used the most 
active exertions to jsaive the lives and properties 
pf loyalists^ These were. Bartholomew Teeling 

f Narrative, &c. p. 165, l6§, 



33^ wwomY 0t .WKm 

and Matthew T9iie, whose generous 
made evident in their trials, and steady fortitud* 
under sentence and execution, conimand GUI' 
pity; and for. their personal qualities our esteem. 
They: were tried in Dublin banack, and executed 
—the former on the 24th of September, the 
latter a few days after. 

- The famous Theobald Wolfe Tone, capteved 
m a French vessel, in an expedition to the coasts 
of Ireland still more , abortive than tliat of 
Humbert, survived not long his broths Matthew. 
The little army of Humbert bad been intended 
only to be a vanguard of a much morefOTmid- 
able fprce, which was in a short time to follow/ 
Ptovidentially fdr the safety of the British empire, 
th^ French ad^mitfiswators w^re as tardy in se* 
cQtidlng ikoopetkti^ikh ^ Humbert, as they had 
oeen in seconding those of the southern rebel* 
of Ireland. Tlie wan t^ of money is assigned aa 
the cause of delay in the equipment of th6'secoti4 
fleet, and in the interim, before its^appcarsmoe 
^ the Irish coast, a brig from Fran<^,arrived at 
the little isle ^f Rutland, near the liofth-west 
dciast of Donegal^ on the I6th of Septembo^^ 
and landed its crew ; among whom was James 
Napper Tandy, formerly mentiohed in this woi% 
now bearing the title of general of brigade in 
the French service. Infonned of the surrender 
of Humbert's troops, and unable to excite an 
insurrection by their manii^estoes in 'that quarter, 



th^ fe-^embarkcd, and abandoned the shores of 
Ireland, Tandy was afterwards arrested at Ham* 
burgh by some British agents. In this actioa 
ttie dignity of a neutral state was contemptuously 
violated, and the influeirce of the emperor of 
Russia was solicited and obtained to intimidate 
the Hamburghers into an acquiescence in thia 
violsrtbn, which exposed them at the same time 
to the resentment of the French government* 
So mighty a fuss about such an object, such a 
mountain in labour,, confirmed many in an opi-^ 
•ion of a puerile weakness in the British mi- 
nistersu Tandy was tried at LifFord, at the 
Spring assizes for 1801 ; and pleading guilty, 
receive^ his Majesty's pardon on condition of 
emigi*^tion ; in consequence of which he has 
emigrated to France. At length, at the end of 
September, sailed. the principal armament froiji 
Brett, consisting of one ship of the line and 
eight frigates, haying on board, a» wa$ reported, 
four or five thousand soldiers, and destined for 
the coast fiff Donegal. Descried in their approach 
to that coast, on the 11th of October, by a 
Britidi: squadron, imder Sir John Borlase Warrei^ 
and overtaken the next mornings a desperate 
battle commenced, which continued • from half 
an hour after seven in the forenoon till etep^en, 
when the ship of the line, named the fHoche, ' 
was*" captured, and the frigates made sail to 
p^cape. In a running fight of. about five J^oufs, 



338 maroET of «i» 

three of di^e became prizes, and thjre# ^ftke» 
•fterwarda ; two only of the squadron escaping 
to France. 

A smaller fleet, destined toco-operate with Ae 
^bove, consisting of the three frigates which 
had before come with Humbert, carrying alahd** 
force of two thousand men- anchored in the bay 
of Killala on the 27th of October, but A the 
appearance of some British ships of war, madtf 
^il with precipitation for France, without l&nd« 
ing the troops, and escaped after a long diace. 
The commanders of these fortffes had orden tm 
send the bishop of Killala and his &mij(f pi^ 
soners to France, and, if they shouW meet wKit 
opposition in landing, to lay the town in ashes» 
The cause of this unmerited severity was an on- . 
founded opinion^ entertained by the French ad* 
ministrators, that the bishop had betrayed the 
town to the King's troops, together with a deposit 
of two hundred and eighty barrels of gunpowder, 
partly buried under a hot-bed hi his garden, partly 
in a vault in the haggard under a corn*stand. 
The po>frder could not tie concealed from the 
Xing*s o$cers, even if the bishop had thought 
it his duty to attem|»t it ; but itS' removal was 
anxiously wished, since the town with all its 
conltnts had three times been in daUrgeri^anni- 
hilalioB by the approach of fire to this terrible 
mass, the shock of whose explosion tofvist have 
had the most ruinous effect 



^ On botfd tke HocUe, in th^ actipn with a4- . 
miral Warren, was foiind Theolpald Wolfe Tone, 
Mrhose activity and talents Iwl contributed to 
giw life to a formidable conspiracy, which re- 
ceived a deadly wound by the miscarriage of the 
French arnutment, ^nd which can hardly be said 
t;o h^ve survived his fate. Tried by a court-* 
inprtiial in the cq)ital, lie rested his defence on 
h^ being a denizen of France, an officer in th& 
service of th9;t country,^ and pretended not ta 
deny the charge against him, nor even to excuse 
his political conduct. Found guilty, he requested 
th^ indulgence of being shot as a soldier, iiistead 
of being ignominiously hapged as a felon ; and> 
on the cefusal of this request, cut Im own throat 
, in the prison. The operation being incompletely 
performed^ hopes were entertained of his reco* 
yery ; and on the next moaning John Philpot 
Curran, Esq. the famous barrister, made a motioq 
in the court of King's Bench for a writ of habeas 
corpus in his favour, upon the ground that 
* courts-martial have no jurisdiction over subjecti^ 
ijiot in mUitary service while the court of King'9 
Bench is sitting.' After a full discussion of th9 
subject the plea was admitted; but, from th« 
c^piditiqu of Tone, his removal from priso% 
^cording to the writ, was deemed unsafe, and he 
shortly after died from the self-inflicted wound* 
Wiith the Jred^ctioin of the ravaging ba^ds it^ 



340 HISTORY OF THE 

the mountains of Wicklow, tinder Holt atic! 
Hacket, already mentioned, the last professed 
champions in arms of the united conspiracy, and 
with the death of Tone^ its chief original pro- 
jector, ended a rebellion, of which the deep atnd 
artful scheme demonstrated the ability, but thsr 
immediate consequences, the ignorance of its 
authors with respect to the instruments which 
they were obliged to employ. Since from ex- 
perience of this event civil wars in any part of 
Ireland, except some northern counties, must, 
from whatsoever causes excited, be justly ex- 
pected to stssume a religious complexion of th* 
most bloody hue. Irish protestants ought to be 
convinced that th^ political separation of their 
country from Britain by a popular insurrection • 
must involve their extinction, and that conse- 
quently an inf^angibly determined adherence to 
their British connexion is necessary for their 
safety. . Some extraordinary circum^stances, we 
must allow, restrained the insurgents of Con- 
iiaught from proceeding to religious murder; 
but doubtless, if they had continued much longer 
in power, agitators like Dixon of Wexfdrd 
would have pained an ascendency, and scenes oif 
blood would have succeeded those of devastatioii. 
Unhappily for themselves and their country, 
so iiiveterately rooted are the prejudices of re- 
Kgioik antipathy in the minds of the loM^er 






IRISH mEBELLIOV. iflk^ 

^Um& of Irish Homaniste, 4hai in any civil war, 
however originating from cause* unconnected 
with religion, not all the efforts of their gentry, 
or eveu priests, to the contrary, could, if I am 
not exceedingly mistaken, restrain them from 
converting it into a religious quarrel. This ge- 
neration at least must pass away before the re- 
ligious hatred, and notions of exclusive right to 
divine favour, deeply imbibed from, the clergy 
-of older times, could be removed, or in civil 
commotions be effectually restrained, by the 
clergy of the present time, supposing their wishes 
and efforts the most earnest and liberal. I shall 
quote from the judicious narrator of Killala what 
he has said concerning the Romish clergy of 
Irelan4, since he ha* expressed my ideas on the 
isubject better than I myself could. 

** What powerful motive could prevail on this 

'^ order of men. to lend their hearts and hands to 

** a revolution, which so manifestly threatened to 

" overwhelin their own credit and consequence, 

** supposing even that they were indifferent to 

/' the fate of that religion of which they pro- 

*^ fessed ihemselvesi to be the consecrated mi- 

/* nistgrs ? I will tell the reader what I conceive 

*^ tQ be the true key to this mystery, if I may 

. " have hi^ pardon for the digression. 

** The alsnost total depend^nqe of the clergy 
^^ of Ireland upo^i their peopk for the means of 
/< pb|j^teAC^ jy» tlte cau^^f»pi:dii)g tp my best 



S^ SISTOUr OF 1*8% 

"^jadgroent, vrhy upon every pq)ilar cottiMMioH 
^^ many wiests of that comHiunian have ^been, 
** and unfil tnea.^iires of better policy are adopted^ 
^^ always will be ^ound in l^e ranks of edition 
** and opposition to the established government. 
^* The peanant xcill Ime a reoolution because he 
*^ feels the weight of ptwertyt and has not ^en 
** the sense to perceive diat a change of nmsteff 
" nk^ render it heavier. The pricelt must folloifr 
'* the impulse of the popular wave, or be left 
^* behind on the beach to perish. There was ^ 
** time indeed, when stip<p^tition was of force to 
*^ n{^ld the credit and rev^ues of the church 
** of Rome, ev^n where convulsions shoofc tb 
^* pieces the fabric af civil govwntnait. But 
'^•the reign of ^perstiti«n is either |)&st or 
*' passing : at least, if it holds the ^lind of thfe 
** belieya*, it is not by many d^ees so effectual 
** as former^ to open lis jmrse. Holy <ffl, and 
^' indulgences, and absolutions, 4isrve fallen much 
*^ in their price ; confessions we, comporatrvely 
'^ speaking, unproductive ; and^ven the goWea 
*' mine of purgatory seems to be ruling to % 
*' thread. Voluntary contribution, wie moik 
*' itesourse cf the priest, must 4epe»id on hispo- 
*' pularity, * JLJve with me, atfd livfe as 4 do* 
^* Oppress me not witih superior leai^ning or re* 
'^ finement. T^e tbnkfully wfant { choowi to 
1* to give yoiH awl wrn ittiy comfimnct mi% 
;^^^y polkical^r^li «od>conihici' - Sii<ft^ ^l^ii 



tirtiH SBft^tfoir. Up 

-^justly translated, is the langm^e of the Irish 
** co^lagtr to his priest, tt is laiigu%e whidi 
** will be listened to w, proportion to the exigency 
*^ of 09 case^ A stordy moralist will do his 
*^duty in despite of penury. Admirable, and 
*' not to be looked for among the common herd 
*^ of maiUcind^ is the virtue which can withstand 
* the menace of absolute want of bread.^---The 
** rf!!iedy for this defect, in the present political 
•* system of Ireland, should seem to be as easy as 
** it is obvious. But it is not for a private in- 
f * dividual to suggest to our enlightened legiila^ 
** ture cither the time or the measure m which 
" i^ch a remedy ought to be applied."* 

Thou^ I think that the influence of the 
"Romish clergy in Ireland is at present insufficient 
ettiier to prcvcat or excite a rebellion of any 
moment, yet I rgoicie to find that government 
intends, by the provision of a decent mainte^ 
liiace, $o render this order of men independent 
4>f the larty, since this must augment in their 
<wn «yes, and those of others, the respectability 
#f their station, and may iodine them to con- 
•ibute, by the adoption of a more liberal plan 
of conduct, to the removal of ^o^uncfiristiati 
Sentiments of religious intoler«tiee, and ihost 
)plind attachments in their 'followers to foreign 
p^wsesMn preference to tfce Britisb gov©iam«(^ 

m < H iii j gi H| ka^ f.§$^ too. 



M^ .fiisTfitc^MVF mn 

to which toufces are in great measure: to" be at* 
tributed the poVerty and misery of their cipwatiy. 
Of the miseiies occasioned to Irish Romanists 
by these causes, a hideous catalogue ii%ht be 
easily collected from the authenticteeords of 
this island. 

Relying on the protection of the pope and of 
Spain, great numbers rose in arms againsfttbe 
'government of Elizabeth, and long mfiintained 
A war against that princess, till reduced in 
^repgth and numbers by unutterable calamities, 
tlie consequences of the war, or, as Sir John 
£>avJHi Jaas expressed it, " brayed, as it were, in 
** a mortar, with sword, famine, and i^stil^nce 
'** t^^tber,'' the miserable remnant fell an un- 
iresisting prey to the conquerors^ notwithstand* 
ing Spanish and Italian succours. > The ghastly 
ibrms of death by which many thousands pe» 
Tisbed, and great part of the country was wastedji 
would furnish mournful matter for mai|^ P^SSh 
^^ No spectacle,'* says Morrisson, in his history of 
Ireland, " was more frequent in the ditches qf 
** tpwnsi^ and especially in wasted countries 
/-* than tO; s^e multitudes of thfse poor people 
y deac^ with ti^r mouths all coloured green by 
/< aiiting.net^le^ docks, and alUhingsJ;hey coul4 
* * rend i^ above gr^upd. " . Many to appease t^ 
rage of hunger- dev(^e4 humab ^i|fge^ ^f 
which a horrid instance was witnessed by Sir 
Arthur Chiabe^tfri^ ^W. B\9tU^ JE^rrisson, 4^d 



. *#ther bfficfiis of the queen's f roops, iyhq beheld 

4hree children^ the eldest of whom was not above 

ten jea«s of age, in the act of eating the flesh 

rof thfir deofased. mother ! with circumstances 

too shocking for a patticular statement here."* , 

A like desolation, with scenes of death by 
plague and outrageous famine, followed in iti 
icoitrse tlw rebellion of 1641. ** About the year 
** 1652 and 1653," says an author, who was aa 
ocular witness of the state of things, ^' the 
:^^ plague and famine had so swept away .whole 
" counties, that a man might travel twenty or 
^^ thirty miles, and not see a living creature. 
*^ Our soldiers would tell stories of the places 
,** where they saw a smoke; it was rare to see 
'^either smoke by day, or iire or candle by 
,** night; and when we did meet with tlvo or 
^^. three poor cabins, none but very aged men, 
'^ and women and children (and these with the 
" prophet might have complained, * we are be- 
*^ come as a bottle in the smoke, our skin is 
^^ black like an oven, because of the terrible fa- 
** mine') were found in them. I have seen those 
" miserable creatnres plucking stinking carrion 
*' out of a ditch, black ^d rotten ; and have 
V been credibly informed that they digged 
/'corpses out of the grave to eat." He then 
"inforws us of an officer, who with a party of 

t L^ 4a&Miiv<b'fUttoiy of Irelana, p. 271 . folio. 



1S^6 HisTdRT dF ms 

in^n found in the night a ruined cabin^ ^* wba%' 
^ they saw a great fire of wood, and a compan jr 
*^ of niiseraJ)le old women and children sitting 
'^ round about it, and betwixt the» and d)e fiie 
M a dead corpse lay broiling, which as the fire 
" roasted they cut off collops and eat."* 

Similar scenes of desofaition and famine would 
have doubtless followed the rebellion of 179^^ ^ 
by a concurrence of lucky incidents its exten- 
sion and continuance had not been pflsvented* 
At this prevention the Romanists of Ireland 
would surely rejoice, if matters were by them 
vie^Td in a clear and pure ligiit Supposing the 
insurrection completely successftil in Leinster^ 
Munster, and Connaught, how formidable aa 
opposition was to be expected ''from the pro- 
test^its of Ulster, aided by British fordes, whem 
the war was once known to be decidedly re- 
ligious? Happily intelligence of the religious 
insanity exhibited 1^ the southerns was vecefred 
soon enough in the north to prevent commotions 
of any moment in favour of rebellion in that 
<iuarter. Supposing all Ireland reduced under 
the power of the insui^ents, the British Ibrcei 
expelled, and the protestants exterminated by 
death or exile, was no discord with probability 
to he expected among the various bodies of tn^ 
surgeots^ which might Avour tht retium aaj^ 

* Col. Lamrce'8 Inlei^ of fteUnl^ ficck f^i^hllt S74 * 



. --1 
K 



hmcce^B^l progress of Britfsh armies? The very 
4figli prolMibility of such discard is evinced by 
^experience in die evaits of times pa^t, in the 
<»vil wars of this unhappily often distracted 
ooiintry. 

Thus i?hen O'NiaJ, earl of Tyrone, in the 
#eign of queen Elizabeth, flushed with temporary 
f uc6fss, conceived strong hopes of being able 
to effectuate a separation of Ixeland from th6 
£nf^lish doQiinion, he and his followers were 
itaable to conceal the design which they en- 
tertained, of exterminatitig all in this kingdom 
of English race, not excq>ting Romanists — not 
even those who were fighting under his own 
iianners against the protestant government 
What disctird must, not such a spirit produce if 
the terror of the queen's arois had once been 
iccnnplfetely, or even nearly removed? The same 
apirit revived widi such force in the time of 
Charles I. when due €xpectation$ of the Imll 
A^maniats nn high in the prevalence df their 
|K>we», ihat their armies were ready to turn thek 
fwords one against another^ notwithstandingthat 
the isiu6 of their contest with the protestant 
l^arty was iliU uncertain. '^ TbJt insolence of 
^* the followers of Owen O'Nial/' sajrs an au* 
Awfic hi^ria'fi, " who conld inot conceal tlie 
^ the pride and prejudices ()f their ancientdescerit, 
" and claimed the whole island as the pioperty 
"l^ of the old Irish| filled l3ie confederates with 



348 BIdTOAT OF THir 

'* fears and discontents. Those of Leinstir, anff 
** all the catholics of English race, dreaded tsa^ 
" tirpation from these savages. So that the body 
** of Irish insurgents, who had given such corns 
*^ sequence and such dignity to their originil 
** conspiracy, who had extorted the most abject 
'* condescensioas from the king, and prescribe^ 
*^ law to his lieuten^t, was now on the pom^ * 
*^ of breaking into virulent factions^ end <Je* 
*^ daring desperate war against each other."* | 
The distinction indeed between Irish of ain)- 
riginal and English descent is, from the blendiiig* 
of the races, long since lost, as Dr. Duigenan, 
in his most excellent pamphlet aheady noticedi 
has observed, and as I also have observed i|fc 
another work if but would not other causes of 
jealousy and dissension have arisen, and encreased 
with the prospect of success, among rival chiefs 
'and rival armies, when, even in the recent it- 
BUrrection, a private enmity betweai two chieft 
of the Wexfordian insurgents prevented titf . 
.seizure of Ross^ and a most dangeroui ifecteaf 
sion of the rebellion to the counties of WateFfc 
ford and Kilkenny r:|: Supposing a. most im-' 
probable continuance of concord,- tegcther witlp 

. * Ldaod's history of Ireland, book v. ch^. 5K Alirr.1ia>k% 
chap. 3, Also Cartels Onnoiid, vol, L p. 589. 

t Gordon'* Teriaquea, voL ui.,p. 323^ 323. ^ . 

X See page 141 of tUw wprk.' ^ *. ^ 



^ complete elkpiilsion of the British power, what 
rueful havoc might be expected from Britii^h ar- 
maments, hovering round the coast, and seizing 
;«very favourable importunity of descent ? The 

"■•laritime towns might be laid in rubbish ; and 
^tmies,^ occasioHally debiyrking in various partt 
rf the blockaded island, might carfy devastation 
Air into the country, and le-cmbark, before suf- 
€cient bodies of troops could be collected at the 
neamziy points to attack them with eficct 
After diiea$e and fistmine should so desolate th^ 
land that another Sir William Petty might 
• calculate its population at eleven hundred thou- 
mud, the government of France, in a treaty o^ 
peace with that of Britain, would prdbably, i£ 
even French armies were in possession of the 
country, relinquish Ireland for the restitution of 
the Fren^ settlements in the East and West 
Indies, and other valuable considerations. Thui 
might the remnant of those Irish, who had given 
cause for the desolation of their country, in their 

' attempts to accomplish its political separation 
? from Britain, be reduced to the alternative of 
migrating with the French troops, or of re- 
maining exposed to the vengeance of the British 
government at home. 

In May 1798, a little beforp the eruption of 
fhe rebellion, I wrote an Address to the Men of 
Ireland, calculated to the best of my knowledge, 
to dissuade the .United Irish froni the pursuit of 



S$0 HTStOltY Of fMft 

tiietr dtftigB, by Ffpiesentkig, ai mU M ^ 
coojecturey th^ probable consequcneeft of tljcij^* 
attempt, tomeof whkh have since liteia)]ytok(iif 
place. I Vas emboldened to hope for flomf siMtt^ 
suceess in that publication^ by my having reMQUr 
to thiok that I had, by the namm arguments itt . 
private ccoivetsation, induced a few to abendbti 
aU connexion with the united society. But^ a^t 
in the introductory part of the address^ I e^ 
peaficd, though in gentle terms, my di^appro^i^' 
bation of the conduct of the Botirh minii^, 
in having precipitately, as I thought, iavoIvqA: 
the nation in a war with France, the eomluctaiM^ 
of newspapers wei^ afVaid to insert it, so iiiritaU% 
and so arbitrary did they seem to conceive th# 
members of administration at that time to be* 
A bookseller, who was pleased with the argii^ 
ments, printed a few copies to distribute wiong 
his iriends, but would not publish for the above 
reasons. This appeared to me a moit wretche^p 
compliment to government, a compliment of 
which I should be nK>st h^rtily Aoriy to thiok ' 
it wK>rthy, that a writer could not safely pubUife 
arguments to dissuade his fellow-subjects ftov^ 
irebellion, without writing in such a manner nm 
to render his arguments of no effect, by givin|^ 
cause to suspect that he was either a servik tool- 
of administration, or a despicably blind follow€|ii^ 
of its politics. Of nr^aking such a complimen^K 
1 hope 1 shall ever £ind myself ii^capabllk'' %k^ 



tElMI ftSl^lLU«Ni ail 

,jiiaiiirtg|iitiott of my feeing a decked Iriesd to 
genuine liberty^ and no admirer in general of the 
foieipx politics af ministers^ was what had givea^ 
height to«)y arguments in private conversation. 
,« S^hi^ evil consequences qf this rebeUioQ^ san|$ 
of which were predicted^ and more could have 
Ibaen i^redict^, in tbe above-mentioned address^ 
were, notwithstanding the small extent and du^^ 
Wticm of armed opposition to government^ too 
IHmyio be distinctly particularis«i^ Tothegenenit 
mass of eyik, of some of which a faint idea m^ 
be formedYrom the foregoing pages, a corruptioo 
o£ morals in the disturbed parts made a lament- 
^e addition. To dwell an the sad propensity 
41 esiortion, cheating,, pilfering, and robbipj^ 
acquired- or encouraged by a temporary disso-» 
l^ticm of civil government ; on the practice of 
pejjury and bribery in the accusation and defence 
of real or supposed criminals ; and of perjury in 

taihis of^losses, even by persons who might well 
^supposed superior to such meanness, laying aside 
re%ious considerations, would be attended with 
gftOie pain thaii utility. Even dissipation, whii^ 
lyight reasoiiably be expected to be checked by 
0^ calamities attendant on this cruel commotion^ 
m^Hied to revive with augmented force on the 
IMriitiding of the insurrection. Collected m 
19, in the foUowing winter, many of the lower 
of loyalists sptot the days in drunkenness^ 
anA fl^ superiors tllie ni^hta in latesuppersand 



SSi HlSTOflt dt fhE* w 

noteus conviviatity. One good consequoiii|;il>Ni 
however, of their assembling in towns was the*-- 
promotion of matrimony. Young pebplf of the* 
two sexes being brought together, #ho migh# 
otherwise hav^ remained unacquainted oti^ witi^. 
another, an extraordinary number of n^rriagei* . 
took place, as if Providence intraded thus t«^ 
repair the waste of civil war. . * 

A consequence of immensely greater and.more* 
ipeneral importaiiee resulted from the experi^&fri^ 
of misery in our civil distractions, . and a scnsd*- 
of the danger which we providentially ^caped^ 
of still far greater misery ; a consequence, I sii^ 
eerely hope, of such utility as may prove w^ 
worth its purchase by all the oJanwties UPbkA 
our island has suffered by a short-lived and locaf 
rebellion. A legislative union of Britain an^ 
* Ireland, or a political incorporation of the two 
kingdomsintoone, an incorporation which might 
remove the baneful jealousies arising^ from n^ 
tiooal distincT:ness, the danger of a fatal rup* 
ture of the political connexion of the two islands, 
and the great inconvenience of a iystem of tw# 
distinct legislatures nominally independent ea€|j| 
i>f the other, but one of them practically in suMl^ 
jection to the other, had -long beenirishe#]9 
some reflecting men among the Irish, vho frit 
ferred the substantial interests of Ireland, mt^ 
of the British empire in geiftral, to the grati% 
cation of strangely mi^^akw national pri^^^ipd 



^ IEI8H" REBELLION; 555* 

Jjetty personal and local advantages. But so 
odious was the measure to multitudes, whose 
"pride or privatfe interest^ teal or imaginary, was 
engaged^ that it could not with the smallest 
probability of success be proposed, until pre- 
judice was in some degree overcome by the ca*' 
laraitieis and dangers of the rebellion* The con- 
sideration of the important subject was recom-> 
mended by his majesty to the British and Irisk 
parliaments in the beginning of the year 1799% 
and in order to give ample time for reflection,' 
thfe actual proposal of the question was deferred 
|b the following year, the last of the (eighteenth 
century, when it passed into a law with (in the 
*trislt house) a furious but feeble opposition* 

Partial inconveniences must doubtless arise 

^rom so great a change in the state of Ireland* 

Even in iny own order, we must expect more 

numerous instances than ever of the preference 

vf Englishmen to natives of superior merit, ia 

the disposal of ecclesiastical benefices* Though 

I should heartily wish the matter otherwise, yet 

I ought not, by such a consideration, to be in 

the least influenced against a measure; which, 

■ by a concentration of all !he legislative powers 

*of Ihe British empire, promises concord, stren^tli, 

" and stability to the whole. When, by the natural 

"^cOurse of events, the great continental powers 

•of Europe are growing into enormous magnitude 

by ^tht absorption of the weaker states, whathave 

A a 



S54' ' HISTOIIT OF THE 

the British islands to preserve their independen'cft, 
butl:heir aqueous barriers, firm union at home^ 
and' a wholesome system of government, pro*' 
motive particularly of agriculture, the greal 
source of national wealth for the maintenance ol" 
fleets and armies ? 

- Much work indeed is left for the imperial par* 
liament, to attach the mass of the Irish peasantiy 
to the constitution. Thi§ cannot be effected so 
long as the peasants are .physically miserable. la 
my humble opinion, those taxes ought to be 
abolished which fall heavily on this description 
of men. Since the rents of lands, which are iM 
general dreadfully severe on the irish r^asant^^,^ 
cannot be limited by law, long tenures ought to 
be enacted, which might encourage them to im- 
prove their grounds, so as to rise into a more * 
comfoi/table condition, ^nd augment at the same 
time the national riches. I should ako wish a 
feir and equitable commutation of tithes, or sucly 
modification of them as would relieve the in- 
dustrious cultivator, by obliging the Ikzy grazier, 
and the idle esquire, to bear a. just proportion of 
the burthen. These hints may appear presump- 
tuous from an obscuii^ individual; but I Conceive 
it to be tlie duty of every writer,, who on'reflecy 
tion is strongly biassed in favour of the utility 
of a n>easure for the welfare of his country, fa"*" 
give his opinion freely to the public. That some * 
defects must have existed in tlie system ttf^\kt, 



t should think, appear from the 3ii$tutbances 
which have had place at several times among the 
peasants of Irelafad ; as the open, yet almost 
bloodless insurteetion of men stilitig themselves 
fftaffs of&ak, ih the yeat 1763, in the counties 
of Armagh, Tyrone, and Delrry— mten of all 
sects of religion indiscrimiiiWely ; the motef 
Mbxidy ItisurrectiOn of the Itearts of Steely tcti 
years afterwards, in the counties of Antrim atid 
Defry, mostly protestatits, irritated to violence 
by exactions of rents and fines of leases oh the 
estate of the earl of Donegal ; and the rioctuf iial 
outrages committed many years in the south by 
the tVhiteboySy particularly in thfe counties bt 
Tipperary and Itil|cenny. Neither is emigration 
to America, from an island whicli could easily 
maintain double the number of its present inha- 
bitants by a due cultivation and improve'nlfent of 
its lands, a Very favourable symptom. VVhat 
reveiiue might Ireland contribute /6r the support 
of the British potver under proper encourage* 
ments of industry, when under many discourage- 
ments her annual revenue to the crown has risen 
fVom less than ten thou^ml pounds, in the 
fourteenth century,* to near six millions, or/six 
hundred fold, at the close of the eighteenth ? 

One of the happiest consequences reasonably 
edfcpeqted to arise, in course of time, from the 

* Ldand-s history of Ireland, book it. ditpr 5, 



356' HISTORY OF THi 

abolition of our national distinctness, the re* 
moval of our local parliament^ and its incorpo- 
ration with that of Britain, is the subsidence of 
that ran coroub $pirit of. religious animosity, 
which has been the parent of so much mischief 
to this island. We hope, as the measure cannot 
now be attended with any danger, to see shortly 
so completean emancipation of the catholics, that 
modes of metaphysical credence shall no longer 
be a barrier against political capacity and civil 
right. This subject is well worthy of considera- 
tion in the imperial parliainent, where, doubtless, 
as in a truly protestaAt assembly, the question 
will be decided in the spirit of liberality, justice, 
and true policy ; over-ruling by an august deter- 
mination the ominous croakings of little bigots ; 
men, who, to retain a monopoly of po^er, scru- 
pled not, in the public legislature, to traduce 
the conduct and character of their countrymen.* 
Such a measure would most powerfully tend to 
the gradual extinction of religious animosity 
and local faction : but so violently are the miUids 
of men prejudiced at present by the rage of civil 
and religious dissension, that a candid narration , 

* A returning spirit of regulated liberty has already, not* 
withstanding the spasmodic struggles of a dart and inveterate 
faction, ejected from ,the representation of his country a man, 
who, at a distance from detection/ in his capacity of imperial 
senator, uttered without shame what he well knew to be coa-^ 
trary to the truth. 



IRISH REBELLiOK. 557 

©f Irish affairs for some years past must inevit- 
^Ji^tygiveoiFenceto every party, and the narrator, 
ia the words of no mean historian, ** must be 
*^ armed against censure only by an integrity 
** which* confines him to truth, and a literary 
** dourage which despises every charge but that 
*^ of wilful or careless misrepresentation.'^* To 
this little work I must expect contradictory ob- 
jections far more acrimonious than those which 
have .been made to my former, composed on a 
subject little interesting to the passions of ad* 
verse factions — Terraquea^ or a System of^ Geo* 
graphy and Modern History. 

To the Terraquea some wise heads have ob- 
jected, that it is a compilation from other 
writers, as truly it is from some hundreds. 1 
am sorry that the same objection inevitably lies 
against this little history also, the sphere of 
which is so extremely narrow in comparison of 
that of the other. Since unfortunately I could 
find no supernatural means of either being 
present in all the scenes of action, nor of 
having those actions revealed to me by spiri- 
tual vision or otherwise, I was obliged to have 
recourse to the vulgar mode of compilation; 
and have accordingly compiled from such oral, 
manuscript, and even printed, information, as I 
could procure on the subject To discern and 

^ ^ Leland's history of Ireland, prel. discourse, p. 3* 



S5a HISTORY OF THB 

select the true st^tc of facts from these *tna^ 
terials, was not found void of difficulty. In tea 
or twelve accounts of th^ same action, J have 
found »<? two to agree, except in a few points ; 
and I am porry tp 3ay, that even coptr94iC^tary 
affidavitp might be procured in lameijitable plenty; 
P^it how far sopvcr objectors may coijtmdict one 
another with respect to my statement of facte, 
they will probably all agree with respect to nay 
f tile. That of the Terraquea has by some h^xk 
pronounced too high for the subject ; by qthcxs 
too low ^nd jejune* Which of the two sorts of 
objectors has judged rightly in this ca^e, I cannot 
pretend to determine ; but I am much incUued 
to the opinion of a gi^ntleman who said, that of 
the two he thought 'the fomier less actuate by 
enyy or malignity than the latter. In the stile 
ipf this local history, J feel myself perfectly se- 
cure from the former species of qritics, 43 its 
humility is unquestionable. Serpit humh tutus 
nimium timidusque procelke. 

In my statement of facts I shall be accused as 
a favourer of loyalists and rebels, of orangemen 
^nd croppies, of heretics and papists ; and I must 
acknowledge, not withoyt some justice, ^ I love 
my . countrymen of every sect and party, and 
most heartily wish them to act in p, Hi4nn*r the 
most conducive to their owi\ happiness, tp pqlr 
tivate Christian charity and friendship q^mong 
themselvea, and with the" inhabitants of' their 



great sister island, tlitir feUpw-subj^cts ttnd na* 
tura! associates. 

WTiatever may have been my feelings for the 
sufiwings of others, I hope they have no wher^ 
caused me to swerve from the line of truth; 
With respect to myself they ought not to be 
very acute, as I sustained no other loss, I fer- 
vently thank God, than that of property. Though 
my three yoimgest children • fell into the hands 
of the rebelS) they received no injury; and 
though my two eldest sons were engaged as 
yeomen against the Wexfordian rebels in sevefral 

-most dangerous conflicts, they escaped without 
a wound. One part, indeed, of my loss of pro- 
perty was grievous— books, which I cannot for 
a time replace, necessary for the finishing of my 
historico-geographical work ; and manuscripts 
which never can be replaced, particularly that 

.«f a history of the British islands, which I had 
garried near its conclusion, and in which I had 
paid extraordinary attention to stile and arrange- 
ment. -—But, though I am not sensible of mis- 
xepresentation through resentment or prejudice, 
9^nd have stated the facts to the best of my 
jiidgment, yet many involuntary errors may be 
found in the foregoing pages ; and to any 
persons who shall have convincingly corrected 
them, whether in a decorous or acrimonious 
lAojkXitt, I shall acknowledge my obligation ; 
but of unfounded censure, or declamatory non- 



3^ HISTORY 6T the IRI5H REBELLIOy* 

i^nse^ I hope! shall not so debase myself u ta 
take any notice; but treat its authors, |is I 
5muld, in similar circumstances, the loquacious 
females of the fish-market^ with a contemptuous 
silence. 






APPENDIX^ 



r . I ■ 

jbumwolfs to the commander of the gae* 
ihjon of boss, 

Sib, , 

As a friend to humanity^ Irequerfrybu 
will surrender the town of Ross to the Wexford 
forces, now assertibled against that town. Your 
resistance will but provoke rapine and plunder to 
the ruin of the most innocent. Flushed with 
victory, the Wexford forces, now innuraerabte 
^d irresistible, will not be controule^ if they 
meet with resistance. To prevent, therefore^ the 
total xuin of all property id the town, I urge 
you to a speedy surrender, which you ^ill be 
forced to in a fewhoiu-s, with loss and bloodshec^. 
^ yon are surrounded on all sides. Your an^wqr 
is refluired in four hours. Mr. Furlong carries 
tji^is letter, ^nd will bring the answer. 
Jam, Sir, ^ 

B.B. HARVEY, 
Camp ait Corbet-hill, balf Geqeral, ^ommandixigy Sec. &c« 

pastthrfeQ'ctodc,mofi^ . 

lug, Jufl^5, 1?98,' ' / 



362 APPENDIX, NO. I* 

« 

GENERAL ORDERS ISSUER IN CONSEQUENCE 
OF THE DEFEAT AT ROSS, AND THE MASSA- 
CRE AT SCULLA«oi&UE. 

At a meeting of the general and several officers 
of the united army of the county of Wex- 
ford, the following resolutions were agreed 
upon : 

Resolved, that the commander-in-chief shall 
semd guards to certain baronies, for the purpose 
of bringing in all men they shall find loitering 
and delaying at home, or elsewhere ; and if any 
re&i^nce be given to thos6 guards, so to be sent 
by the commanding officer's orders, it is our 
des!re and orders, that such persons so giving 
resistance shall be liable to be put to death by the 
guards, who are to bear a commilssion for that 
purpose ; and all such persons found to, be sq 
loitering and delaying at home, when brought 
in by the guards, shall be tried by a court-^ 
martial, appointed and chosen from among the 
commanders of all the different corps, ancf b& 
ppnisb^ with deatli. 

Resolved, that all officers shall immediately 
xfpair to their respective quarters, and remain 
with their different corps, and not to depart 
therefrom under pain of death, unless authorised 
to quit by written orders from the commander* 
in-chief for that purpose. ' 

It is also ordered, that a gua^d sh^ll^be kept 



AI»1»BN^I>IX, THO. J. 363 

in the rear of the different annie«, with orders 
to shoot all personji who shaU fly or desert from 
any engagement ; and that these Orders shall be 
t^ea notice of by all officers commandilig such 
engagement. 

All men refusing to obey their superior officers^ 
to be tried by a court-martial, and punished ac- . 
cording to their sentence. , ' 

It is also ordered, that all men who shall at* 
tempt to leave their respective quarters when 
they hav€ been halted by the commander-in- 
chief, ■ shall suffer death, unless they shall have 
leave from their officers for so dorng. 

It is ordered by the commander-in-chief, that 
all j^ersons who have ' stolen or taken away any 
horse or hordes, shaU immediately bring in all 
such horses to the camp, at head quarters; other^ 
wise for any horse that shall be $een or found 
in the possession of any person to ^hom hedoe:^ 
not belong, that person shall, on being cou- 
vicied thereof suffer death : 

And ^ny goods that shall have been plun-^" 
dered from any house, if not brought into head 
quarters, or returned immediately to the hcmse$ 
or owners, that all persons sq plundering as 
aforesaid, shall, on being convicted thereof, 
suffer death. 

It is ftlsQ resolved, that any person or persona 
who iiid^H take upon them to kill or murder an^ 
person or prisoner,, bum any house, or coaimil 



!3B% APPEKDIX, NO. V 

any plunder, without special written. or dersftonai 
the conunander-in-chief, shall suffer death.. 
By order of 
B. B. HARVEY, Commander-in-chief, ' 
FRANCIS BREEN, Sec. and Adj. 

Ifead-^qiiarteifs, Carriclbum 
.pamp, June^, 1798. . 



For the ^ame purpose was issued the foUawing 
proclamation, . 

TO THE PEOPI.E OF IRELA?:D, 

Countrymen and fellow-soldiers ! 

Youji patriotic exertions in the cauje of 
your country have hitherto exceeded your mo3t 
sanguine expi^ctations^ and in a short time must 
ultimately be crowned with success. Liberty 
has raised her drooping head ; thousands daily 
flock to her standard : the voice of hct children 
every where prevails. Let us then, in the mo- 
ment of triumph, return thanks to the Almighty 
Ruler of the Universe, that a total stop has hfcefl 
ptit to those sanguinary measures yhicfc of late 
were but too often resorted to by the creatures of 
government, to keep the people in slavery. 

Nothing now, my countrymen, appears neces-^ 
sary to secure the conquests you have so bravely 
won, but an implicit obedience to the commands 
6f your chiefs ; for, through a want of proper 
subordination and discipline, all may be endai^ 
gerad^ . ^ . . , 



At this evcntfiil period, all Europe liitlst; 
srintire, and posterity will read with astopish- 
ment, the heroic acts, achieved by people stran- 
ger to military tactics, and having few profes- 
sional commanders : but what power can resist 
men fighting for liberty ! 

In the moment of ti-iumph, my countrymen, 
let not your victories be tarnished with any 
wanton act of cruelty : many of those unfortu-^ 
nate men noAv in prison were not your enemies 
from principle; most of them, compelled by 
necessity, were obliged to oppo^ you : neither 
let a difference in religious sentiments cause a 
difference among the people. Recur to the 
debates in 4:he Irish house of lords of the 15th 
of February last; you will there see a patriotic 
and enlightened protestant bishop, with manly 
eloquence, pleading for catholic emancipation 
and parliamentary reform, in opposition to the 
haughty arguments of the lord chancellor, 
and the powerful opposition of his fellow- 
courtiers. 

•To promote a union of brotherhood and 
affection among our countrymen of all religioua 
persuasions has been our principal object: we 
have sworn in the most solemn manner, have 
associated for this laudable purpose, and no 
power on earth shall shake our resolution. 

To my protestant soldiers, I feel much in* 



i6S JkfPtSDtlt, NO. R 

ithttd for their gallant behAvidtir in the field, 
where they exhibited signal proofs of bravery irf 
the cause. 

EDWARD ROCHE/ 

Wexford, June 7% |798. 



These orders and. proclamations wercrtfin. 
The following is a letter from Bagensl HsLVvtf 
to Mr. Francis Glasscott, who had written M 
him for his protection. "^ 

DEAR SIR, 

I RECEIVED your letter J but wfiat to 
do for you I know not. I from my heart ^i^h 
to protect all property ; I can scarce protect 
myself; and indeed my situation is nrucii to brf 
pitied, and distressing to myself. I tSok mf 
present situation in hopes of doing good, and 
preventing mischief, my trust is in Providence i 
I acted always an honest disinterested part ; ajfld 
had my advice been taken by those in powerj 
the present mischief would never have arisen. 
If I can retire to a private station again, I will 
immediately. Mr. Tottenham's refusing to 
$peak to the gejitleman I sent into Ross, wHb 
was madly shot by the soldiers, was Very uiifor-* 
tunate : it has set the people mad with rage, and 
there is no restraining them. The person I sent 
in had private instructions to propose a reco©» 
ciliation; but God knows where this business 



will end ; but Hbd how it will, the good men of 
Ikrtb parties will be inevitably ruined. 

I am, with respect, yours, &c. kt. 
June 8th, 1798- B.B. HARVEY. 

How far the shooting of- men, bearing flags 
of truce, without orders frpm the commanding 
officer, may be consistent with strict military - 
discipline, I shall not pretend to judge; but 
certainly, a relaxation of discipline in the army 
was a matter on which the rebels had been 
instructed to rely forsuccess, previously to the 
insurrection^ by th|C chiefs of the conspiracy. 
. The following oathsj ordered to be "ndminis^ 
tered topriva^tes^and officers among the rebels^ 
proved as unavailing for the establishmenjt of 
discipline among them, as the orders and |>rocla^ 
xnations of their generals* 

■ OATH OF A PRIVATE. 

I, * *, do solemnly and siocerely swear, and 
take God, and his only son, our Lord Jesus 
Ckrist, to witness, that I will at all times be 
obedient to the commands of my officers ; that 
I am ready to lay down my life jfor the good of 
my country ; that I have an aversion to plunder, 
and to the spilling.of innocent blood ; that I 
will^ fight courageously in the field, and have 
mercy where it can be given ; that I will avoid 
drunkenness, tending to disorder and ruin ; that 



8^8 A^PENi>iiK, ik<>.\ii 

I will endeavour to loake as wasy frieinfe a^daf 
few enemi^, as possible ; that above alH de4^ 
a coward, and that I will look upon him as sia 
enemy^ w^o will stand back in the time ':of 
battle* — iSo help me God I 



t>XTn OKDEREt> TO BE ADMlNISt'isitED TO 

OFFtCfiRS. ' ' ^ 

/ • ■ * 

In the awful presence of God, who knows the? ' 
heart and thoughts of all men, and calling my 
country to witness, I, * * officer in * * do 
solemnly swear, that I do not consider my life 
my own, when my country demands it; tTiatl 
consider that the present moment calls for a 
proof of jthe sincerity of that sentiment, and t 
iam ready and desirous to stand the test ; and I 
do avcf, that I am determined to die, or lead W 
victory ; and that all my actions shall be directed 
to the prcKperity of the common cause, unin- 
fluenced by any inferior motive ; and I further 
declare my utter aversion to all alarmists, union- 
breaker^, and cowards, arid my respect and 
obedience to the coqimands of superior officers. 
f—So help me God J 

By order of the council, - 

B. B. HARVEY, President. 
NICHOLAS GREY, Sec; 

. Done at the council-chamber^ " 

Wexford, JuQe, 14, 1798* 



APPZN-DIX, NO. II. S69 

NUMBER IT. 

3E3tTIlACT FROM THE TRIAL OF WILLIAIM 
iENLON : COURT-MARTIAL AT WEXFORD, 

s£PT. 12, 1799. 

Mary Hall, staorn, 

Says, that on the morning of the* 14th of 
June, in' the rebellion, she sent her son with 
s6ni€ tea to her husband, who was tlxe night 
before a prisoner with the rebels in Mr. Bayle's 
barn ; that soon after her son returned, and told 
her that his father begged she would go up 
directly, for he had been taken to Vinegar- 
hill, and put into the mill, and was in fear of 
being immediately put to death ; that she did 
g6 lip, when her husband told her he was to be 
put to death ; and^ the prisoner then coming 
up, her husband said, ^' that's the man will kill 
**me. Bill Fenlon, the nailor." The prisoner 
Fenlon then caihe into the mill^^and desired her 
husband to come out. Witness immediately 
asked prisoner if he would not give her husband^ 
a trial. Prisoner said he would, but that Daii 
Flaherty, (a man "who had sworn agpunst her 
husband) should ^y him. Witness auswered^ 
she wals contented, so he was tried, and begged 
he would have commpassion on her and her ten 
children. The prisoner then said with aii oath, 
that he would shoot him first, and try him after^ 

Bb 



^70 ATPENDIX, NO. If. 

wards. Prisoner- then-torel^er husband out o€ 
her arms, and placed sentries on each d9or ta 
keep her within. In. some time after, witness 
heard a shot, and forced her way out of the 
door, where she saw the rebels dragging a body . 
by the heels. The pfiso^ier M^as there with a 
'^bluiiderbuss and an officer's &ash, Tlve body 
they were dragging, she fourt^^ y(m Jier bus- 
4xinfd*s. She took the body in her arms. During 
this' time it thundered violently, with much 
jjightving. The rebels fell on their kfiees, and 
.blessed themselves. S<Hne of them desired her to 
lilirow tjie.body of her husband away, and bless 
herself. Th6y then asked her what w^s the 
reason of the thiOfider? She -answered, that God 
.was angry, at their acts. ^' No, you w — ^'\ 
replic^dthey, ;** G^l sounds the horn^of joy that 
*^y^n orangepian is killed." Her busbsmd theq, 
whom she ffid thought ^ead, stretched out hia 
ftdt, and turned: to her/ and sai4, *' Molly, i&y 
''^aj-, tak« ^e from these people," amd tlien 
txpircsd.; :The }K>dy ofher.Jiusband w^i^ blaek,'a§ 
if from the stripes of a qat-o'nine-taib, and ^ 
mark of a bullet that entered his breast and oame 
oufc^t.hi&shbuldlej:: The rebels, among whom: was 
the prisoner, re^u^cjd to 1^ hj?r take the body, biU; 
witi«fts declared ^he would not leave it. Xbey 
^id they vwld. not kill her. as 8fbe was with 
dji&ti.awi-^.slipuld feave a christian, wbidh 



APPENDIX, NO. II. 571 

she never had before ; but if she was so fond of 
a dead husband, Ihey would cut him into pound 
pieces, and put him into her skirts. 

EXTRA'CTFROMTHETlilALOFJOHNHAUGHRAN. 

Sarah Smithy sworn^ 
Says, that on the 3d day of June, in the rebel- 
lion, a party of rebels came to her house at Salt- 
mills, RearTintern. That the prisoner was one 
of the party, and seemed to witness to be their 
leader. They asked for her husband, She told 
them he was not at home. They then passed 
,lier door, but the prisoner stopped them, anfi 
.prdercd them to go into the house and try. They 
.went in^ ajad brought out her husband, whom 
they left guarded, while they went to search for 
another protestant family. On their coming 
back, witness begged they would permit her 
husband to stop and get his breakfast j but the 
prisoner said he should not stay; and gave 
orders that he and all the protestants they could 
.find that day should be brought toScullabogue— 
There were twenty-four young and old, of the 
parish of Tintern, sent there, and murdered on 
5th of June, among whom was the husband^ 
the brother, sister, and niece, of the witness. 
Witness received several orders from the prisoner 
relative to distributing milk, and never knew any 
one in command at Tintern except the prisoner. 
Once, on a complaint being made against her. 



372 APPENDIX, NO. II. , 

she went to the prisoner to know what she 
should do, who desired her to distribute the 
milk to the rebels every morning as far as it 
WOUI4 go. When the account came to Tintern 
of the murders at ScuUabogue, the widows and 
relatives of those that were murdered got together, 
and werfe lamenting in the street, when the pri- 
soner came up to witness and said, if he heard 
any nlore of it, he would collect us all together, 
and-jsend us after our husbands, A few days 
after, the prisoner gave a pass to witness to go 
' and get herself christened, and told her they 
must all be of one religion, for it was that th^ 
were fighting for. The pass was signed by the 
prisoner. Witness never knew any one give 2^ 
a pass but the prisoner. '^ 

Catherine Poor^ sworn. 
Says, that she was a prisoner at Tintern, during 
the rebellion, and always . understood that the 
prisoner was a captain and justice of peace : has 
heard the rebeb call him captain. Witness went 
"^ to get something to eat. He said he would not 
give her any unless she became a christian; ioi 
if he did, he should break his oathu 



APPENDIX, NO. Ili. 37s 

' NUMBER III. 

TRIAL OF ANDREW PARREL. ' WEXFORD, 
MAY 22, 1800, 

Major Gordon, of the Dumfries regiment, pre- 

wdent, John Henry Lyster, Esq. acting Judge 

advocate. , 

TVilliam Furlong, sxvorn. 
^ Q. hy theprosecuto7\ Did you know the Rev* 
Mr. Pentl.and? 

A. I did. 

Q. Is he living or dead? 

A. He is'dead? 

Q. Do you know how he came by his death? 

A. I Was taken prisoner by the rebels ou 
WhitsunfTuesday, and put into the wind-mill on 
yinegar-hill, where I saw the Rev. Mr, Pentland, 
the Rev. Mr. Trocke, thre^ men of the name of 
Gill, and about thirty more loyalists in custody 
of the rebels. The prisoner, Andrew Farrel, Svas 
there. The -rebels called him <?aptain Farrel, to 
which name he angered. He Had a c^rawii 
sword in his hand. JT^eard him bid the loyalists 
fall on their knees, and prepare for death, as they 
should be killed directly. The prisoner then 
ordered out several of the loyalists, who were 
instantly murdered. In particular I saw him 
take Mr. Pentland by the breast, and by force 
put him out of the mill door, where he was 
instantly put to death, ]\Ir. Pentland resisted 



374 APPENDIX, XO. III. 

as much as he coulcL There were fourteen or 
fifteen murdered at that time. I saw their bodies 
lying dead when I got out. The prisoner came 
up to me, ^nd told me, I must know where there 
were arms in Enniscorthy, and that if I would 
tell, he would save me. I said I wouldi I was 
then taken to Enniscorthy, where I Avas saved 
by a man who had been a malster to my uncle. 

Q. Do you know of the prisoner having acted 
as a captain during the rebellion ? 

A. I saw him sworn to act as a captain. 

Cross-examined by the prisoner. 

Q. Are there any of the thirty men, that you 
saw in the wind-mill, alive now, except yourself? 

A. There are, I believe, eight of them, or 
more. 

Q. ^ What time on Whitsun Tuesday was it that 
you saw me? ^ 

A. It was, I believe, about eleven or t\velve : 
it Avas the time you wqre distributing powder to 
the rebels. 

Q. Do you prosecute me because I could not 
save your brother that was l^led on the hill ? 

A. I never knew before that you were present 
at my brother's death. 

Francis BraMey^ sworn. 
Q. hy the prosecutor. Did you know Mr. 
Philip Annesly? , 

A. I did. 



appendix;, no. II !• 37^;, 

Q.. Ls h& Ij viug or dead ? 

A. IJjelieyehe h dead — itx9 so reputed in.tbc 
country ; and that heJi^3 biiried near Mjr* Bale'6» 
in a ditch. 

Qi Do you know Andrew Farrel, the prUoncf ? 

A I do*! 

Q. Did you see him with Mr. Anncsly in the 
rebellion? 

A. I saw Mn Annesly a prisoner in custody 
0f. Farrel. I wa* going to Mr. Wheeler's when I 
met them. Mr. Annesly called me, and re- 
quested I would take his wat^ch and money, and 
give them to his friends. I refused, being^afraid, 
imd a$Ved him why' he m^^de the request. He 
told Qie. Andrew Earrel was taking hipti to be 
kiUed. 

Q. Was Farrel near eqough to hear what Mn 
Annesly said? '\ 

A. He certainly wa?. , 

Q. Did he make any gjbsefvatiou o^n wlvit 
Annesly $aid? 

A. He did not say a word. 

Cross-exaimned by the prisoner. 
Q. How long did you know me? , ' ' . 
. A.. I have, known your person four ©r-fivc 
jcears. . • , 

Q. What day of the month was this^? 
A. I do not know. I thi^ik it was in the begin- 
aing'of the rebdlion. 



376 AVtE^vix, NO. in. 

Q. Did you know* any one dse of the party? 
:A. There was one Brennan, a weaver, who 
seemed to interfere for Mr. Annesly. 

Henry TVkitney, sworn. 

Q. by the prosectctor. Did you know the Rev. 
Mr. Pentland? 

A. I did/ 

Q. Is he living or dead ? 

A. He is dead. 

Q. Relate to the court what you know of his 
death> 

A. 1 was taken prisoner about four miles from 
Enniscorthy, and brought into the mill on Vine- 
gar-hill. In a few hours after I saw Andrew 
Parrel, the prisoner, drag Mr. Pentland, eith(ftr 
by the breast or by the hair, put of the door> 
where he was directly pik^d to death. 

Q. Were there any others taken out? 

A. There were, I believe, twenty-five while 
i was there. They^ were all put to death. 

Q. Were there any put to death after William 
Furlong was sent out ? 

A. Th^re were a good many. 

Q. Did you see any of them dead ? 

A. I did. When I got out they were lying 
in a heap, except Mr. Pentiand. His body lay 
separate from the rest, and was stripped, and very 
bloody. 

Q. Did Mr. Pentland expostulate with th| 
prisoher when lie was taking him out.^ 



APPENDIX. >KO. til. St7 

A. Wheti Farrel desired us all to go^down oa 
our knees, and told us we had not an hour to 
live, Mr. Pentland and Mr. Trocke got up, and 
begged they might be spared. Mr. Pentland 
said that they were clergym^, and that he was 
a stranger, and had been but a short time in the 
country, and was a north- countryman. He then 
offered his watch, which was taken by a man of 
the name of Foley. The prisoner then seized 
him and put him out of the door, where he wijs 
murdered, as was every person the prisoner put 
out, except Mr. Homick's son. The prisoner 
attempted to drag me out, but I was held back 
by some of my fellow-prisoners. 

Q. How were you saved ? 

A. I saw a rebel of my acquaintance, of the 
name of Doran. He told Farrel I was an honest 
quiet man; on which Farrel examined me about 
arms, and then let me out. 

Q. Did you live in the parish of which Mr. 
Pentland was clergyman ? 

A. I did. He had been but a few months in 
the parish. 

Q. What was his character ? 

A' He was a remarkably quiet harmless man. 

Q. Did you know the prisoner before the 
rebellion? 

A. I did, 



378 AFPEXDIX^ NO. Ill; , 

Gross-e^amimd by the prisoner. 
Q. Wher^ did you live at the tiiM of the 
rebellioji ? 
• A> At Enniscorthy. 

Q. Had you any conversation with Euriong 
o» the subject of jx)ur evidence? . 

A. We have often talked of what we saw in 
the wind-mill. 

John Gill, suborn. 

0. By the prosecutor. Were you a prisoner in 
the wind-mill on Vinegar-hill in the rebellion? 

A. I was on Whitsunday, with many other 
loyalists. 

Q. Were there any .of them put to death that 
day^ 

A. There were. 

Q. I>o you know Andrew Farrel ? 

A. I do. 

Q.. Did you see him that day in the wind-mill ? 

A. I did. 

Q, What was his Conduct there ? 

A. One qf the party that brought me; prisoner 
to the wind-mill, said, on coming in, / ** captain 
*' Farrel, here is an orangeman.'* On which 
Farrel said to the guard, '* take care of him." 
Some time after, .finding the prisoner in great 
favour with the rebels, I entreated him to save 
my life. He' asked me my name. I tolU him 
GilL *V That is a bad name," said he, *'pre- 



AFPENDXX, NO. in, 379 

*^ pare for death; you have not an hour to live:'* 
I again begged my life, and said that I and my 
brother would play the' fife and beat the drum 
for them; but he desired me to pat such thoughts 
out of my head, as I should certainly die. 

Q. Did you see any one put to death at that 
time ? 

A. When I was brought out> I saw John Gill 
of Monglas^ lying near the door. He was just 
dying. A party of rebels, armed with pikes 
and guns, formed a line in front of thp mill 
door. Behind them there were some on horse- 
back. On being brought out, there vroj^ one 
Andrew Martin, with a drawn sword, standing 
inside the line, as executioner. I immediately 
addressed the rebels, and asked if they would 
put a man to death without trial. Martin cried 
out, 'fDamn your soul, do you come her© to 
*' preach ?^'-rt-and made a stab at me, which hit 
me in the wrist. Some of the rebels bade him 
stop, and asked me how I chose to die. I replied, 
'^ as a CJiristian." One of those on horseback 
said, ** may be he is a Christian/' and asked me, 
'* areyouaChrisitian r" ;I told him I believed in 
tl^e Saviour of the world, through whom I hoped 
to be saved. Martin then said, *^ O damn your 
'* soul: you are a Christian in your own way," — 
and directly stabbed me in the side. I fell on 
my face, and was then stabbed in die back, end 
beaten on the head with some heavy instrument. 



380 ApPENDii, KO. fir.' 

I&tiU kept mysetiscs. My brother was next 
braoght out, atid asked the sani^ question, how 
he chose to die. He boldly answered that he 
would die a protestant. On which they alK 
shouted/ and rushed forward, and piked him to 
death. Mr. Homick was next brought out, and 
asked how he would die. He answered that he 
would die as. he had lived. He was directly 
murdered. I then fainted, and continued insen- 
sible until my wife came for me in the evening. 
She found great difficulty in saving me, as there 
was an old man with a scythe examining the 
bodies, and striking on the head such as he found 
with any appearance of life. She took me to the 
bottomof the hill,, where, finding I had life, she 
hid me. The next morning I was found there 
by the rebels,, and brought up to the hill, from 
which I escaped by the help of a man that was^ 
to marry my^daughter. About half a mile from 
the hill I was met by two men, one of whom 
fired at me. The ball grazed my head and 
stunned me. I there lay until my wife again 
found me. From that, until Vinegar-hill was 
taken by the king's troops, I lived in the fields 
and ditches* ^ . 

Cwss-examintdby the prisoner., 
Q. Did you put in a claim for your losses ? • 
A. I did. 

Q. Did you^ get your claim? 
A. I did, i apart. 



APPEX151X, TTO; III. 381, 

Q. Were yoii not refused compensation for 
your losses unless you prosecuted somt Dne? 

A. No such thing. No olyectiou w^ mode 
to me. 

Q. Were you instructed what to say? 

A. I was hot. 

Q. . Did you ever see me before that day? 

A. I never did; but I am sure I will never 
•forget you. 

Q. Did you see me take any one out of the 
• mill? 

A I did not. : 

Q. What time of the day was it? 

A. About nine o'clock. 

Q. Was not Coffey saved by me? 

A. You granted leave to Luke Byrne, and two 
^others, w:ho interceded fot him, to save Coffey's 
life. , / 

Q. Is there any one else alive, who was in the 
mill that day ? ^ '^ 

A. There is one Warren, who was half killed 
"like myself. ^ ' 

John Austin sworn. 

Q. by the prosecutor. Do you know Andrew 
Farrel, the prisoner at the bar? 
A. I do. 

Q. Did ^ou see him during the rebellion ? 
A, I did. 
Q. In what capacity did he act? 



S82 APPEKBix, iro. ixi. 

A. I *ra8 brought a prisoner iuto Enniscorthy 
by otrc captain West, who brought me to the 
place Mdiere the prboaer was on parade with some 
rebels. West said, ** captain Farrel, here is an 
** Orangeman I haw' brought you/'-r^^— ** iTeiy 
** well," said the prisoner, " I will -take care of 
"hfffi*" He th€n oidered four or five 4long 
with him, ami ^taok me I to the rebel guard- 
. l^ouse, where there were fifteen or sixteen loy- 
4disite eonfined. — One. of them, a Mr. Robinson, 
begged of the prisonjer to save them. The pri- 
soner answered, with an oath, that he would 
have them all put to death before the next 
night. 

Cross-examined by the prisoner^ 
Q. When was this ? 

A. To the best of niy knowledge, about eight 
.or nine days after the pehellion broke out. 
Q. Were the men all put to death the next 

A. I cannot tell I got out by the interces- 
sion of a rebel. 

Q. Do you rccofiect being «aved another time, 
'«iid by whom ? 

A. I was, by xmic Laeey. 

Q. Did you see me at that time ? 

A.Ldid. 

Q. Did not I interfere to save you 1 

A. Not vou itodeci 



John Mooney morn. 

Q. by the .prosecutor. Do you know the pri- 
soner? 

A. I do, very well. * 

Q,. Did you see him in the rebeUion ? 

A. I did. 

Q. In what capacity ? . 

, A. As a captain. I saw him sworn in as such, 
and a Heutenant sworji under him, m hen he was 
kissed by Kearns the priest; 1 saw him head a 
party at. the attack on Mr. Cavenah's house, at 
Borris. I have heard him called St Ruth* 
Cross-Cd'amined by the prisoner. 

Q. At what time in the rebellion did you hear 
me called captain ? 

A. Through the whole rebellion. 

Q. At what time did you see me sworn in ? 

A. When you came back from' Borris, Morgan 
Byrne and you had a dispute which of you should 
be eldest captain. Byrne.said he had subsc^bM 
a long time to the united men. You answered 
you had subscribed as long. 

David Ogden sworn. ' 
Q. by the prosecutor. Do you know the pri- 
soner, Andrew Farrel? 
A. I do. 

Q. Did you see him during the rebellion ? 
A. I did. 
Q. In what capacity did he act ? 



'38* APPENDIX, NO. HI* 

A. He cfame one day to Mr. Wheeler's hoxisev 
where I had gone for safety. ' He wa§ at the bead 
of a party, of which he seemed to have the 
chief command. ^ He took Mn Wheeler and 
myself out of the bouse, to bring us, as he said 
to Vinegar-hill. We were released by one Mac- 
leane, who by threatening and entreaties got u« 
from Farrel. Macleane said, if we were not 
released, he would go to the hill, and tell that he 
had found the prisoner, the day of the battle of 
Enniscortby, disguised in women's clothes, 
robbing, instead of fighting the king's army. 

Ql Was the prisoner armed ? 

A- He was armed with a broad sword. 

. ' Cross-examined by the prisonet^ 
Q. , When was this ? . . J . " 

A. I believe about the third day after the * 
rebels took Enniscortby. 

, Q. Did you not think that I was one of tJios/f 

. that should have rescued you ? ■;" 

A. I thought you ought to have done so, is 

you were a tenant of my uncle's ; but you did 

not. You would not give Mr. Wheeler time to 

shave himself. 

Q. Who was at Mr. Wheeler's with you 1 
A. There were my wife and sisters, Mrs. Brad- * 
ley, and I believe Mrs. Wheeler, and Miss New- 
bold. 

Q. Were you unwell at that time ? 
A. \ was. 



AfPEin>ix, KO, III,: 515 

Q. Did you not 'say, ** Andrew Farrel, wo'nt 
you save me ?" . , . 

A. I do not know but I might have said $o ; 
but you iiidisted on taking pie to Viaegarrhill, 
which could not have been to save mc. It was 
at that timef the common place of execution. 

Q. Were ?iot your senses. la that disturbed 
state as to be liable to mis^emy conduct? 

A. It is impossible. I OTrt^pniy tos agitated 
as I thought I was to be mnrdcfedy but L never 
lost my recollection. I remenofaer you observed 
mCj and, winking at one of your cooipanions, 
desired me not to be so agitated- for when I were 
once arrived at the bill I would be quiet enough. 

Q. Was there any other person brought away 
from Mr. Whei^r'si ? 
^ Aj Ngp^ bij^t;Mr- Wheeler and L 

prisoner's DEFEkCE. 

James Hunt sworn. 
I Q. by the prisojier* Were you on Vinegar- 
Jiill on Whitsunday m the rebellion ? 

A. I was. I was a prisoner to the rebels, who 
kept me just outside the mill door. 
Q. What (}id yoj; see done there? 
A. I §awa man, called Mr. Pentland, brought 
oiit, and put to death by one Conners. 
. Q. By whose order was he brought out ? 
A. By order of Morgan Byrne, Who was out-' 
side the mill door. 

Cc 



3B6 appendix, no. hi. 

Q. Did you sec me there ? 

A. I did not 

Q. How many did you see put to death ? * 

A. Al^ Homick, Mr. Pentland, and another 
man. / I was then tauten down to the bottom of 
the hilL 

Q. by the court. Might not the prisoner have 
been in the mill witiK)ut your knowledge? 

A. He might; Mt. I did, not see bim^ nor 
hear tell of him. 

Q. Are you now a prisoner ? 

A. I am. 

Q. For what? . . 

A. For suspicion of robbing my next neigh* 
hour. . 

John Rogan sworn. 
Q. by the prisoner. Were you on Vinegar-hill 
on Whitsun-Tuesday ? 
A. I was not » 

James Bryan sworn. 

Q. by tks prisoner. Were you on Vinegar^ 
Jiill on Whi^sun-Tuesday ? 

A. I was. 

Q. At what tiine ? 
- A. I was on every part of the hiU from nine 
o'clock until three or four in the evening, and 
did not see you that day. 

Q. Did you see-- any one taken out ©f the 
wind-mill? 



APPENDIX, NO. Ill, 387 

A. I did not, but I saw a man dead that* had 
been take^ out. 

.Qu Who 'was the man ? 

A. A Mr. Pentland. I was lying on the hill 
when I heard that Mr. Pentland was to be killed. 
I ran to save him, but was too late. He was 
dead when I got up. I heard^that one Connors 
and one Byrne had killed him, 

Q. by the court. Wben^do you live and what 
' is your religion ? 

A. I am a Roman catholic, and live in the 
parish of Killann, of which Mr. Pentland was 
minister. 

Q. What was His character in the parish ? 

A. He bore a most excellent character ; a 
quiet mild man. 

Q. Are you a prisoner now ? 

A. I am for suspicion of a rape. 

JVillkm Wilkinson sworn. 

Q. by the prisoner. Did you see me during the 
a:ebellioh? 

A. I did. 

'Q. Did you see me in the guard-house at En* 
niscorthy? 

A. I did. I was a prisoner there. 

Q. What was my conduct there? 

A. You used me civilly. You took me and 
seventeen more out, and saved us, the day that 
we were ordered to be murdered by Kerns the 
priest 



I 



388 APPENDIX, KO. Ilf* 

Q. Were you with »ie diiriiig the Tcbellion ? 

A. I was very often ; almost erciy day. 

Q. What was my character during the re- 
bellion? 

A. You saved those I spoke of> but I cannot 
toy any thiiig farther. 

Q. by the Court. Did yoQ carry a pike ? 

A. I did not, nor a gun. 
. Q, What ayms dicP^ou carry ? , 

A. I had a stick with a piece of ^ nail rod in 
the end of it. 

Q. JSVould it krll a man ? 

A. It would. 

Q. Had you any conversation with the pri- 
soner lately with respect to the evidence you 
were to give ? 

A. Not one word. I had no conversation 
with him on any subject. 

Q. Were you not in the gaol with the pri- 
soner? 

A. I was not ; I never was in the gaoL 

Q. Do you swear that you had noi conversa- 
tion at all with the prisoner? 

A. I had at a window. 

Q. Where wa^ this window ? . 

A. I do not know whether it looked into th& 
gaol yard, or into the street. 

Q. Was it not the grated door of his cell yoii 
spoke to him at ? 



APPENDIX, NO. in. 589 

A. 1 do not know whether it was a door or a 
window. 

Q. Were you not drinking with the prisoner? 

A. He put a bottle through the bars, andbade 
me take a sup. 

Q. Did not the prisoner give yOu money ? 

A. He gave me some to bear my expenees. 

Q. What expenees ? 

A. The expenees I was at to stay for his trial. 

Q. When was this ? 

A. The day before yesterday. 

Mary Hall sworn. 

Q. by the prisoner. Did you see me during 
the rebellion ? 

A. I did. I saw you very often, but' I do 
not recollect any particular day except Whitsun- 
Tuesday. 

Q. bid you pver see me guilty of any outrage 
or crime ? 

A. I never saw you guilty of any thing but 
breaking open a house and robbing it. 

Q. Whose house was it ? 

A. Mr. Joseph Sparrow's, where you took 
every thing, even the sheets under two cripples 
that lay in the house. You behaved civilly to 
my little boy, and made the butcher give him 
a good bit of meat. ^ 

Q. by the court. You say you saw the pri- 
soner often J in what capacity ? 



390 .APPENDIX, jro- III. 

' ._ A. I cannot say. f have seen him. with « 
drawn sword at the head of a party. They obeyed 
him. I remember he ordered them to fire .into 
Mr. Joseph's Sparrow's house, and they did so. 

Q. Did you know Mr. Philip Aiinesly ? 

A. I did. I saw him di'agged out of the.mill 
on Vinegar-hill, the day my husband Was mur- 
dered. I afterv^ards saw his body lying dead on 
the hill.; 



The reader may see, from the perusal of this 
trial, that Andrew Farrel, so active in robbery 
and murder, was ^ very great coward. In fact, 
the greatest plunderers and murderers, both of ^ 
the rebel and of the loyalist parties, were the 
greatest cowards, This is the most deplorable 
state of society, when the worthless find them^ 
selves able to exert their malignant inclinations 
with impunit^^. 

This remarkable circumsts^nce attended the 
death of Andrew Farrel, that he died in the most 
solemn assertion of an evident falsehood, for 
what he doubtless regarded as a laudable and ge- 
nerous purpose. When he was led to execution, 
and ou the' point of being launched into the 
other world,, he addressed a magistrate in wor^S' 
to this amount : 

*^ Sir, to shew you on what sort qf evidence 
^* men are liable to be condemned to death in 
<^tbis country, I now, oX the moment of niy 



APPENDIX, NO. III. 331 

" being plunged into eternity, take God and my 
" Saviour to witness, that I never wa? on Vine- 
'* gar-hill ; and if I tell a lye, may I be consigned 
** to everlasting punishment !'* 
This, which was doubtless intended to put a 
^ stop, Or at least an impediment, to prosecutions^ 
hgd, from the notoriety of the matter denied, a 
contrary effect. Beside the above given evidence, 
the following affidavit was made. 

County of\ James Coffey, of Enniscorthy, 
Wexford. } in said county, gentleman, came 
this day before me, and solemnly made oath on 
the holy evangelists, that he was on Vinegar- 
bill on Tuesday in Whitsun week, in the year 
,1798, a prisoner to the rebels; and there saw 
Andrew Farrel, lately executed at Wexford, a 
commander among the rebels, while they were 
murdering the Bev. Mr. Pentland, Mr, Gill of 
Mongla3s, Thomas Gill, the^ wheelwright, anji 
others : and that he saw, at the same time, John 
Gill, the wheelright, stabbed and left for dead. 
He further swears that the said Andrew Farrel, 
by his influence among the rebels, saved the 
lives of deponent and of captain Blacker -at the 
same time ^nd place, 

JAMES COFFEY. 

Sworn before me, at Enniscorthy, 

\- this 35th day of June, 1800,/. , 

THOMAS HANDCOCK, ^ 



393u . AFPEJTDIX, KO. lit. 

, Ak rematkabto » tte declaration iftAnArt^ 
Fartel k the fallowing i in which I afn incliiied 
tp fisaspect somewhat <tf an overcharge im ^nne 
points, from the gloomy state of the man's mind 
at tte thue of the confession. 

The Confession of James Beag han. Taken hefQre tht 
high sheriff* of the county qf IVexfordy and John 
H. LysteVy one of his majesty's justice^ of the 
peace for said county , the day before his execution. 

I, James Beaghan, acknowledge atid confess 
that I am guilty of the crime for which I am to 
suffer; but that I did not commit it from ill 
will'to the people that were murdered^ but from 
the orders of Luke Byrne. I cbuld not disobey 
him. No person could refuse to obey the 
orders of the commanders. I am sure that any 
jnan in command could save the. lives of the 
poor people. Every man that was a protestant 
was called an orangeman, and every one was to 
be killed, from the poorest man in the c6untryi 
Before the rebellion, I never heard there was any 
hatred between Roman catholics and protes- 
tants; they always lived peaceably together. I 
always found the protestants better masters, and 
more indulgent landlords, than my own religion. 
During the rebellion, I never saw any one inters 
fere to prevent murder, but one Byrne, who- 
saved a man ; I think all that were present were 
as guilty as those that perpetrated the murdera*— ^ 



>♦ 



APPENBIX, NO, III. ' S93 

it was thinking we were all equally guilty that 
prevented me from flying the countrj^. The 
women were numerous, and were as bad as the 
men. The rebels treated their prisoners with 
great severity, very different from /the way I 
have been treated in gaol. They thought it 
no more a sin to kill a protestant than a dog. 
Had it not been that they were so soon quashed, 
they would have fought with each other for the 
property of the protestants— they were beginning 
before the battle of Vinegar-hill. Ever since 
the rebellion I never heard one of the rebels ex- 
press the least sorrow for what was done ; on the 
contrary, I have heard them say they were sorry 
while they had the power they did not kill mor^ 
and that there was not half enough killed. I 
know 'that the rebels were determined to rise if 
the French should come, and I believe they did 
not give up half their arms ; there are guns, 
bayonets,- ar\d pikes, hid in the country. (.•.) 
Now, gentlemen, remember what I tell you — 
if you and the protestants are ever in the power 
of the catholics again, as they are now in yours, 
they will not leave one of you alive, you will 
all go smack smooth ; even those that cam- 
paigned with them would, in the end, have been 
killed — I have heard them say so many times. 
Taken before us, August £3d, 1799. 

CHRIST. WILSON, Sheriff, 
JOHN H. LYSTER 



394 ' i:ppendix; no. hi. 

JNT. J5. From t\iii mark (. •. ) Beaghan spok^ 
without having been asked any questions ; and 
spoke Avith an earnestness and in a niamier. that 
shewed his sincerity. , " 



From my inquiries concerning Father Shallow, 
of Adarastown, I believe that he never went ^to 
Carrickburn-camp, or Scullabogue-hoiise, except 
for the purpose of procuring the release of pri- 
sone^rs, Jn which he succeeded not, except that 
one poor girl escaped by his means, and that he 
%yas chiefly instrumental in the liberation of 
young JMr. Lett of Kilgibbon. Miss Lett, of 
Kilgibbon, had voluntarily accompanied her 
brother to Scullabogue, and was not a prisoner 
there. She returned, with her brother when he 
was liberated. 

NUMBER ly. 

TkcJoUoroing is copied from the appendii\ No.' 6, 
of' Dr. Duigenan's ^^ Fair Representation of 
the present political State of Ireland. 

'^ It is but justice to observe, that it is alleged 
*^ in behalf of the late Cornelius Grogan, Esq. 
^' that his residence was only three miles from 
*' the town of Wexford j that he was advanced 
•' in years, and very infirm ; that the rebellidn 
** broke out very suddenly and unexpectedly ; 
^' that his ijifirmities disabled him from retreatinj^ 



APPEI^DIX, NO. IV. ^55 

^'frorn the rebels with that expedition which 
^' could give him any reasonable hopes of escape ; 
*' that the rebels imagined the presumed coun- 
" tenance and support of a gentleman, of his 
" rank and consequence would acquire credit to 
" their cause ; and when they had him in their 
" power, they conferred on him what title. they 
'/ pleased, in which he was obliged to acquiesce, 
*^ for the preservation of his life among such a 
^^ savage banditti ; and that he never acted as 
" commissary-general of their army, or in any 
** military capacity among them : and indeed it 
'* is very certain, that whatever title of general 
*^ or commander they might have given him, he 
'* was utterly incapable of undertaking or per- 
*^ forming any active service, being much ad- 
f* van cedJn years,, and a great martyr, to the 
*^ gout. . His two; brothers, Thoriias Grogan 
^' Knox, and John Knox Grogan, . at the 
.^* same time were eminent for their loyalty and 
courage; and in the rebellion . one of them 
** (Thomas) was slain, gallantly charging the 
^' rebels at the battle of Arklow, at the hrad jof 
^\2L brave corps of yeomen raised by him. The 
^* other brother John Knox Grogan) was many 
*' years a cavalry officer in the king's army, (the 
^* 5th and 1 8th light dragoons) and is a gentleman 
^^ of great honour and integrity." Tpthis may 
be added, concerning the last named gentteman, 
that ^ C4pt^i) he raked the Healthfield yeoman 



<( 



S96 APPEKDIX, NO. IV. 

cavalry in September, 1796; that he ^cnt to 
Enniscorthy with twelve of his men, when he 
was informed that it was to be attacked the 26th 
of May, and continued there, with captain So- 
lomon Richards and his corps, during that night 
and Sunday morning, doing all in his power to 
disperse the rebels, who were then burning the 
protestants' houses about that neighbourhood ; 
that when serjeant Stanley hkd yet to force his 
way to COTk, to hold a commission on the rebels 
there^ captain Grogan, with fourteen of his 
men, conducted him safe to Waterford the 27th 
of May ; that on the 28th he applied to general 
Fawcet for a good force to bring to Wexford. 
The general gave him an order for two hundred 
of the Donegal militia and a six-pounder. He 
left New Geneva at four o'clock that evening, 
and arrived at Wexford with them at seven 
o'clock on Tuesday the 29th. In the retreat of 
the army from Wexford the next day, he was 
wounded in the neck, as he marched with his 
corps in the advanced guard. I should also add 
that I lived many years in the neighbourhood of 
Thorn a^ Grogan Knox, who was killed in the 
battleof Arklow, and knew him to be a man of 
great benevolence and generosity. 



The following is a true copy of a Letter 
written by Beauchamp Bagenal Harvey to the 
rebels at the station of Three-rocks, at the request 



APPENDIX, N0. IV^ Jiyjr 

of several magistrates, about two hours before 
the evacuation of Wexford by the king's troops. 
He was at the tiro? when he wrote it, ill of the 
gout 

*^ I have been treated in prison with all 
possible humanity, and am now at liberty. I 
have procured the liberty of all the {Hrisoners. If 
you pretend to Christian charity, do not commit 
massacre, or burn the property of the inl^abi- 
tants; and ^par^ your prisoners' lives. 

B. B, HARVEY.'* 

Wednesday, May 30;^ 1798. 



The places of confinen[>€nt of loyalist prisoners 


inWexfoyd, while the town 


was in possession of 


the rebels,, ai:e thus stated, 


with the number of 


prisoners in each. 




In the jail 


148 


In the market-house 


48 


In the barrack 


36 


In the prison ship 


22 


In the court-bouse 


3 


In a private house 


. ^ s 



In all' - - q60 



^gg Af^zurtix, NO. V» 

NUMBER V- 

BEMAUKS ON SIR KICHARD MUSGRAVE'S 
MEJMOIRS QF. REBELLIONS IN IRELAND. 

Sir Richard, residing in the capital, col- 
'lecting a perplexing mass of materials of the 
same; kind, and haying no personal knowledge 
of the transactions in the country, has been led 
into a multitude of errors of little momenta 
Those few, indeed, which I think proper at 
present to notice, are hardly of any consequence. 
In page 344 of the quarto edition, he says, 
that Gorey was attacked on the 30th of May by 
a numerous body of rebels. This is totally 
destitute of foimdation, except that a great 
number of women were assembling at the 
distance of three or four miles, with fntehtion of 
marching to plufider the" town, which had been 
, in a most extraordinary manner deserted by the 
army. This female brigade, ho^vevef, dispersed 
without approaching the town, on a false report 
of the advance of a body of Welch cavalry. 

He says in page 442, that our troops got 
possession of Gorey on the 12th of June.* They 
certainly did not till the 19th, the day previous 
to that of general Needham's memorable march 
to Vinegar-hill. " 

In his appendix, page 83, he says that Father 

* (le has con«cted this io his thUd edition* 



Marphy^s journal was found by captain Hugh 
Moore. It was found by an. officer of the 
fensible regiment of Durham infantry, lieute- 
nant-colonel Bainbridge, from whom captain 
Moore procured it; as he diso procured a plan of 
the battle of Arklow. 

In. page 4$ I, he calls Father Philip Roche an 
inhuman savage. Sa far as his having a rough 
and boisterous exterior, and his being often in a 
tate of intoxication, the term may, in some 
degree be applicable; bit for a charge of cruelty 
agaiust him, I can find no foundation. On the 
contrary, I have heard, from indubitable autho* 
rity, many instajices of hisactive humanity. I 
knew Father Roche for. some years before the 
rebellion, and he was certainly not a favourite 
with me, as I disliked his rough familiar manner, 
and his too frequent indulgence of ebiliety '^ but 
his behaviour in the rebellion has convinced me, 
that he possessed a humane and generous heart, 
with an uncommon share of. personal courage. 
My information comes from numbers of protes- 
tants, who were protected in his camp. 

I have already elsewhere noticed Sir Richard^s 
estimate of the pcJpulation of Ireland. He sup- 
poi^s the nuijiber of men capable of bearing 
arms in the county of Wexford to be sixty-nine 
thousand ; from which we must infer the number 
of persons of all ages and both sexes in this county 
tqb^ three huudred and fortj^-five thousand; since 



400 • ATTzsjnKf y^n. v. 

nalea of the mUitary 'age constitute iii European , 
countries a 6fth part cmly of the whole popu- 
lation. He supposes the county of Wexford to 
contain a thirty-fourth part of the number of 
ptapie in the whole island: hence we are to 
infer the number of people in the whole island 
to be eleven millions and seven hundred and 
thirty thousand ! I know of no raticaial estimate 
df the population of Ireland, excq)t that aS 
Chalmers. 

In page 370 he plainly insinuates, that all 
those among the rebels who were above the rank 
of the vulgar, some of whoni he particulari29es by 
fiame^, were guilty of, or consenting tc^ the 
massacre of protestants. John Hay, however, 
who, to the infamy of his memory, murdered a 
man called Grey Thomas, on Vinegar-hill, was 
the only Romish gentleinan whom I consider, 
from what I have heard, as guilty of murder, 
from motives of religious hatred ; yet I am 
informed, that even this mm^der arose frcmi a 
paivate pique in Hay. Some, whose names I 
have already mentioned, were certainly men of 
active humanity ; and some were never near any 
scene of massacre at the time of its perpetration. 
Of this piece of fortune several have since goo4 
cause to be glad, since their successful inters 
ference to prevent murder might have been 
brought against them as a proof of their having 
t command among the rebels^ and might hav« 



bfftfiigbt them to tbe guHowtL I koow of no 
Religious jjiifrdbn committed at the camps; of 
Three^ocks^ Carrickburii,* Slyecfvckeelter^ or 
Laeken^ M'hcte men of cducatioti aod property 
presided. I know mftiiy, protectants, wh^m 
names I could' mention, Avho were in the hands 
of tlie rebels in these camps,, nonie of whom ever 
heard of any wfiurders of. protestants committed 
iit them: Tlieplacm of butcbeiy weare Vin^tr^ 
hill and Weitfohl J besides that many miirfenJ 
were committed here and thttt in the cotmtry* 
Concerning one person mentioned, in th<* 
%bove-qUQted : page, Jeremiali Fifejhenjry, fxQin 
whom I took a lease of the place wh®re I now 
. reside, I have made a v^ry particular inquiry. 
Whether he had any commaftd among the rebels^ 
may be a matter of doubt ; my opinion iS;, tjiat 
he had none : but I have not a shadow of reason 
to suspect that he was near any place of murder 
at the time of its commission, or that he ever 
approved o^the perpetration of such acfs.f Mr» 

* Scdkbogue Hcis at the foot of C^lnk^ura ittoa&tiiki ; 
^ but at the time c( the massacre no encaonpmeiit esistei theft* 

t To prevent misconception, I here copy Sir Richard's owa 
Words. 

** Unwilling to disgust the reader, I will give him a cirfcum- 
** stantial account of but a few of the various cruelties practised 
** on the victims who were immolated on Vine^-hill by these 
^* ferocious fanatics ; had they been perpetrated by the dregs of 
** the people, some albwance might have been ihade for the 
" force of religious bigotry on the minds of the vulgar heid; 

nd 



Hiomas Towrisepd, barrister at law^ md metn^ 
of the last Irish Jiarliajneiit, intimately acquainted 
with political afikifs at Cork;^ as being counsel 
to the general, commanding in the southern 
district, in the time of the rebellion, and resident 

^ but we have to lamcBt that many perscms whose birth,, edu« 
<< cation, or cfxAence, ndsed them far above that descriptiob, 
** Vftte pTeseift at, or were omsenting to, ihe ()erpetration of 
*• these atrodtie^ ; for we find that they were constantly in the 
**rcbd camps, where- they daily took plaiiet and that they 
« could have prevented them is unquestionable ; for no instance 
*« that I x^ould discover ever occurred, that-the personal inter* ' 
. ** ference, or the written protection of a rebel officer, or one of 
** their priesb, did not save the life of a person destined ta 
^•destruction. i - I ■ 

*^ Mr. William Barker, a brewer and a merchant of Ennisy 
•* cofthy, was a genehd in the camp. Mr. Patrick Sutton^ 
*' fomlerly a,merchant, and well educated, held that rank ; and 
^< his two sons, one of whom was educated for thie bar, were 
** officers there : one Kelly, an opulent fartner nearthat town» 
** a rebel officer, who has been hanged: the bloody Luke 
** Byrne, a malster, and his two sons, in opul^t circumstances % 
^\ Messrs^ Codd % and Walsh, shop-keepers, and reputed rich t 
** Marineth, a farmer, was wealthy; Andrew Farrel was ingoo'd 
*^ circumstances, and 3n£the was active in promoting ik^ n^assa- 
" cres : Jer^niah Fitihenry, married to John Coklough's »9ter^' , 
•* was rf the anqient family of the Fitzhenrys„in th^icounty 
** of Wexford : JohnColclough, of a family highly r^|»ect^le^ 
** who had often represented the county, was well educated, 
*'* and in good circumstances, disgraced himself by yielding to 
** the influence of fanaticism. He was the only papist that V 
^< could learn oi his family. Messrs. Garret and Williaia 
** Byrne were rebel chieftains, and attended the camps." 
X ** F»nd$ Cod4, another pcrsoA of th« ssunc umc^y^i^ x^tj loyal.** . 



APPENDI3?, NO. V^ 403* 

there, ^sitively contradicts, froin his own know- 
ledge, the following statement of Sir Richard, 
contained in No. xi. of his appendix^ " The con- 
^* spi^cy was infinitely more terrific in the city, 
of Cork than in Dublin, because the protestahts 
of the established church, whose destruction was 
meditated, were much fewer in proportion to the 
iteman catholics, and the conspirators were better 
armed and organized^ as the vigilance and exer- 
tions pf the executive power were not so active * 
and vigorous as in the ^netropolis, the seat of 
government. r Tbelre was great disaffection* 
atnojng the popish yeomen, particularly in the » 
Cork legion. Sweeny and Donovan, two 
leaders in the conspiracy, and Drinnane, conti-- 
nued members of it until they were arrested. 
Some of them owned to persons who became 
approvers, that they entered into it merely to 
obtain arms, and a knowledge of military 
discipline."; Mr. Townsend, among other 
assertions, affirms in reply, that, "One of the 
most. sudden and diligent searches for arms^ 
which perhaps ever took place, was ipade at 
Cork; and such Avas the prudent rigour 'whh^ 
which it had been directed, that even- the super- 
numerary weapons of the yeomanry of the city 
were all seized, and deposited in proper places ; 
and notwithstanding the suddenness, extent, 
and zeal of the search, not above four hundred 
stand of arms (if the term will apply) could be 



40* A^prsFrnXy wa V. 

fouftdmthat g*eatrcity; mAi\im9 w«fe' aliACli 
entirely fowling-pieces^ j^is^olsy sword^ atid etea 
sword^eanes.'* Witlj respect to the oi^aaiiati<m, 
he saya^ ** Ifthe most consistent tftd cfedlWc 
testimony be unquestioned, the orgdrniaedsectioni 
IB: the tliree , districts, into which the city' wa* 
divided/ hiaid not proceeded beyotid th4 siectidtt 
Na 83> amounting, in a population cort^ii 
to be near one hundred thousand, to one fheuMfid 
and seoenty-nineJ" Of the three men arrei^tcd 
belonging to the Cork legion^ wfaicb consisted 
of eight kindred, Swetny hsA t)een expelled ^ 
considerable tixtie belbre his afrest, lUid hdd 
nerer been agAin ^mitt^j Donoratt, though 
piosecuted with great aCrittiony^ was acquitted 
and restored to bfe plact in the legion; and 
Drimnatte was arrested unadcuse^ and enlarged, 
witholit any other examination than what h* 
himself had solicited, from a court df in^Uiiy 
afttt his liberation. The most abandoned of all 
the inibrmeis, and they were in gemrai the rfmt 
degraded, infffmvus^ and sanguinary ef mmkind^ 
never^ to my knowledge^ blew the lightest 
breath of suspicioh upon that gentleman/* . 

, The chief part of Sir Richard's reply is, that 
Mr. ,Towntend'5 pamphlet is *' scouted and con*- 
demned by all the loyal citizens of Cork." A« 
I am not MXfiiainted with these citizens, I 
caimelpretend to judge between thebatonet and 
the lawyer J but I know that Sir R. sometime* 



APPENDIX, N0. V. 445 

applies the term «U to a part ; and scouting 
arguments have no force, unless the scouteN be 
riien xrf reflexion, judgment, and candour; • 

Df the 4iflference between tfee s«perior and 
iii&riorclasks of Romanists, rtie following is ah 
instance. A labouring peasant, who took the 
Hitle of captain Gormaghari, went cme Sunday 
morning inta the house of the Rev. Samuel 
Frands, rector of Killegny, and after threateniiig 
to cut off the arm of a son of Mr. Francis, 
'because \^ <Jould not dextrously sign his fore- 
head With a cross in the Romanist manner, 
drove txit the whole family before him to the 
Romish chapel, declaring that no refigioij, 
except that alone which God permitted, must 
any longer be professed. • ITie Frtzrhraiy feniily, 
who fornF>ed part of tfee congregation, ^^ere at 
this scene evidently afifeeted with deep concern, 
which they endeavoured to conceal fi-om the 
unfeeling crowd; Tliey advised in whispers the 
distressed family te endeavour to hide thdr 
grief from the fanatic mob; and administered 
such cpmfort as the fear of offending the i^K)- 
rant bigots permitted. That this captain <Jor- 
maghan has never been molested since the 
rebellion, is a strong' proof of the modcri^i^op of 
the protestant? pf thj3 parish; as a}30 one 
Michad WicJcen, and one Philip Dillon, ^ho 
i^sist€d oh having these protest^its put to death, . 



^A06 APPENDIX, NO V. 

and foamed with rage wheii the rest of the 

• Romanists would not consent to it.* 

To regard the Romanists of Ireland as all alike 

; bigotted ^jid disloyal, I must consider as highly 

: unjust I Jcjiow that the ignorant multitude 
think their own religion the only one admitted 
by God, and that to suppress all others is meri- 
torious. Some perhaps of a rank above the 
vulgar, admit the same doctrine, which, how- 
ever, must be inwardly rejected by every reflect- 

. ing person who takes reason fof his guide ; and 
such are certainly to be found among Irish 
Ropoanists. Many military, officers, I believe, 
can testify for the good behayiour of the Roman 
CJ^tholic soldiers under their command, in the 
timeof the rebellion ; and I think that majiy pro- 
te&tant clergymen will admit, that they recover 
theirtithfs withmuch less trouble from Romanists 
than from any other people of religious deno- 

Urination, not excepting even those of the 
established church. The author of the narra- 
tive of transaction(S at Killala, so often already 
quoted, speaks of many Romanists of property 
in that quarter unwilling to take arms against 

* This account of the behaviour of the Fitzhenrys I had from 
Mr. Francis*s eldest daughter. 

I find that this captain Gormaghan, ^ho Committed this out-» 
« TEge on Mr. Francb and his family, behaved rctmarkably well 
to soi3[ie other protestants } but J cap find 0^ gP94 ^<^^!t of 
Wipken or Dillon* 



APFENDIX, N'O. V. '407 

,tlie British gwiernmeiit ; I believe that many such 
inay be found in the south of Ireland also. . But 
if they have in general a dislike to protectants 
and to British government, unkindness caui^ 
TCmedy the eviL I choose not at present to enter 
into this subject farther, than to add, that some 
objections to certain measures with respect to 
•the Romanists of Ireland seem to be removed 
mt^ the local parliament of this island. 

In the above quoted page Sir Richard has 
made a mistake, which probably himself has 
corrected before this. He reckons Mesi^s, 
Codd and Walsh, of Enniscorthy, among the 
rebel commanders, and tacitly fixes the censure 
on William Codd, who is ^ell known to h^ve 
behaved with loyalty, and to have had no con- 
nexion in this business with Walsh. In the next 
pagCf he has made a trifling mistake in consider* 
ing John Henry Colcloughas the only Romanist 
of his family, and a person debased by religious 
bigotiy. The branch of family to whiph he 
belonged were all Roman catholics ; ^nd he was 
certainly in an uncommon degree liberal in 
religious matters, and a foe to bigotry. 

We are not to consider all as indubitable facts^ 
which have been sworn by the lower sort of peo- 
ple against prisoners on trial ; some evidences of 
this description being, on these occasions, far 
enough from being unexceptionable. Thus, Uhat 
Thomas Clooney, as was sworn on his trial. 



^ tl»e dtsvM's howe ^fts then tnsrniog, ^' Q|^>eatB 
t^tm very dfAiAoAil. 

Tbe fadte «|erted in th? ^ffiilavitg «nd narrar 
titles rf respectable ^«6os, such as Mrs. Heydon, 
<Se€ pag« 9S-^7 of the appendix) are absokrtaJy 
.WM|4iesticmabl6 : ^^ o^ther lac^s might ^mbt 
related, #hidi in «eme <5ascs would give a somc- 
%&at different ©oiia^lejwion to affairs. Thus the 
liaassa<«« of ihirty-six protestafits on BkM>dy 
friday, affirmed in the affidavit of /aiftes Pippard, 
•deputy soveieign of Gorey, (pfi^ 147) is ua* 
^nestionable : but we are not itrfbnncd in this 
alBdaVit, that a considerable nuidber<)fIlomanififts 
had that day been pat %o death, in and about 
4Goi»ey, sbme-of '^^he«i were kinsmen of those 
isth0 were mpst actit^e a-ftei*watrds in this massacre 
^tbfe prote^ta?ntfe. But, perhaps, the reader will 
*ay, liliese Rttmanists who had been shmghtercd 
Hrere fdbels. Dowfetless sorwe ctf them were, and 
well deserved their fate; yet the ftdhigs of 
tt^bels a«id their kinsmen may be aimfliar to those 
of loyalists; ftttd they may in like mainner endea- 
vour to retaliate. That ail, however, were guilty, 
jnay be doubtful, since a few, who were brought 
rato the town fefr slaughter, wet^e liber^^ted ^ Ae 
intercession of some humane yeomen, .who knew 
tfhem to be innocent One Toole, who was owe 
elf tlie«ost active in this massacre of the pro* 



i*^- 

lA 



AT^ENPIX, NO. IP. 409 

testants, has since been acquittol in a trial by 
Jury from the circuHista'nces of the cas;e. This 
^unfortunate affair, in which so«ie of the be»t 
Anii most inoffensive protestants of the couirtry 
lost their lives, originated from a mistake in 
general Needham's express, and the temerity of 
a few, as I have aJready related* Notwithstandr- 
inj tlj© fury of the rebds on this occasion, they 
spaced the lives of some who fell into their hands, 
particnlarly John Nun, Esq. of Gorey. The 
^xectttion of revenge by one party, excites a 
spirit of revenge in the opposite ; and if both 
protestantsamd Romanists would attend, as mudi 
as I -wish them, to the essentials of Christianity, 
they would exchange complete forgiveness mu- 
tttally, and live in that harmony which their 
i::a9nmon Ralcemer has in his doctrines recom- 
0xended. * 



COPr OF A iETTl^R OF 1M>CT0R CAULFIEI^D,^ 
TO JAMES BOYDJ^ ESQ. WEXFOttP. 

SIRb , 

With equal surprise and concern I have 
lately been told, that it is whispered about, you 
havc.many grievous charges against me, as many as 
would hang fifty men. If this report be founded 
in truth conscious inwcencepresses^e to request, 
and I expect from yo'ir candour, that you will 
have the goodness to let me know it; for I do 
not, nor will I sTculk, or fly ftom justice, or the 
laws. I shall be here, or in the neighbourhood, 



410 APPENDIX, NO. V« 

^c^enly, and ready to answier any legal or fair 
call: I hope you will believe me, when I 
assure you, that I shall, by many degrees, 
prefer innocent death to inglorious and wounded 
honour. 

That I have been foully calumniated, and 
most grossly insulted, is too notorious ; and that 
I bore it in all meekness and patience is not less 
so; nor is it a secret, though since overlooked, 
.that during the horrid rebellion in Wexford, I 
did every ^thing in my power to serve and save 
my protestant neighbours and their property; 
and if I did not more, it was unfortunate for 
them and painful to me, that I could not effect 
it, beihg myself in constant terror for my life. 
The fabrications and false tales of the ignorant 
and prejudiced, I can, I thank God, despise j; 
but charges of treason or felony are loo much 
fbr a Christian innocent man to bear. 

This consideration, I hope, will make my 
apology for giving you this trouble; atid humbly 
requesting you will inform me ho^ I stand in 
that respect, 

I have the honour to be, with great respect, 

SIR, ( 

your most humUe, 

and most obedient servant, ' 
^„. ^^ JAMES CAULRELD. 

BaIIiane,Mayll, 1800. 



APPENMX, NO. V. 41 X 

The Doctor, says, that he never received any 
answer to the^ foregoing letter. 



The following letter, concerning Doctor Caul* 
field, has been sent to me with a request that 
I should insert it. 

Dublin, 30th March, 1798. 
SIR, 

I AM directed by my Lord-Lieutenant to 
desire you will make a proper acknowledgement 
to the titular bishop, who lives in your neigh- 
bourhood, for the active and zealous part he is 
staking in preserving peace and good order among 
,his flock. Exertions of this naturq are more 
particularly called for, when every artifice is 
employed to seduce the lower orders from their 
allegiance,^ to inculcate the spirit of distrust of 
their protestant brethren, and to, gqad them to 
acts of outrage and insurrection. Those are not 
the paths to public idaprovement, or happiness,' 
and it is, therefore, in such times as thej^e, ;that , 
these men deserve the best of tjxe community, 
who, regardless of intimidation, and sensible^ 
alone to the call of duty, impress, the obligations 
of obedience, morality, and religion, in proportion 
as endeavours are made to dissolve those ties^ of 
society. I ani sure you will continue that line, 
which you have -adopted, for preserving the 
gppd ordef 4nd harmony of your neigbbqurhopd, 



41*2 AF^fiNDIX, KO. Y. 

from vthich goed effects have already flowed, 
and from which further good coiiseqi*ences ftHl 
naturally follow. 

I have ihe honour to be, 

SIR, 

your most obedient humble servant, 

E. COOKE. 

TO C-«SAR COXCLOUGH, ESQ. 
(of DUFFRY-HALL.) 



Fatker John .Murphy'^ Jounudy found 4m the 
^fieid of battle at Arkhio^ by Uewbenemt-colmel 
JULwhrUge^ of the Durham feasible ii^mUry, 
mid tent by Mm to generMi Necdham. 

"SATtTRbAY night, MayJsS, at 6 A.JVf. 
^^ 1798, began the jrepublk of Ireland, in Boiila- 
** vogue, in the county of Wexford, barony of 
** Gropey, and parish of Kilcormick, commanded 
^* by the Rev. Doctor Murphy, parish priest of the 
^^ said parish, in <3ie aforesaid parish, when all 
** the pFotestants of that parish were disarmed, 
*• and, amoi^ the aforesaid, a bigot, named 
*^ Thomas Bookey, wlio lost his life by his 
'^ r^hness. 

** fl6. From thence came to Oulart, a country 
^ village adjoining, when the republic attacked 
** a miiiister's house for arms, and was denied of; 
*^ljtid siege immediately to it, and kiHed tiim 



Aispi^iirpix, KO. Ill* Al^, 

•*,aiid all bi« forces ; tli,ey^ saiTie day burned hi$ 
^^ bouse, and all the ora^gefn^'sf houses in diat 
^^ and all the adjoia^ng parishes in that part of 
*^ the country; 

*^ The same day a part of the army, to the' 
** amount of one hundred and four of infantry, 
** and two jtroops of cavalry, attacked the 
** republic on Oul^t-hill, when the military were 
** repulsed with the loss of one hundred and 
*^ twelve men, and t-he republic h^d ftmr killed,' 
" and theti went to a hill called Ccfrigrua, 
*^ where the republic encamped that nighty aad 
*^* ham thence went to a tow^n called Camolin, 
" which was taken without Yesi^tance, and the 
** same day took another town and W^ of a 
^^ bishop. At three in the afternoon, the same 
^^ day, they laid siege to Enniscorthy, wheii 
" they were opposed by an army of seven hun- 
** dred men, then they were forced to set both 
" ends of the town on fire, and then took the 
'* town in the space of one hour, aiKi then en,* 
** camped on a hill nca^ the towii, called Vine- 
"gar-hilL 

BRYAN BULGER, 

DARBY MURPHY, his hand and pen. 

Dated this 26th. 

The inaccuracy ofthis incipient journal cannot 
escape the reader's notice. I have copied it from 
Sir R, Musgrave's book, as he doubtless had the 



414 A**Etj6l2C ^0. V. ^ 

original from general Nfeedham. A Copy, whicli 
a fricfld in Dublin procured for me, hardly differs 
from it. Bulger has been secretary to Father 
Murphy, By the sate of a bishop \^ meant 
Ferns. r 



TRANSLATION OF A LETTER FROAl GENERAL 
HUMBERT TO TIIE LORD BISHOP OF KILLALAi 

" Dover, October 26, 1798; 



^' MY LORD, 



"Being on the point of returning to 
"France, I think it my duty to testify: to yoa 
"the extraordinary esteem with: wMch your 
" coiidujct has always inspired me.: Since*! have 
" hadthcvgood fortune of beings acquainted ndth 
" you, I have always regretted that the^ chance 
" of war, and my duty as a military officer, have 
^* obliged me, in carrying the scourge of wai*' 
** into your neighbourhood, to disturb die 
*' domestic happiness which you enjoyed, -and of 
*^ which you are in every respect worthy. Too 
*^ happy, if in returning into my country, I can 
^' flatter myself that I have acquired any claim' 
*' to your esteem. Independently of other rea- 
*' sons which I have for loving and esteeming 
*^ you, the representation which citi^n Charost 
** gives me of ^11 your good offices to him wd 
" his officers, as well before as after the reduction 
'^ of Killala, Mall demand for ever my esteem 
*' and gratitude. 



APPENDIX, KO* VU 415 

^' I entreat you, my lord, to accept my decla- 

** ration of it, and to impart it to your vorthy 

*.^famify^ 

;^ ^ ** I aniji with the h%he»t esteem, 

. ^^ MY LORD, r, 

• " your most humble servant. 

^* HUMBERT."; 



NUMBER VI. 

AT A OENERAL QUARTERLY MEETING OF THE. 
GOVEa"NORS 4ND GOVEIiNESSES OE THE 
FEXFORP FEMALj: SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY^' 
, HJCLD O]^ TJiE laT DAY QF FEB. 1802, 

It was unanimously resolved, 

That the conduct of the Romish clergy of 
this: town, in' compelling the parents of such 
children: of their relrgiori, as were pupils at said 
school, to withdraw those children, under pain 
of excommunkiation^ excites our surprise. 

That the reason ^signed by the Rev. John^ 
Corrin, parish priest of Wexford, for their being 
withdrawn, viz. ** that attempts had been m^de 
*^ to seduce them from their religion," appears 
to us to have no other foundation than a too 
easy belief of the misrepresentations of prejudice, 
and the jQctions of calumny ;-^and we call upo^: 
Mr. Corriu to substantiate the chaige, by naming 
the persons who attempted suck seduction, and 
^oducing the children on whom it was practiced* 



41(5 AFFENDix, Ka ru 

That, had s»ch attempts been irad^ they 
trouW «at JOTtify the mode of conduct whiclf 
has been adopted ; as it doe^ not appear that 
complaint was ever made thereof to any governor 
or governess, or at any general quarterly meet- 
ing; nor does it appear that the interests of their 
religion could possibly have been injured by 
deferring thii violent measure one week longer^ 
when the general quarteriy meeting of this day- 
would have afforded an opportunity of com- 
plaint and redress. 

That the female school of indnstiy wa^ dsta- 
Wished at a time of universal scarcity and 
distress; and that the chikliien of the Romish 
religion were admitted into said, school^ and 
therein educated, and in part clothed and fed ; 
not, as is iabely as^rted, to induce them tb 
barter their religion for the ^pply of their wants ^ 
(of such baseness tbegovemofs and govem€S6e9 
of that school are incapable,) but to prevent 
^ose wretched children from falling the imme- 
diate victims of poverty and vice, to enable ifaem 
to earn their daily bread by honest industry, and 
to teach them virtue- 

That, when this subject^ if cause of complaint 
did actually exist, could have been so easily 
adjusted by a temperate conduct, and a proper 
representation, on the part of the Rofiiifili clergy,, 
of any grievance or defect, which occurred Jt 
them in the arrangements or conduct of tm- 



APPENDIX, NO- VI. 417 

infant institution, we lament the preqipitancy 
which compels us to order, that the resolutions 
be three times inserted in the Dublin Journal, 
and that two hundred copies of them be printed 
for circulation her^. 

(Signed, by order) 

JOHN MONTGOMERY, Sec. 

Wexford, Feb. 1, |802. 



WEXFORD POOR SCHOOL OF INDUSTRY. 

Revi John Corrin, parish priest of Wexford, 
having been particularly^censured by the gover- 
nors and governesses of the Wexford poor school 
of industry, in their resolutions of the 1st. inst. 
published in the Dublin Journal, and in hand 
bills, deems it incumbent on him to lay before 
the impartial public^ the principal reasons which 
Induced the Roman catholic clergy of Wexford 
to admonish the Roman Catholics to withdraw 
their children from the female {)Qor school of 
industry therein. 

Among the regulations for the government of 
the school, it was a fundamental one, that no 
person whospever should be permitted to inter- 
fere, in any manner, with the respective religion 
of the children; and to prevent any jealousies^ 
or suspicions of such interference, it was resolved, 
that the protestants; should be sent to the 
|diurch, and the Roman catholics to the chapel> 
To be instructed in the catechism. Those re|;u- 

X e 



4f8 AI^PENDI^, NO. Vl. 

lations have been notoriously violated. Ori tfe 
day the children got new clothes, the Roman 
catholics were conducted in procession from the 
school to the churph, where they remained 
during divine service, although' to a message 
from one of the governesses, by Miss' Jane 
Sutton, to Mr. Corrin, requesting to know 
whether' the Roman cathoHc children would be 
permitted to appear in church on that day, it 
was answered, that the rules of fhe Roma^i catho-- 
tic church forbid its members to join in any reli- 
gious xvorship but its aicn on any account whatso* 
ever. 2dly. The protestant catechism was taught 
, publicly in the school. The Roman cathoIiQ 
catechism was not. The consequence or this 
was that the Roman catholic * children, when 
questioned concerning the christian doctrine,, 
answered from the protestant catechism, and 
knew^more of it than their own.* 3dly. They 
were compclltfd every day to join the protestanfs 
in prayer. 4thly. Four of the children, viz, 
Elfll Elliot, Eliz. Murphy, Mary M'Namay, and 
Bridget Doyle, since they frequented the school, 
quitted the chapel, and went to churcTi; and Mary 
M'Namay, ami Bridget Doyle are become pro- 
testants. 5thly. The Roman catholic children 
were compelled to work 07i the days cdmmandcd 
to be kept holy by the Roman catholic chttrch. 

The undernamed, who appear to be the h4ft 
informed of the Roman catholic children of the 



APt»ENDIX, NO. YI. 419 

«ahool, the youngest of whom iS, at least, twelve 
j'ears old, some of them fourteen and fifteen^ viz* 
Elizabeth Breene, Mary Whitty, Margaret Pierce, 
Ann Clements, Mary Barret, Ann Synnot, Mary 
t'uzens, Elizab. Hilfoy, Catherine Kirvan, Mar- 
garet Walsh, Mary Walsh, Mary Pierce, Judith 
Gall, have solemnly declared, that Mrs. Gibson, 
one of the pfiistr.esses of the school. Miss Hannah 
Jacob, and Miss Charlotte Turner, the two most 
frequent visitors of the school, so frequently 
attacked them on the difFerjent. points of their 
re]%ion and of their clergy, that scarcely a day 
l^assed, especially since the death pf Mrs. Parker, 
but they heard something said to excite in them 
a detestation of their religion, and of their clergy. 
They particularly remember that Mrs. Gibson 
told them they were all idolaters; that they 
kept but nine commandments; that they paid 
divine worship to images; that priests had no 
more power to absolve from sins than other 
men ; that the virgin Mary w^ no more thaQ 
any other woman; that she ought not to be 
oUled blessed; that it was a fine thing to go to 
church, where they would understand what the 
jninister said ; and Mary Cuzens declares, that 
Mrs. Gibson endeavoyred to prevail on her par- 
ticularly to go to church, which she believes 
she would have done, had she not been with- 
drawn from the school. Mrs. Gibson told them 
thqr Pope kwgt a Miss^ or lewd woman. She 



420 APPENDIX, KO. VI. 

frequently repeated stories of the incontinencf 
of priests, and of the sad fate of a ybung lady, 
who was so intimate •with a priest, that her 
friends were obliged to use violence to separate 
them. She said that no pe*)ple wcr& more cal- 
lous to the wants and necessitiesof the poor than 
priests, and instanced a ease, that a, poor woman 
had died lately in Bride-street withotit k priest, 
as Father Corrin would not attend her, beicause 
she had not money to give him, Ann Clements 
declared that Miss Hannah Jacob endeavouWd 
to induce her to beconie a protestant, and polti^ 
out several texts of scripture which, she told he% 
plainly proved that the doctrine of the Roman 
catholic religion was false ; and she betieV^ that, 
had she not teen withdrawn from the school, 
she would have become a protest^nt. She like- 
w:ise declared, that when she asked Miss JacoK* 
pern^iissidn to read the Roman catholic catecbiMi 
for the ignorant Catholic children, Miss Jacob 
said, she would not permit false doctrine to be 
taught in that school; she^lso declared, that 
Mrs. Gibson beat her severely foF vindicating ^t 
Rev, IVJr. Corrin, when his character wais aspersed 
by one of the scholars, who now goes to churclv 
and said she fought for her prie§t like a game 
cock, and desired the scholars to call her nothing 
else but the pet fo.i\ Th^t the prbtestant chil- 
dren, from the example H)f Mr^. Gibson, had 
frequent broils with the Romaii <S|tthoiics, • par- , 



APF£NDi:s;, NO. VI. 42 

ticiilarly when Mr. Montgomery was last absent. 
Ann Synnot, otie of the mast sensible of the 
Eiiaan catholic scholars, was directed to give 
iiifdmiati4>n of ail these proceedings to Rev. J. 
Elgee, wl^ieh she promised to dp. It is now 
discovered that shQ failed in her promise, assign- 
ing for her reason that she would have no hand 
in depriving Mrs* Gibson of her bread. The 
above-naentioned scholars are willing to confirm 
by an oath their respective declarations, when 
called upon by competen^utbority. Mr. Corrin, 
with great deference, subi^its this plain narrative 
ef facts, Avithout any comment, to the en** 
lightened and unbiassed of every religious per- 
suasion. They will appreciate his conduct, and 
determine whether the Roman catholic clergy of 
Wexford be justly charged with intolerance, illi- 
berality, 6r impropriety, in admonishing tlie 
Rom?in catholics to withdraw their children from 
thefemale poor school of industry in that town, 
when it had ceased to be conducted conform-p 
ably to its original institution, of which unre» 
strained liberty of conscience swas the basis and 

most prominent feature. 

JOHN CORRIK 

Wexford, iSth Feb. 1802. 

The reader may observe that Mr. Corrin , 
avows the interdiction of catholics from being 
present ^t protestant ceremonies;; and also pro-^ 
claims the interdiction of wor}c on holy days. For 



422 APPENDIX, NO. YI- 

the former interdiction the catholic clergy have 
reason, as without it their flocks mifht he 
gradually thinned. For the latter, I perceive wt 
adequate object. The consecration of a great 
number of days to idleness, if not alsf to vice, 
is often attended with serious losses to indivi- 
duals, and to the public. 

The intervention of a holyday, followed by 
an unfavourable change of weather, hm occa- 
sioned the damage or loss of corn, turf, &c. 
The catholic church ^ France has abolished 
this pernicious practice, regarding fifty-two Sun» 
days in the year as sufficient for the purposes of 
religion. Will that 6f Ireland be the last to 
admit any rational reform^ in matters of m^ifes^ 
Utility? 

The violation of compact, of which Mr. Cot: 
rin complains, was certainly, if committed by 
any, not very honourable, and was without thp 
knowledge of the governors and governesses ii^ 
general. Miss Turner cleared herself by affidavits 
independently of which, I believe, she was ^c* 
quitted in the opinion of Mr. Corrin. 



APPENDIX, NO. VII. -4513 

NUMBER VIL 

>fAMES OF THE MEMBERS OF THE COURT-MAR-' 
TIAL ON SIR EDWARD CROSBIE. 

Major Denis, of the 9th dragoons^ president 

Captain Martin, of the 9th dragoons. 
Captain Sherston, 32d regimjent. 
Capt. Buthin, unattached, 
Lieut. Loftus, gth dragoons. 
Lieut, Roe, Armagh regiment 
Lieut. Best, half pay. 
Lieut. Higgins, 9th dragoons. 
Lieut Ogle, Armagh regiment. 
Lieut. Magrath, North Cork. 
Lieut. Ba^ell, 9th dragoons. 
Ensign Ellis, Armagh regiment 
Cornet Fleming, 9th dragoons. 

*' The insults offered to her," (Lady Crosbie, 
ividoy of Sir Edward, after his death), *^ liy 
*' the i^iilitajy, became now so alarming, that 
^^ these, together with- a midnight visit from 
^* jcolonel ]\Iahon, of the 9th dragoons, and a 
^^ party of dr^tgopns, on a frivolous pretence, 
^' After what had b.efallen her l^qiented husband, 
" excited in her nq unreasonable apprehensions 
'^ for her own security : and she was obliged at 
^' length literally tojlyfor refuge to England/^ 
.Jppci tjie pamphlet, page ^. 



424 



APPENPIX/ NO. VXI, * 



AN EXACT COPY OF A LETTER FROM MAJOR 
DENIS, IN ANS'WER TO AN "APPI^ICATION 
FOR tHE COPY OF THE MINUTES OF SIR 
EPWARD'S TRIAL. 

Mount-Melliok, Peb. 1, ISOO. 

*' MAI5AM, , 

" I HAVE been honoured with your letter, 

* representing a conversation I had 'with a 

* lady aj; Harrowgate, rejecting a transaction 
'which occurred during the latse rebellion. It 
' concerns me much to ren6w a subject, which 
^ I hopedwas buried m oblivioii. But as the lady 

* h^ thought proper to mention the business, 
' and which I thought I wa^ only speaking on 
' in confidence, I must beg leave to say, that 

* on her representing to mQ that reflection had 
^ been cast on the proceedings of the court- 
' martial, of which I was a member, in vindi- 
' cation I declared n?y stntiments, observing I 
' could by the proceedings prove the assertion I 
'made. The lady^ will, I ani sure, do mejus- 
' tice, to recollect what my sentiments were :— 
' that I should be extremely sorry to bring for- 
' ward any thing to hurt the feelings of any 
^ of the family, part of whom I haid been 
^acquainted M'ith a long time, and had the 
^ highest respect for. No stranger has seen 
^ from me, since the unfortunate time I 
' allude to, any copy. I understand appfica- 

* tions have already been made to my superior 



APPENDIX, NO. Til. ^^ 425 

** oflicers for such a copy^ I think myself un- 
*^ warrantable in doing so at present Any thing 
*' in my power, consistent with what I conceive 
^' propriety, I would do to serve lady Crosbie, 
*' or any of the family ; but, in the present case, 
** I am sure she will excuse me- 
** I am, madam, 
** Your most obedient, humble servant, 

HUM. DENIS. 
I imagine the origitial proceedings arq placed 
in the judge advocate's office. 



County of the Citif\ George Lucas, of Browne's* 
of Dublin to wit. } hill, in the county of Car» 
low, farmer, late Shepherd of Sif Edward Wil* 
liam Ci:osbie, of View-mount, in the said county, 
maketh path, that, from the nature of this the 
deponent's employment, he was constantly about 
the house and demesne of the said Sir Edwar4 
William Crosbie^ nt V^ew-mount, aforesaid, and 
from thence, and from his observations of the 
conduct of the said Sir JEdward William Crosbi^ 
both befom said after the attacl^ of the rebels on 
the town of Carlow, this deponent was lenabled 
to give very malprial evidence in favour of the 
said Sir Edwafd William Crosbie upon his trial, 
for which purpose this deponent was directed to 
attend at the place of trial by lady Crosbie, the 
wife of the said Sir Ed w^d William Crosbie. An^ 
this deponent saith, he has reason to believe that, 



425 APPENDIX, NO. Vil, 

if the said Sir Edward William Crosbre had kft 
Jiis house atVi6w-mount, on the morning of the 
day of the'attack of Carlow by the rebels, and 
had gone, or attempted to go, into the town of 
Carlow, for the purpose of giving any informa- 
tion, or at all, the family and property of the 
said Sir Edward William would have been des- 
troyed by the rebels, who were in full force about 
the said town of Carlow, This deponent saith, 
t,hatheaqcordingly attended on the 2d and 4th 
days of June, at the barrack gate in the town 
of Carlow, to give evidence upon the said trial ; 
and saith, that on the 4th day of June this de-^ 
Iponent vas called upon to go into the court, 
and to give evidence for the said Sij Edward 
lyilliam, by Robert Kirwao, gaoler of Carlo^, 
who was the person (as this deponent heard and 
believes) instructed, by tl^ said Sir Edward 
William, to call for his witne^es ; and this de- 
poBCRt thereupon went forw^d, and attempted 
to go into the bar?ack-yard, for the purpose of ^ 
giving his evidence- before the said court, upoa 
the trial oif the said Sk EcKf ard William Crbsbie, 
which was then going on. And this deponent 
saith, that upon his attemptiig to go forward^ 
for that purpose, the sentii^l, then on guards 
presented his bayonet against this deponent, and 
tefused him entrance, and said deponent should ; 
•ot go in, although he fras ip^wmed, upon this 
deponent Ifeing so called, th^t heatten4e4 a* a ; 



APPENDIX.. NO. VI r. 427 

H»ritness upon the said trial.* And this dq)onent 
saith, that Mary Hutchinson, and other material 
mitnessesy who attended to give evidence upon 
the said trial, in favour of the, said Sir Edward 
William Crosbie, were refused admittance in the 
like manner. And this deponent saith, that he 
is, and always was, a protestant of the church 
of Ireland, as by law established, and saith, he 
pever was concerned in the said rebellion, or in 
any act in favour thereof; and was always a true 
and faithful subject to the present established 
government. And this deponent saith, that this 
affidavit is ni'ade at the special instance and le-r 
^uest of the said lady Crosbie. 

GEORGE LUCAS. 
Sworn before me this 25th day of 

December 18Q0. 
Signed JONH CARLETOK 



'O* 



♦ " This fact was communicated to colonel Mahon, imm?- 
diately after the trial, by lady Crosbie herself ; who waited 
hn him as co9imandiag oCcer, and told him^ thai whatever 
*mA the Jkiennimrtion of the courts she nust solemnly protest 
against its being put into eKOcutioo. Upon ifhich he 8sdd» 
pra^, madaqp, what groun4s ^ve you for such Jelay ? Her 
answer was, upon strong grounds indeed ; for that the principal 
witnesses in Sir Edward's favour were prevented from comii^ 
Jirto court to give such strong evidence in his fiivour, as must, if 
re<;tilred, have power^Ily operated in her husband's vindicatioD4 
•* Good 'God, Miidam, ara you certain of "what you say?" 
** (am> sir, and can pr^ve it on the oaths of those prevented.** 
Ignorance, therefore, of thb important fact formed no ezcmei 
mr the execution of the dreadfcd Sentence. 



428 APPEynix, no. m. 

The folUnoing is an extract of a Utter to Mrs, 
Boissier, from the Rev. Robert Robinsofi^ who 
has, xcith the lotce of his parishioners^ and the 
esteem of the gentry all aroumd, attended the 
ewe of TuttaWj these thirty years past ^ dated 
TuUmc, Jan. 30, 17S9. 

'^ Your letter found me in a large and gay 
company, and the revulsion it occasione(J had 
such an effect on me, as I shall not attempt to 
describe, but which no friend of Sir Edward 
Crosbie need be ashamed to avow ; and that I 
was such is my boast and my pride, notwith- 
standing the rash and fatal sentence which de- 
prived^ him of life. No difference of opinion 
could ever loosen the bonds of amity between 
him and me, or cool our affection ; and as to 
party spirit, although I profess myself as loyal 
a subject as any in. his Majesty's dominions, and 
sincerely abhor the rebellion, which has of late 
distracted this unhappy country, yet I should 
be aony to consider myaclf as a partizan. 4 
knew Sir Edwani's political sentimeots tmtll, an4 
do solemnly declare, that he never, to my recol- 
lection, uttered a word of treasonable tendeney^ 
and with me he was eyer unrefeervedi Would to 
God he had been less so to others ! I will tell ytu 
the two grand points on which he was most wmra. 
One was that he thought this kingdom governed 
by Great Britain rather as a cbteny tb^" a federal 
state, The other was tU^J bis wble heart spurned 



APPENDIX, :no, vil, 4«9 

at the hauteur and oppression of the great and 
rich toward the poor and lowly : On these topics 
he always expressed himself with ardour, and 
often in the presence of those who felt themselves 
galled; ^nd this attached to him the character 
of disaffected and republican. But I will give 
you a strong proof that he was not so : the 
morning that he fought young Burton, (of 
which no doubt you heard), I was saying to 
him, that I much feared the duel would be im- 
puted to politics, as 1 knew he had the name of 
being a republicap. His reply was, '* if such 
be the character they give me, is is tnost unde- 
served ; and I call upon you as my friend, if I 
fall, to clear my memory from so ungrounded a 
charge, as I am a steady friend to the constitution 
of king, lords, and commons, with a parliamen- 
tary reform, striking off the rotten boroughs/' 
These sentiments uttered on such an occasion, 
by a man, whom, in a long course of most in- 
timate acquaintance, I never knew guilty of the 
minutest falsehood, must be admitted as the 
genuine effusions of his heart ; and that he did 
so express himself to me, I declare on the word 
of a christian clergyman. Was he then a re- 
publican? No. His own declaration a little 
before he suffered, and ^vhich I read in his own 
handwriting, clears him from the imputation of 
being a member of any treasonable Society." 



430 iStPPEKblJt, NO. VIIU 

t 

NUMBER Vlir. 
Rfiv. Sir, 

As you have publicly professed a wisfi 
to be informed of any involuntary errors c n- 
tained in your history, when speculative opinions 
supply the place of fact, and are so preralent, 
hearsey evidence, whether oral, manuscript, or 
printed, is to be received with the greatest caution, 
and the great superiority of pccular informatiofi 
to any other, induces me, from my personal 
knowledge of facts, to send ypu, along with my 
own opinion, auxiliary documents that cannot 
fail to convince you that the introduction of my 
name into your history is not such as I am en- 
titled to, and I hope your professions of libe^- 
rality and candour may be realized in doing 
justice to my present communication.— -Accord- 
ing to the plan contained in Mr. Byrne's circular 
letter, two persons deputed from each cathplic 
congregation in the <:ounty of Wexford assem- 
bled at Enniscorthy, on the 29th of July A79% 
where they elected delegates- to represent the 
county in the general committee of the catholics 
of Ireland. I attended this meeting as a voter 
from the congregation I belonged to, and had 
the honour of being elected one of the delegates 
for the county of Wexford, so that the inter- 
mediate step of haronials (which you mention in 



' APP^N^DIX, NO. VIII. 4*1 

your history) had but a speculative existence, 
invented I do naturally suppose for the purpose 
of assimilating the catholic comtnittee with the 
system of united Irishmen, a circumstance to- 
tally devoid of truth, as nd kind of communi- 
cation existed between them. In order that the- 
meeting of the general committee should be 
publicly attended, proposals were made to hire 
the Rotunda and other public places which <pould 
not be obtained. Such disappointment was tlic 
more conspicuous, as such refusal was not sig- 
nified to many other applications of the same 
kind, so that no other place but the TaylorV 
hall, in Back-lane, could be obtained, which 
precluded the possibility of being able to admit 
any but the delegateSj as it was scarcely sufficient 
to contain them, and thus was the contmUtee 
frustrated in having their assembly publicly at- 
tended. The first meeting of this general com- 
mittee took place in December 1792, for sevea 
days only ; which you mention to be many 
•weeks ; and the secondand final meeting was for 
eight days, from the l6th of April 1793, to the 
J25th only, meeting on Saftirday the 20th, being in 
the court of king's bench, where all the delegates^ 
attended to. take the oaths of allegiance prescribed 
in the late act of parliament, and this meeting 
ended in dissolution. The collections made by the 
catholics of Ireland to defray the necessary ex- 
pences attendant on the pursuit of their eman- 



4-32 A^pSNDix, NO. vxrr. 

cipation M'cre voluntary subscriptions, not in any 
' degree assessments,' as it is evident that the 
entreaties of the su)>committee (by no means 
orders) were not attended to, as two- thirds of 
the counties of Ireland never produced one far- 
thing. I paid the collection of the county of 
Wexford to the treasurer in 1792, and no second 
collection ever was made there. The statue of 
the king could not be erected, although voted 
by" catholic gratitude, which along with other 
honourable engagements of the committee,^ weie 
superseded by the illiberality of the general and 
calumnious outcry raised at the time against our 
collections. The petition of the catholics of 
Ireland, , presented to the king on the 2d January 
179S, might be supposed to escape animadver- 
sion, when his Majesty was graciously pleased 
to signify bis stroiig&t approbation in bis recom- 
mendation to the parliament of Ireland, who in 
consequence repealed the greater part of th« 
penal statutes against catholics. "The late earl 
of Clare did assert, as you have done in your 
history, that the catholic petition was surpri- 
singly fraught with misreptesentation. On this 
assertion being so publicly made the petition was 
reprinted, reciting the statutes on which the rf- 
legatiojis were grounded, prepared by the ho- 
nourable Simon Butler, whose reputation as a 
lawyer, the chancellor was too well aware of to 



APPENDIX, NO. VJII. 483 

attempt to expose his error again, and gave up 
the point ; so that I imagine this public docu- 
ment will be equally convincing to you, as I send 
it to you along with all the proceedmgs of the 
Qjttholic committee relating to this event, for 
your perusal, as I should wish your avowal to 
proceed from the most perfect information on 
the subject. Although I profess the Roman 
catholic religion, I should not be of that com- 
xniinion one single hoiir were their tenets as they 
are represented, through that baneful prejudice 
so prevalent in Ireland, that proves such an ef- 
fectual draw back to the otherwise infalliable 
prosperity of the country, and I cannot suffi- 
ciently lament to see so industriously ^rirculated^ 
as it only serves to keep alive those prejudices 
that all liberal men see through and reprobate as 
a pest to society. A sloop had been fitted out by 
the insurgents, but twice condemned as totally 
unfit for that service, was hauled on one side in 
the harbour, where she sunk within a foot of her 
deckf andremained in that situation foramonthy^ 
when she was pumped out, and I was on the 
same day, without trial or inquiry, sent on board 
along with those that had been tried, and] sen- 
tenced to transportation. The wet straw was left in 
the hold and a little dry straw shook over it, which 
our walking on soon made as bad as the rest, so 
that it was not possible to sit or lie dowso^thout 



454 A^i»EN0ix, NO. Viiir 

ihihlhmg the wet, nor could we dver have the 
satisfaction of resting against the sides of tht 
ship, as the planks were water-soaked, and the 
effervescence of the putrid malt so strong as^ to 
turn motley black in: our p'ockets in the Cjourse 
of a few hours j we had abo a profusion of rats 
that bit some of the prisoners. My health has been 
greatly impaired by five weeks confinement on 
board this sloop, and I fear it may never be per- 
fectly rfe-establi'shed ! I should detain you toa 
Ibtig Was I to enumerate the various hardships I 
endured' duriiig a period of thirteen months that 
1 \yas cotifintd, which I was at last releasted from 
by ari honourable acquittal, at the Summer assizer 
ill Wfexford 1759, indi^pendent of the amnesty 
Bill, wherfeas my persecutbrs cbiild be |>tUiished 
By tile fundaihental laws of the coiistitutioh hid 
th^^ kot tifd inderhnity bills to skreen their^barse 
afrd t^rititiickl ^ conduct tdwar^^s ihe. ' t ^ave 
confined ittys^lf merely to thd fadts ^ate^ in' 
your histoYy, iti' which I have been in eye wife 
ii^ss; aind'ift some degree concerned, sothStit 
^(^thidesrth^ possibility of cavillitig or contra- 
mhtioTt, aiid'' hope you may be kind efii^ugh to 
set them hi thdf propfer colours. I request iht 
i§.your'dir 5^our dMwer, as I am an^tioiis to leatnr 
yoriir "deteiifihiattpri on a '^uhjipct ymi' hWe hi^ 
ffiefto; be^dh sb.iiiucfe '"liijsrnfofmeil, as'IdB ntJt 
iffean to'^ier Such^a misre|>resent4tion p^s'tiflte-^ 



Al^ttNpix, NO. tin. fSS^ 

tilted to posterity, I am thetefore anxious to 
learn your answer, and have the honour to be, 

mth great respect, 

Rev. Sir, 
yQur most obedient humble' servant, 

EDWARD HAY. 

Dublin, 6th July 1802. 

TO THE EEV. MR. GORDON, BORO LODGE. 



County ofTVea:'\ Mr. Thomas Taylor, of 
fordy to wit. J the town of Wexford, mer- 
chant, who was a prisoner iii the goal of Wex- 
ford during the rebellion, freely and volunta- 
rily maketh oath on the Holy Evangelists, and 
saith, that he has known the prisoners to express , 
the comfort and consolation they experienced 
from I^r. Edward Hay's deportment and manner 
towards them, and has always heard them 
express their joy on Mr. Hay visiting the goat 
Deponent being an Englishman and not long 
in Ireland, had no kind of acquaintance with 
Mr. Hay, but always approached him when he 
saw, him conversing with his fellow prisoners, \ 
and experienced the consolation of his conver- 
sfation, although not addressed to him ; but con- 
sidered Mr. Hay the greatest friend of the 
loyalists, as the purport of his visits to the goal 
evidently was t6 give general comfort to all he 
sa\V' iii distress, as he communicated his senti- 
ments openly and Candidly to them, and unde* 
ceivetl the' prisoners with re$pect to many fa.I»c 



436 APPENDIX, KO. VIII. 

reports that wei-e circulated. Deponent has 
heard Mf. Hay express his horror and (detesta- 
tion of the barbarous proceedings of the rebels, 
and that he would lose his life, or put a stop to 
the cruelties that were committing on Vinpgar- 
hill, had he been there. Deponent remembers 
to have heard of an order for several prisoners to 
be sent to Enniscorthy, which order might have 
been complied with, had not Mr. Hay gained 
intelligence that they were to be put to death, 
and at the earnest request of the prisoners from 
the neighbourhood of Enniscorthy, Mr.- Hay 
declared that he would make such representa- 
tions to the principal inhabitants of Wexford, as 
to have them detained in goal, as their only 
place of safety ; on which occasion he has- heard 
the prisoners express their utmost gratitude to 
Mr. Hay, whqm they consulted on all occasions 
of distress, and from whom they received eviery 
possible comfort. , Various reports were propa- 
gated M^hich tended to rouze and irritate the 
passions of the people to revenge, that the 'army 
had committed the greatest excesses, which 
alarmed the prisoners very much, who consulted 
Mr. Hay about a proposal they had drawn up, 
-to be forwarded to government, intimating theit 
great danger, and hoping that the prisoners 
taken by jthe army mighi mqet with the like 
good treatment that they did, otherwise reprisals 
,miglxt be made, and their dej^ir.uction inevitable. 



APPENDIX, NO. viir. 437 

Mr. Hay undertook the task of endeavouring 
to forward thife proposal with the greatest alacrity, 
and c'onducted Captain M 'Man us to consult 
with Lord Kingsborough, who accordingly vjrrotc 
a letter in the name of all the prisoners, among 
whom were many officers, and principal gentle- 
men of the county, which proposal was dis- 
patched by an officer , to be forwarded to the 
next commanding officer of his majesty's forces, 
but who would not be allowed to proceed farther 
that! the rebel camp at Enniscorthy, and was 
obliged to returii to Wexford, a^: which disap- 
pointment we considered oiir situation more cri- 
tical than ever, and experienced in a greater 
degree the consoling visits of Mr. Hay, who 
truly sympathized in our feelings, atid felt this 
disappointment as much as any of us. Depo- 
nent never saw Mr. Hay appear with arms, or 
with any kind of green ornament, then usuaHy 
worn by all descriptions of per3ons ; an4 from 
what he has seen, and every information he 
could learn, believes that, during the rebellion, 
Mr. Hay was solely actuated by principles of 
philanthropy^ in any interference of his during 
that period. 
Sworn before me, this 28th day of August, 1 799, 

EBEN. JACOB. 
TKQs. TAYLOR. 



438 ' APPENDIX ^0. VIII* 

t)£AR Sir, 

1^ compliance with your request, and 
liaying received a summons to attend your trial, 
I shall relate the circumstances I recollect of 
your conduct during the rebellion, which I send 
you immediately, as you mention you w^nt to 
have your instructions made out for your 
lawyers, previous to the assizes. I was t^kw 
prisoner along with Lord Kingsborpugh and 
captain O'Hea, qu the second day of June, 1798, 
we were confiued together in a house in Wex^ 
ford, with a strong guard over ys; frpm the great 
fury of the people against Lord Kingsborough^ 
we expected every moment to be put, to jdeath; 
Mr, Edward Hay visited us JVequently, and we 
clearly perceived his di$pQsition to afford us 
every consolation in hispo^yer, as he took every 
opportunity he could of softening our captivity^ 
and has frequently conducted my fanjily ^to §ee 
me, at a time it was extre^Acly dangerous to seend 
or appear friendly to us. Whenever \y^ P^^' 
rienced any kind of distress, we always aeatit for 
Mr. Hay^ wbo r.eadily came to us, and n^yer 
left us, without being convinced that he wovdd 
do his utmost to be of service to us. . I have 
, every reason to believe, that he saved our lives' 
on several occasions, when the mob were for 
bringing us out, and putting us to death. On^ 
day, in particular, I perfectly recollect his stand- 
ing with bi3 bsi-ck to, the doQr of the house in 



-AiP3PEV0IX, NO. Vlf I. 439 

wWch we were conBped, where be rcroained until 
the tuQiultuous crowd had dispersed, who sought 
ou;: iustwit destruction. I always heard Mr. 
Hay express his horror at the baj:barou3 prp- 
ceedings.of the rebek, and his earnest wish that 
peace and good order might be restored. Various 
reports being industriously circulated tbat tepded 
* to rouze and irritate the passion^ of the people to 
revenge, that the army had committed tbe 
greatest excesses which alarmed us, and all the 
r*est of the prisoners in Wexford, for our situ- 
9t\on, we as usual consulted Mr. Hay, on this 
peculiar cause of distress, and found him pftfiti- 
cularJy anxbuar to forward a negociation of 
prisoners, proposed by lord Kingsborough, §s 
the best mode of re*establiahing pcacfi^and gtmd 
ci-der; during this dilemma, letters .had .been 
forwarded through the rebel camps, from Dub- 
lin, to lord Kingsborough ; in answer to which, 
was considered a fcirourahle opportunkjr of 
ibrwffl-dingthismeaattie, which Mr. Hay r^ily 
undertook, and accordingly conducted capt4in 
M^ManUs to coosuit with ns, apd in consc/- 
quaice, a letter was written by Lord Kings- 
.%oroQgh„ in the name of all the pjoisonens, among 
jftrhoni were tlnrteen officer^ ^nd great numbers 
of yeomanry officers, andjprifta^ gentlemen of 
tlie coxmty, intimating thtt ;tbey were well 
Ir^ed, and in every respect prisoners of war ; 
-j^ojping^ theri^ore that the prisoners :takea.by the 



440 APl^ENDIX, KO. Vllt, 

army might meet with the like good treatment 
that they did, otherwise, they feared reprisals 
might be made, and their destruction inevitable; 
which proposal was confided to my charge, and 
with which I was to proceed to the next com- 
manding officers of the army, ^nd to return with 
tlie answer with all convenient speed. I accord- 
ingly set off from Wexfwd on the 14th day of 
June, 1798, and proceeded as far as Enniscorthy, 
where I was stopped by the people, and not allowed 
to proceed any further, and obliged to return to 
Wexford the next day; on which disappoint* 
ment we felt our situation more alarming than 
cvef, and experienced, in a greater degree, the 
consoling visits of Mr, Hay, who was truly con- 
cerned at this disappointment. Among the 
many attentions paid to us by Mr. Hay, he 
brought us letters that were directed to us, and 
had fallen into the hands of the rebels, which, if 
made public to them, would have proved our 
instant destruction, for which piece of service 
Mr. Hay narrowly escaped with his life, as 
captain Keugh, who then commanded in Wex- 
ford, was very angry on hearing it from Lofd 
Kingsborough, who inadvertamtly mentioned 
Mr, Hay having done so; and Mr.. Hay w^ 
afterwards constantly prevented from visiting us, 
by order of captiun Keugh. I never saw or 
beard of Mr. Hay having any command amongst 
the rebels, or did ever $ee him appear in arm^ or 



AfSENDTX, NO. VIM. 44^1 

wear ariy mark of distinction or uniform, which 
I had daily an opportunity of witnessing, had it 
been so, as the house in which we were confined 
Avas situated in the Bullring, and commanded ^ 
full view of the most frequented streets in Wexr 
ford, through which all the armed men in the 
town passed and repassed twice a day. On tlife 
20th day of June, 1798, tlie day of the massacre 
on th^ bridge, considering our situation more 
critical than ever, we wished to see Mr. Hay ; 
Lord Kingsborough selit for him, and he imme- 
diately attended, but was denied admittance to 
us, but we spoke to him out of the window, and 
he declared to us, that as long as he was alive, 
we might depend on every exertion of his. We 
had at laist the consolation of Mr. Hay being 
admitted up-stairs to us at eight o'clock in. the 
evening. We found him beyond expression 
affected at the cruelties that had been coni- 
mitted ; that he had in vain done every thirig in 
his power to prevent them, and anxious to under- 
take any thing for safety of the prisoners. After 
a variety of consultation. Lord Kingsborough 
ai^d Mr. Hay agreed to go out to meet the army, 
di4t was approaching Wexford, in order to save 
the town from destructiori. The Wexford men 
that had gone out that day, returned from the 
battle of Fook's • Mill, when Mr. Hay was still 
with us; he then proposed to go and consult the 
principal inhabitants, who he liuU not t)i9 



44S ArpEKDi^j NO. vn«' 

smallest doubt wo\il4 agree to feoflitete ttie pk»; 
it being then late *tnigb|t/ll€i promised to return 
early in the nipjpnjiig, to ^t off with iord King^- 
borough ; who was s() aiiiious to have the pro- 
ject carried injto exequtioin, th^tiie was dressed 
in full regim.entaJs, 5ind gouipletely, ready to set 
off at thrfie o'clock in the naornipg of the 21st of 
June, 1798> at which time be^ent for Mr. Hay> 
who immediately attending, represented to lord 
Kingsbprough the danger of bis going out 
equipped as he was, and that it woutd prove their 
inevitable destruction if they went without the 
consent of the people. Lord Kingsborough then 
^ntrea^d Mr. Hay to hasten ^ meeting of thjC. 
principal Jul^bitante^ and to have tb€ drum 
beat to ar,ms, ^nd the men would speedily repair 
to parade, wbicre their consent R^ight be obtained, 
for there was no Hme to be lo«t> 9s the sqfjaUest 
del«^ HHght prove the destruotjon of tbie town 
und all its inhabitants. Mr./Hay instantly com^ 
j^lied, said returned with an account of the Wex- 
ford men bavijig agreed to ihe plan, with the 
greatest alacrity ; and it had been futtiier pro- 
posed, that lord Kingsborough should not leav© 
tbe towii, which should be instwtly sui^Dend^red 
to him, afl military com^najader ; and that doctor 
Jacob should reassume the oflice of Ma3ror, all 
of which was immediately carried into ffifeot, 
with some opposition on the part of captain 
Hfiugh, who wanted to retain the comnmnd, Nft 



AJ^PENDIX, NO. viii. 443 

was most spiritedly opposed by Mr- Hay, who 
set off with captain M'Mauus, as soon as lord 
Kingj>borough could write out the necessary dis- 
patches to the next cominaacling officer of his^ 
majesty's forces, announcing the town of Wex- 
ford having surrendered to him; and that in 
consequence of the behaviour of those in the 
town during the rebellion, they, " the town's 
people," should be protected in person and pro- 
perty, "except murderers, and people who had 
instigated others to conimit murder," hoping 
that these terms might be ratified, as he had 
pledged his honour in the most solemn fnanner 
to have them fulfilled, on the town being €urren^ 
dered to him : the Wexford men not being con- 
cerned in the massacre which was perpetrated by 
country people in their absence. I saw Mn 
Hay on his reti*m from geaierai Lake, on the 
02nd of June, 1798, when Lord Kingsborough 
considered himself Ufuder so m^rny obligations to 
iiim, which he acknowledged in the strongest 
ttermsj and insisted he should live, in the 
house with him, where Mr. Hay remaii^ed witfe 
jis unlil we left Wexford, on the S9th of Jun^ 
17^8, during which period, I have heard hingi 
repeatedly express a desire to be brought to 
trial if ;any thii?g was alleged against him, as he 
would wis^ to have the beaefit of our testimony 
before w? went to Waterford. I consider myself 
bound, on ail occai^ioiis th^t &ay be aflForded m*, 



444 APPENDIX, "^0. vixr- 

and^I think it an indispensible duty to do justice 
to the meritorious conduct of Mr. Hay during 
the rebellion in Wexford. Actuated by princi- 
ples of honour and gratitude, I think myself 
bound to subscribe to. 

, MICHL. BOURKE, 

Capt. and paymaster, North-Cork militia. 
Sallins, June 3rdi 1799. 
TO EDWli. HAY, ESQ. WEXFORD GOAL. 

I believe the above statement of Mr. Bourke, 
with the alterations I have made to be true. 

KINGSTON. 

N. B. The alteration alluded to by lord King*- 
ston, are marked by inverted commas. 



Dublin^ March igth, 1800. 



t?IR, 



According to your request, T have made 
a proper retrospect on the circumstances you 
allude to in^our letter of the ITth^ and recol- 
lect perfectly when ^ memorial was presented to 
M, Gen. Hunter, on your part, from on board a 
prison ship, denying you had ever petitioned for 
t^ransportation, and to be liberated under the 
general proclamation : that the general h^ad every 
good disposition to liberate you, and believe 
would have complied with your petition ; but on 
questioning the committee, on this point, they 
still asserted y6u petitioned for transportation. 
Qen. Hunter declarec^^ if so, you should apply 



APPENDIX^ NO. VIIK ^ 445 

to his Exicellency, and if you wished it, would 
forward such memoriaU When you were after- 
wards removed from the prison ship to the goal, 
on account of ill-health, through the interference 
of general Craddock, and recommendation came 
by which I was s^nt to you to inquire more par- 
ticularly into your situation, when you demon- 
strated the facts so clearly to me by documents, 
and I had every reason to believe the general 
would liberate you, on discovering the iniquitous 
designs of the committee as I conceive you had 
sufficient proofs to shew the falsity of their 
assertion. But unfortunately for you at that 
period, the landing of tl^e French in this king- 
dom obliged the general to depart hastily, which 
left you and many more innocent persons the 
victims of a persecuting sanguinary party, which 
I call that vile body, commonly called, '^ the 
" committee." However, I congratulated you 
on your happy escape from becoming the victim 
of suborned perjury, which to my knowledge 
was too commonly resorted to in that town 
under the pretext of law. 

I regret exceedingly general Hunter is not in 
the realm, as you would be certain to meet from 
him ^very honourable testimony of your- situa- 
tion, as he never countenanced party of any kind, 
and was always ready to relieve the oppressed. 
I shall be happy at any time to come' forward t^ 
attest any thing that comes to my recollection, 



445* At»l>ENBIX, NO. IX. 

and shouldv long since unvdl tiie horrid atfo- 

cious practices of that town, if my public duties 

did not interfere. — I wish you may succeed ia 

getting redress ; and have the honour to re- 

mtim^ SIR, 

Your obedient humble servant, 

B. EDW. FITZ-GERALD,. 

EDWARD HAY, ESQ- Lt Major of Brigade. 



SIR, 

From what I saw of your conduct while 
I was at Wexford a prisoner, I am convinced, 
that you did all in your power to save the people 
whom the rebels wished to. murder, and myself 
among that number. And it was through 
you, &C. that the town of Wexford was given 
up to me, ^Vhich circumstance, I believe, saved 
tlie live? of many; and by what I have heard 
from ybu of your trial, &c, think you Jiave been 
very unjustly persecuted. 

Your most obedient humble servant^ 

' ^olney, Dec. 14, 1799. . KINGSTON. 

Eli WD. HAT, ESQ. 



NUMBER IX. 

Sir Richard 'Musgrave, author of Memoirs of 
nW the rebellions in Ireland, (par tur hint monies !) 
lias in a pahiphlet jOro^ew^er/Zy written against 
Boctor Cauffieirf, Romari catholic bishop of 
Ferns, given us the foiIo^ving letter, demon 



strative of military honout in men of liberal 
*diiiciation* 

dopy OF A LETTER FROM MAJOR WILLIAMS, 
TO MAJOR GENERAL NEEPHAM. 

Naasy M^^H 1> 1803. 

aiR, 

Wb, the undersigned oflScers of the 

Durham regiment,, who were present at tlie^ 
battle of Arklow> feel it a justice due to you, 
under whom we served, to decUre, that Mr. 
Gordon was not authorized by any of us to make 
use of those insinuations, which appear in his 
histwy, tending to reflect on your cpnduct that 
day; and we are convinced, that no proposal to 
fetreat was made by you to Colonel Skerrett, or 
any o^her officer. 

We lament colonel Skerrett, being at New- 
Ibundland, who could have given the best testi- 
mony. We have the honour to be, 

SIR, 

Ymir most obedient humble servant^ 

G. HA^NBURY WILLIAMS, majof, 
JOHN HOLMES, "^ 

L. V. MORGAN, l,^^ talOS, 
S. WALLINTON, • ^ 
J. BEEVAR, J 

W. GIBBONS, 1 

V. GIBBS,- j^ii^aienants. 

' ' J. DUTTON, • ^ 

" " OWEN FAUCET, J ^ ' - 

i./ -—THOs^.HAssfiL, surgeon. 

JOHN WALTON; assistant surgeon. 



448 APPENDIX, NO. IX. 

These very officers, particularly Holmes and 
Beever, so frequently .told the story of general 
Needam's proposal of a retreat, and colonel 
Skerrett's answer, that I and many others were 
disgusted with the repetition. Of this the most 
ample proofs can be produced, since numerous 
indeed were the witness. Among those, who, 
most contrary to their inclination, would be 
bound by a sense of propriety to give this evi- 
dence is Mr. John Hunter Gowan of Mountnebo, 
Jiear Gorey. His family are in the same pre- 
dicament, and Miss Martha Gowan of Enniscor- 
thy, his niece, has often heard the story* from 
all these officers, and from cdlonel Bainbridge. 
Among those in the vicinity of Naas, who could 
give evidence in my favour, is Mr. James 
Critchly, the present high sheriff of the coimty 
of Wicklow, a man of a very respectable fortune 
and character, who repeatedly heard the story 
from Owen Fawcet I know not what title to 
give Mr. Fawcet now, as I have pot heard what 
office has been procured him for his signature 
by General Needham, and the Musgravian, or 
truth oppos&ing junto. Holmes told nie that 
the general, being deteriiiined to retreat, and 
wishing to lay the blame thereof on colonel 
Skerret, sent his aid-du-camp tp him for advice 
concerning the choice of a place to which they 
should retreat. He afterwards informed me that 
general Skerrett (he had then become general) 



APPENDIX, NO. IX. 449 

had wnlten some observations on the rebellion, 
for my use, which were then in the hands of co^ 
lonel Bainbridge for correction, and that they 
should Be sent to me as soon as the Colonel should 
have finished this correction. The general and 
colonel told me the same, and sent them to 
me corrected here and there, and in some places 
interlined with a pencil. They have been since 
the publication of the above letter of the honest 
officers, deposited with Mr. Porter, of Grafton- 
street, Dublin, the publisher of the first edition 
of this book, who can shew them to any person 
desirous of seeing them. 

The reply to the proposal of a retreat is con- 
tained in pages 10 and 11 of these observations. 
Thus the manuscript runs. — ^* The noble reply 
" of colonel Skerrett to it was concise. We can 
^* only hope for victory by preserving our ranks. 
^^ If we break, all is lost, and after what T have 
** seen of the Durham regiment, they shall never 
'^retire." In the interlining here we read, 
^^ That day will ever reflect honour on himself." 
The rest of the interlining in this place is oblite- 
rated; but the following words afe legible, 
though a pen has been drawn over some of 
them ; *^ to ask ***** opinion as to a situation 
** in the case of being obliged to retreat'* 

Holmes, I am persuaded, (of the rest I have 
a worse opinion) would not dare to deny on oath 
what I assert Men of low education have 

Gg 



beta foimH, who would scruple at no by i^h of 
honour for emolument, yet would shudder at 
perjury. Why was the letter of these officer? 

^ not procured until almost a year *after the publi- 
cation of my book ? Sir R- Musgrave tells you 
that the honourable general' N^edham knew no- 
thing of my book till then, Whs^tever opipioa 
I had before entertained of Sir Richard's intellect 
afi4 candour, I am really sorry for so flagrant a 
violation of propriety. He Well knew, as i{» 
known by many members of his junto, that what 
rplated to general Needham, in my book, was 
shewn to said general immediately after its pubU- 
catiop^ The evident fact is that no such letter 
coulc} be procured till after coloijel B^inbridge's 
death, for he was a^ew//em^w^ never having been 
tailor, pedlar, druipn^er, fifer, nor rank-and-fite* 

• man ; * besides that his pencil writing was in my 
hands. At length, after his death it was procured, 
but: it remained nnpublished till after the honour-^ 
able men, who had subscribed it, were gone out 
of the country, and were consequently freed from 
the shame which they must suffer in meetii^g 
the eyes of any of those persons, who were ac- 
quainted with their preyious declaratipni^.-^^ 

* Men, ^ho adopt the principles of gentlemen, on being 
promoted from a mean condition into that rank, cannot be 
debased by the consideration of their former state. The case 
is different, when the vilest principles of the meanest class 8|re 
retained bjr them whep promoted tp a higher rank.' 



APPtNDIX, NO. IX. " 451 

Holmes, as well as colonel Bainbridge, read in 
manuscript my account of the battle of Arklow, 
aieid declared that it was perfectly agreeable to 
their own aiid general Skerrett's sentiments. 
Why were not the names of captains t)ante, 
Wilkinson, and others, subscribed to this lettei*, 
who had been in the battle of Arklow? These 
appear to have some property, and not to havfe 
thought their situation so desperate as to be 
obliged to take such a step. Perhaps also they 
had a principle superior to such foul dealing 
independently of property. Captain Dante, who, 
having a personal quarrel with my family, might 
have been gratified with such a signature, de- 
clined the honour. That of Holmes was the last 
signature obtained, a man of no very shallow 
speculation^ who certainly would not make a 
barter for nothing. 

This transaction, strange as it miy appear to 
the reader, created not the least surprise in me, 
because a transaction of a far darker hue had 
before occurred in a combination of these same 
officers against me, against whom, I really be* 
lieve, they were far from having any personal 
enmity, at a time when the command of the re- 
giment^ by cokmel Bainbridge's violent sickness, 
devolved on major Williams. Of thiiS nefarious 
comibination, procured by the interest of a ge-' 
neral officer, dl powerful, it seems, with them, 
^nd counteracted by the generosity of another 



452 APP5NDIX, NO. IX. 

general officer, a truly worthy man, of a cha- 
racter diametrically opposite to that of the foi-f- 
mer, I shall give an account hereafter, and I 
hope that, for the honour of the British army, 
attention will he paid to this affair by tlie com- 
mander-in-chief. 

These officers, while they remained in the 
neighbourhood of Gorey, were in the habit of 
speaking contemptuously of general Needham, 
whom they seldom honoured witfi any other ap- 
pellation than that of general Needless ; and told 
many stories of piano-fortes, jaunting cars, 
cows, horses, &c. but one which lieutenant 
Gibbs related, was so extraordinary that few be- 
lieved it ; that in the plundering of Magauley's 
shop at Oulart, in the march from Gdrcy tq 
Vinegar-hill, a scramble was made for the brass 
money in the till or drawer of the counter. 

I shall take leave at present of the Loyal 
Durham Fensibles with this observation, that in 
no other regiment could ever probably have 
been more strongly exemplified how much the 
behaviour of soldiers and subaltern officers de- 
pends on the principles and conduct of their 
commander. Its discipline was really excellent 
until the departure from it of general Skerrett, 
its colonel, to Newfoundland. After that, in a 
long sickness of colonel Bainbridge, and his long 
absence in England, the change was amazing. 
One out of many instances may suffice. Mt* 



Charles Driver, of Gorcy, a very eminent boot- 
maker, waiting on lieutenant Dutton with a pair 
of boots which he had ordered, anid expressing 
in respectful terms his unwillingness to leave 
them without being paid, (for good reasons 
which he had not the^imprudence taavow), was 
ordered by Mr. Dutton into the guard-house^ 
and confined there some hours ; and on his com*- 
plaint, after his liberation, to m^or Williams, 
was commanded to go, and.be damned, about 
his business. Mr. Driver was well known to be 
a very zealous loyalist, whose father had been 
murdered by the rebels. Whether he has since 
been paid fqr his boots I know not. 



THE END* 



J. D. BEWICK, Printer, 
Aiden^e-stree. 



Books printed for T. Htf^m, ^ Patembster-I^. 
Bhgrcpkicat Dictionary of Eccentric Ckafacttnl 

Neatly printed in a'pocletSize^ on afinc vcUotn wove Paper, and embellished 
Urtth l^iortralts 6f the most vemBrkable Characters noticed in the Work ; 
]^!:ice ^'&, in boards. 

' M€CEJVTMI€ 

OK, SKETCHES OF 
ANCIENT AND MODERN, 

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l^iMeAiatt?^ ^4ateslfteii> Divines, Historians, Navid and Military Herde*, 
Fhtlosopbers, Lavryers, Impostors, Poets> Painters, Players, Dramatic 
Wftes, Misers, ftfc* QTr. fife. 



9%tjUloit^g are Miong the Eccihtric Ckaractirs eimiamcd in this worJ^, 



AtexaHdjerOieGt. 

Andri^s Lancelot 

Arkwright Sir Rd. 
Atmsoron^ John 
Bacon John 
Bacon Francis 
Bsddeley Mr. 
Barclay Robert 
Bettercon 'fhomaa 
B^gg John 
Blood Thomas 
Boissi Lewis de 
Brawn Sir WilKam 
Btsns Robert 
Botler Samael 
Carey Hariy 
Carew Bam. Moore 
Cpiretto 

Chatterton Thomas 
Cbe3me George 
Chorchil) Charles 
Cibber Sus. Maria n 
Cleland John 
Coram Capt. The* 
Coznelly Mr.. 
Crichton James 
Dancer Daniel 
De Foe Daniel 
DempsteV Thomas 
D'Eon, Chevalier 
|)o!ggc^ X^iomas 
Diake Sir Francis 
Dock Stephen 
lyUrfcy Thomas 
Elwes John 
Falconer William 
Felton John 
Fcijgiasoii James 



\ 



Fielding Henry 
Fisher Mary 
Fitzmanriee H. T. 
Fletcher Aug. Roy 
Footfi-Saoxau 
Forbes Hon. John 
Fordyce, banker 
Fox George 
' Franklin Benjamin • 
Frederic 'Colonel 
Fuller Thomas 
G/iinsborough Th. 
Garrick Davi^ 
GascoigneSirW. 
Glover Wm. Fred: 
Godwin Mary W. 
Gordon Hon. Geo. . 
Grose Francis 
Hagemore Rev. Mr, 
Handel Geo. Fre. 
Hawkesworth Dr. 
Henderson John 
Henderson, comedian 
Hi£feraan Paul 
Hobbes Thomas 
Hogarth William 
Hopkins Matthew 
Hudson Capt. H. 
Hutchinson J. Hely 
Jenkins Henry . 
Joan of Arc 
Kauffman Mrs. A. 
Killegrew Thorny 
Knellcr Sir Godfr, 
Lambrun Margat. 
L'Enclos Ninon de 
Lewis Charles 
Lilburne John 
Uthgow William 



Lookup Mt. 
Littleton Lord T. 
Jyf addin Charles 

l^adaSrMartm 

Metcalf John 
Michael An. de Ga. 
Mollere John Bapfi. 
Monsey Dr. Mess. 
Montague E. Wo. 
Montague Hon. W. 
Montague Mrs* 
Mossop Henry 
Mozart 
Nash Richard 
Naylor James 
Gates Titus 
Oldcastle Sir John 
Oliver John 
Paget Wm. Lord 
Parr Thomas 
Penn William 
Philips John 
Pivctt Christopher 
Pope Benjamin 
Pope Alexandes 
Powell Foster 
Pratt Edward 
Prentice Harry 
Quin James 
Radcliffe John 
Raleigh Sir Walter 
Rokeby Lord 
Rochester Earl 
Rousseau J. J. 
Sacheverell Henry 
Boim^rofk* Lord 
S€. Pietre Eusf . 4^ 
Savag6 Richard 
Shm)etE4vr^ 



J^ 



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V.